Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Climate Related Abstracts

42 Effect of Climate Change on Runoff in the Upper Mun River Basin, Thailand

Authors: Preeyaphorn Kosa, Thanutch Sukwimolseree

Abstract:

The climate change is a main parameter which affects the element of hydrological cycle especially runoff. Then, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the climate change on surface runoff using land use map on 2008 and daily weather data during January 1, 1979 to September 30, 2010 for SWAT model. SWAT continuously simulate time model and operates on a daily time step at basin scale. The results present that the effect of temperature change cannot be clearly presented on the change of runoff while the rainfall, relative humidity and evaporation are the parameters for the considering of runoff change. If there are the increasing of rainfall and relative humidity, there is also the increasing of runoff. On the other hand, if there is the increasing of evaporation, there is the decreasing of runoff.

Keywords: Climate, SWAT, runoff, upper Mun River basin

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41 Effects of Drought and Anthropism on Vegetation and Soil Elements in the Steppe of Algeria: Case of the Station of Tadmit (Wilaya of Djelfa)

Authors: L. Benseghir, H. Kadi-Hanifi

Abstract:

Vegetation of the high steppic plains of southern Algiers region has ever been used by human occupation. The harsh climatic context characterized by long periods of drought and an ovine livestock in constant growth lead us to devote a particular attention to the biodiversity of those living environment. The diachronic study made in Tadmit (50 km south of the district of Djelfa) about the specific recording led us to notice that: The floristic recording of Tadmit is not reduced in time but fluctuate, depending on the pasture intensity, the annual rainfall and especially by the protection area of the following two years from January 2004. The forming specific recording of the station undergo significant changes from a period to another. Those changes in floristic list concern nearly 50% of the initial flora that could disappear or be replaced by new species. Finally, the alfa steppe is in a marked decline and is substituted by new facies that were privileged by the overgrazing, stranding or clearance.

Keywords: Climate, Desertification, overgrazing, diachronic study, protection area

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40 West Nile Virus Outbreaks in Canada under Expected Climate Conditions

Authors: Jalila Jbilou, Salaheddine El Adlouni, Pierre Gosselin

Abstract:

Background: West Nile virus is increasingly an important public health issue in North America. In Canada, WVN was officially reported in Toronto and Montréal for the first time in 2001. During the last decade, several WNV events have been reported in several Canadian provinces. The main objective of the present study is to update the frequency of the climate conditions favorable to WNV outbreaks in Canada. Method: Statistical frequency analysis has been used to estimate the return period for climate conditions associated with WNV outbreaks for the 1961–2050 period. The best fit is selected through the Akaike Information Criterion, and the parameters are estimated using the maximum likelihood approach. Results: Results show that the climate conditions related to the 2002 event, for Montreal and Toronto, are becoming more frequent. For Saskatoon, the highest DD20 events recorded for the last few decades were observed in 2003 and 2007. The estimated return periods are 30 years and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: The emergence of WNV was related to extremely high DD values in the summer. However, some exceptions may be related to several factors such as virus persistence, vector migration, and also improved diagnosis and reporting levels. It is clear that such climate conditions have become much more common in the last decade and will likely continue to do so over future decades.

Keywords: Modeling, Climate, Public Health, west nile virus, Precipitation, temperature, North America, Risk Estimation, scenario, statistical frequency analysis

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39 Comparison of Phytochemicals in Grapes and Wine from Shenton Park Winery

Authors: Amanda Sheard, Garry Lee, Katherine Stockham

Abstract:

Introduction: Health benefits associated with wine consumption have been well documented; these include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection. The majority of these health benefits have been linked to polyphenols found within wine and grapes. Once consumed polyphenols exhibit free radical quenching capabilities. Environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, CO2 levels and sunlight exposure have been shown to affect the polyphenol content of grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of growing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of grapes obtained from a single plot vineyard in Perth. This was achieved through the analysis of samples using; oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in human red blood cells, ICP-MS and ICP-OES, total polyphenols (PP’s), and total flavonoid’s (FLa). The data obtained was compared to observed climate data. The 14 Selected Vitis Vinefera L. cultivars included Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carnelian, Chardonnay, Grenache, Melbec, Merlot, Orange muscat, Rousanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Shiraz, Tempernillo, Verdelho, and Voignier. Results: Notable variation’s between cultivars included results ranging from 125 mg/100 g-350 mg/100 g for PP’s, 93 mg/100 g–300 mg/100 g for FLa, 13 mM T.E/kg–33 mM T.E/kg for ORAC and 0.3 mM Q.E/kg–27 mM Q.E/kg CAA were found between red and white grape cultivars. No correlation was found between CAA and the ORAC obtained in this study; except that white cultivars were consistently lower than red. ICP analysis showed that seeds contained the highest concentration of copper followed by skins and flesh of the grape. A positive correlation between copper and ORAC was found. The ORAC, PP’s, and FLa in red grapes were consistently higher than white grape cultivars; these findings were supported by literature values. Significance: The cellular antioxidant activities of white and red wine cultivars were used to compare the bioactivity of these grapes against the chemical ORAC measurement. The common method of antioxidant activity measurement is the chemical value from ORAC analysis; however this may not reflect the activity within the human body. Hence, the measurements were also carried out using the cellular antioxidant activity to perform a comparison. Additionally, the study explored the influence of weather systems such as El Niño and La Niña on the polyphenol content of Australian wine cultivars grown in Perth.

Keywords: Climate, oxygen radical antioxidant activity, cellular antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, wine grapes

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38 Clean Technology: Hype or Need to Have

Authors: Dirk V. H. K. Franco

Abstract:

For many of us a lot of phenomena are considered a risk. Examples are: climate change, decrease of biodiversity, amount of available, clean water and the decreasing variety of living organism in the oceans. On the other hand a lot of people perceive the following trends as catastrophic: the sea level, the melting of the pole ice, the numbers of tornado’s, floods and forest fires, the national security and the potential of 192 million climate migrants in 2060. The interest for climate, health and the possible solutions is large and common. The 5th IPCC states that the last decades especially human activities (and in second order natural emissions) have caused large, mainly negative impacts on our ecological environments. Chris Stringer stated that we represent, nowadays after evolution, the only one version of the possible humanity. At this very moment we are faced with an (over) crowded planet together with global climate changes and a strong demand for energy and material resources. Let us hope that we can counter these difficulties either with better application of existing technologies or by inventing new (applications of) clean technologies together with new business models.

Keywords: Climate, clean technologies, catastrophic, possible solutions

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37 Climate Change and Migration from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs, North-Eastern Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: Adam Modu Abbas

Abstract:

Nigeria, due to its location, size and population is very vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Little effort is however made to address most of the problems, despite the fact that sufficient understanding is made on the impact of climate change and problems emanating from it are also always being propagated. Migration, one of the resultant effects of climate change is however given less attention. This paper focuses on the climate change impact and one of resulting effects, migration and its associated problems. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in sampling 250 respondents who were mainly family members of out-migrants from Ngala and Kala-Balge LGAs of North-eastern Borno State, Nigeria. Available literatures were consulted for the types of climate change impacts. The results revealed that, climate change leads to climatic variation over the space with numerous effects on the environment such as intermittent droughts, desertification/deforestation, low water table and establishment of dams across the courses of the main sources of water supply to the Lake Chad. Many people in the study area either migrated to Cameroon’s Darrak, Lake Doi and Mayo Mbund, Lagos, Nigeria, leaving some members of their families at home. More than half of respondents indicated that the heads of the households migrated as a result of poor harvest due to diminishing or fluctuating rains/drought and/or drying of river Surbewel. It is recommended that; inter-basin water transfers should be embarked upon.

Keywords: Migration, Climate, Change, dam, intermittent

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36 Climate Variations and Fishers

Authors: S. Surapa Raju

Abstract:

In Andhra Pradesh, the symptoms of climate variations in coastal villages can be observed from various studies. The Andhra Pradesh coast is known its frequent tropical cyclones and associated floods and tidal surges causing loss of life and property in the region. In the last decade alone, the state experienced 18 devastating storms causing huge loss to coastal people. The year 2007 was the fourth warmest year on record since 1901 and 2009 witnessed the heat wave conditions prevailing over the coastal Andhra Pradesh. With regarding to sea level rise (SLR), 43 percent of the coastal areas considered to be at high risk. The main objectives of the study are: to know the perceptions of fisher people on climate variations and to find out the awareness of the fisher people on climate variations and its effects at village and on fishing households. Altogether 150 households were chosen purposively for this study and collected information from the households based on semi-structured schedule. The present field-based study observed that most of the fisher people are experienced about the changes in climate variations in their villages. The first generation fisher people expressed that the at least 1/2km of sea erosion taken place from the last 20 years and most of them displaced. With regard to fishing activities, first generation fisher people revealed that 20 years back they were fishing in near-shore areas, but now availability of near shore is decreased at a large extent. The present study observed the lot of variations in growth of species in marine districts of Andhra Pradesh from the year 2005-2010. Some species like Silver pomfret, Sole (flat fish), Chriocentrus, Thrisocies, Stakes, Rays etc. are in decaling. The results of the study indicate that huge variation observed in growth rates of fish species. Small and traditional fishers have drastically effected in El NiNo years than the normal years as they have not own suitable equipment such as crafts and nets. The study discovered that many changes taken place in the fishing activities and they are: go for long distance for fishing which increases the cost of fishing operations; decrease in fish catches. Need to take up in-depth studies in the marine villages and tackle the situation by creating more awareness about the negative effects of climate variations among fishing households. Suitable fish craft technology is to be supplied and create more employment opportunities for the fishers in other than fishery.

Keywords: Climate, India, Andhra Pradesh, El nino years

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35 Work Engagement Reducing Employee Turnover Intentions in Telecommunication Sector: The Moderator Role of Human Resource Development Climate between Work Engagement and Turnover Intentions

Authors: Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri

Abstract:

The present study examines the relationship between work engagement (WE) and employee turnover intentions (TI) in telecommunication sector using human resource development climate (HRDC) as a moderator. Based on 538 employees of telecommunication sector Hierarchal regression analysis is employed to examine the influence of HRDC on the relationship of work engagement and turnover intentions. The result indicates the negative correlation between work engagement and turnover intentions; HRD climate support as a powerful moderator increases the work engagement and lessens the turnover intentions. The study shows the importance of favorable and supportive HRD climate which foster the work engagement of the employees in the organization. By understanding the importance of human resource development climate and work engagement in reducing the turnover intentions can increase the productivity and performance of the organization.

Keywords: Climate, Human Resource Development, turnover intentions, work engagement, hierarchal regression analysis, telecommunication sector

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34 Impact of Climate on Productivity of Major Cereal Crops in Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, L. Tanko, Y. M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

The study aimed at examining the impact of climatic factors (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature) on the productivity of major cereals in Sokoto state, Nigeria. Secondary data from 1997-2008 were used in respect of annual yield of Major cereals crops (maize, millet, rice, and sorghum (t ha-1). Data in respect of climate was collected from Sokoto Energy Research Centre (SERC) for the period under review. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. The result of the research reveals that there is variation in the trend of the climatic factors and also variation in cereals output. The effect of average temperature on yields has a negative effect on crop yields. Similarly, rainfall is not significant in explaining the effect of climate on cereal crops production. The study has revealed to some extend the effect of climatic variables, such as rainfall, relative humidity, maximum and minimum temperature on major cereals production in Sokoto State. This will assist in planning ahead in cereals production in the area. Other factors such as soil fertility, correct timing of planting and good cultural practices (such as spacing of strands), protection of crops from weeds, pests and diseases and planting of high yielding varieties should also be taken into consideration for increase yield of cereals.

Keywords: Climate, Productivity, Impact, cereals, major

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33 Effectiveness of Jute Geotextiles for Hill Slope Stabilization in Adverse Climatic Condition

Authors: Pradip Choudhury, Tapobrata Sanyal

Abstract:

Effectiveness of Jute Geotextiles (JGT) in hill slope management now stands substantiated. The reasons of its efficacy are attributed to its bio-degradability, hygroscopic property and its thickness. Usually open weave JGT is used for slope management. Thickness of JGT helps in reducing the velocity of surface run-off, thus curbing the extent of migration of soil particles detached as a result of kinetic energy of rain-drops and also of wind effects. Initially JGT acts as cover of the surface of slope thus protect movement of loose soil particles. Hygroscopic property of jute effects overland storage of the flow. JGT acts as mulch and creates a congenial micro-climate that fosters quick growth of vegetation on bio-degradation. In fact JGT plays an important role in bio-remediation of slope-erosion problems. Considering the environmental aftermath, JGT is the preferred option in developed countries for surface soil conservation against erosion. In India JGT has not been tried in low temperature zones at high altitudes where temperature goes below the freezing point (even below - 25° Celsius). The behavior of JGT in such low-temperature zones is not precisely known. The 16th BRTF of Project Himank of Border Roads Organization (BRO) has recently taken the initiative to try two varieties of JGT , ie, 292 gsm and 500 gsm at two different places for hill slope management in Leh, a high altitude place of about 2,660 mtrs and 4900 mtrs above MSL respectively in Jammu & Kashmir where erosion is caused more as a result of rapid movement of sand particles due to high wind (wind erosion. Soil particles of the region formed naturally by weathering of fragile rocks are usually loosely bonded (non-cohesive), undergo dissociation with the rise in wind force and kinetic energy of rain drops and are blown away by wind. Open weave JGT interestingly was observed to contain the dissociated soil particles within its pores and lend stability the affected soil mass to a great extent thus preventing its movement by extraneous agents such as wind. The paper delineates about climatic factors, type of JGT used and the prevailing site conditions with an attempt to analyze the mechanism of functioning of JGT in low temperature zones.

Keywords: Climate, erosion, jutegeotextile, stabilize

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32 Evaluating the Effect of Climate Change and Land Use/Cover Change on Catchment Hydrology of Gumara Watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

Authors: Gashaw Gismu Chakilu

Abstract:

Climate and land cover change are very important issues in terms of global context and their responses to environmental and socio-economic drivers. The dynamic of these two factors is currently affecting the environment in unbalanced way including watershed hydrology. In this paper individual and combined impacts of climate change and land use land cover change on hydrological processes were evaluated through applying the model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Gumara watershed, Upper Blue Nile basin Ethiopia. The regional climate; temperature and rainfall data of the past 40 years in the study area were prepared and changes were detected by using trend analysis applying Mann-Kendall trend test. The land use land cover data were obtained from land sat image and processed by ERDAS IMAGIN 2010 software. Three land use land cover data; 1973, 1986, and 2013 were prepared and these data were used for base line, model calibration and change study respectively. The effects of these changes on high flow and low flow of the catchment have also been evaluated separately. The high flow of the catchment for these two decades was analyzed by using Annual Maximum (AM) model and the low flow was evaluated by seven day sustained low flow model. Both temperature and rainfall showed increasing trend; and then the extent of changes were evaluated in terms of monthly bases by using two decadal time periods; 1973-1982 was taken as baseline and 2004-2013 was used as change study. The efficiency of the model was determined by Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) and Relative Volume error (RVe) and their values were 0.65 and 0.032 for calibration and 0.62 and 0.0051 for validation respectively. The impact of climate change was higher than that of land use land cover change on stream flow of the catchment; the flow has been increasing by 16.86% and 7.25% due to climate and LULC change respectively, and the combined change effect accounted 22.13% flow increment. The overall results of the study indicated that Climate change is more responsible for high flow than low flow; and reversely the land use land cover change showed more significant effect on low flow than high flow of the catchment. From the result we conclude that the hydrology of the catchment has been altered because of changes of climate and land cover of the study area.

Keywords: Climate, SWAT, Ethiopia, LULC

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31 Climatic Roots of Piracy in Red Sea

Authors: Nasser Karami

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Piracy in the North West of Indian Ocean and the Red Sea has become a global crisis in recent years. Pirates of this area are often very poor people from the Horn of Africa and the western coast of the Red Sea. Climatic and geographical evidence suggests that poverty and destruction of social structures in the region have directly relation to prolonged-drought. Indeed, after the seventies (more than 40 years ago) due to the long-term drought in the region, all political, economic and social structures had declined. Spread of terrorism, violent extremism and of course piracy, are main effects of climate change and drought of this regression. It is disturbing to say the climatic documents say that because of global climate change, severe drought will continue in this region. This mean that the dangers worse than piracy threatens the future of this area. Forty-year data that has assessed in this study indicate that there is direct relationship between spread of drought and piracy in the Red Sea.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate, Poverty, Drought, piracy in red sea

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30 Exposing The Invisible

Authors: Kimberley Adamek

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According to the Council on Tall Buildings, there has been a rapid increase in the construction of tall or “megatall” buildings over the past two decades. Simultaneously, the New England Journal of Medicine has reported that there has been a steady increase in climate related natural disasters since the 1970s; the eastern expansion of the USA's infamous Tornado Alley being just one of many current issues. In the future, this could mean that tall buildings, which already guide high speed winds down to pedestrian levels would have to withstand stronger forces and protect pedestrians in more extreme ways. Although many projects are required to be verified within wind tunnels and a handful of cities such as San Francisco have included wind testing within building code standards, there are still many examples where wind is only considered for basic loading. This typically results in and an increase of structural expense and unwanted mitigation strategies that are proposed late within a project. When building cities, architects rarely consider how each building alters the invisible patterns of wind and how these alterations effect other areas in different ways later on. It is not until these forces move, overpower and even destroy cities that people take notice. For example, towers have caused winds to blow objects into people (Walkie-Talkie Tower, Leeds, England), cause building parts to vibrate and produce loud humming noises (Beetham Tower, Manchester), caused wind tunnels in streets as well as many other issues. Alternatively, there exist towers which have used their form to naturally draw in air and ventilate entire facilities in order to eliminate the needs for costly HVAC systems (The Met, Thailand) and used their form to increase wind speeds to generate electricity (Bahrain Tower, Dubai). Wind and weather exist and effect all parts of the world in ways such as: Science, health, war, infrastructure, catastrophes, tourism, shopping, media and materials. Working in partnership with a leading wind engineering company RWDI, a series of tests, images and animations documenting discovered interactions of different building forms with wind will be collected to emphasize the possibilities for wind use to architects. A site within San Francisco (due to its increasing tower development, consistently wind conditions and existing strict wind comfort criteria) will host a final design. Iterations of this design will be tested within the wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamic systems which will expose, utilize and manipulate wind flows to create new forms, technologies and experiences. Ultimately, this thesis aims to question the amount which the environment is allowed to permeate building enclosures, uncover new programmatic possibilities for wind in buildings, and push the boundaries of working with the wind to ensure the development and safety of future cities. This investigation will improve and expand upon the traditional understanding of wind in order to give architects, wind engineers as well as the general public the ability to broaden their scope in order to productively utilize this living phenomenon that everyone constantly feels but cannot see.

Keywords: Climate, Visualization, Wind Engineering, Architectural Aerodynamics

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29 Survey the Effects of Climate in Traditional and Modern Architecture of Iran

Authors: Hamidreza Joudaki, Yousefali Ziari

Abstract:

Humans have regularly been interacting with their environment, and have a close relation with their environment. House as a shelter which protects us against hot and cold weather and the other climatic occurrences in the environment has a close relation with climate. Before human could have access to the fossil fuels, preparing the comfort for the house was done by adjusting the building according to the climate conditions, and the help of natural resources. However after the man could access the fossil fuel, this way was forgotten, and caused much use of energy for heating & cooling. This research is trying to find some methods for designing suitable building that create comfort fitting with the zone by studying the climate condition of Arak city and as a result to find a way to reduce the use of energy and improving the design. So for the aim of this research we have used the statistics and information such as temperature, rain, wind and the approximate moisture from a period of 40 years from synoptic station of Arak. After specifying the climate of Arak by the use of effective temperature, Ulgi, Guni, Mahani and Ovenz indicator, we investigated the climate comfort conditions and the harmonious architecture with the climate and then some suggestion was given according to the climate situation of each month of the year and quality of human comfort according to this indicators.

Keywords: Climate, Architecture, traditional and modern architecture, comfort indicator, Arak city

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28 Simulation and Study of the Effect of Paint Mineral Coating on Energy Saving

Authors: H. Hosseini, A. A. Azemati

Abstract:

By using an adequate paint in buildings, energy consumption can be decreased. In this research, a range of wall paints in different climatic conditions has been investigated to observe its effect on energy consumption. In the current study, the researchers have investigated the effect of different parameters including climatic condition, absorption coefficient, and thermal loads on paint coating. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a typical building with different color paints have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and a comparison was drawn between paints and painting coats with inorganic micro particles in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption.

Keywords: Climate, inorganic, Energy Consumption, painting coats

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27 Comparative Study of Properties of Iranian Historical Gardens by Focusing on Climate

Authors: Malihe Ahmadi

Abstract:

Nowadays, stress, tension and neural problems are among the most important concerns of the present age. The environment plays key role on improving mental health and reducing stress of citizens. Establishing balance and appropriate relationship between city and natural environment is of the most important approaches of present century. Type of approach and logical planning for urban green spaces as one of the basic sections of integration with nature, not only plays key role on quality and efficiency of comprehensive urban planning; but also it increases the system of distributing social activities and happiness and lively property of urban environments that leads to permanent urban development. The main purpose of recovering urban identity is considering culture, history and human life style in past. This is a documentary-library research that evaluates the historical properties of Iranian gardens in compliance with climate condition. Results of this research reveal that in addition to following Iranian gardens from common principles of land lot, structure of flowers and plants, water, specific buildings during different ages, the role of climate at different urban areas is among the basics of determining method of designing green spaces and different buildings located at diverse areas i.e. Iranian gardens are a space for merging natural and artificial elements that has inseparable connection with semantic principles and guarantees different functions. Some of the necessities of designing present urban gardens are including: recognition and recreation.

Keywords: Climate, Iran, historical gardens, properties of Iranian gardens

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26 Farmers Perception and Awareness to Climate Change in Some Selected Local Government Areas in Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: M. M. Ubayo, U. S. Babuga, A. Garba

Abstract:

The study examined the level of climate change awareness and perception by rice farmers in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A multi-stage and purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents. The state is divided into four agricultural zones namely Birninkudu zone, Gumel zone, Hadejia zone, and Kazaure zone. Two agricultural zones (Gumel zone and Hadejia zones) were purposively selected. Six Local Government Areas (LGAs) were randomly selected from the two zones. Also, twenty rice farmers were purposively selected from each of the LGAS. Data were analyzed using frequency and percentages. The result shows that 83.3% of the respondents are aware of the climate change impact on their rice output. Personal experience is the main sources of climate change information in the study area, another 45.6% adopted use of irrigation as the most effective measure to combating climate change, 25.5% use of early maturing variety. Further studies are needed on how to combat the threat and menace of the climate change in the study area.

Keywords: Climate, Perception, Change, awareness, Jigawa

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25 Climate Change Impact on Water Resources above the Territory of Georgia

Authors: T. Davitashvili

Abstract:

At present impact of global climate change on the territory of Georgia is evident at least on the background of the Caucasus glaciers melting which during the last century have decreased to half their size. Glaciers are early indicators of ongoing global and regional climate change. Knowledge of the Caucasus glaciers fluctuation (melting) is an extremely necessary tool for planning hydro-electric stations and water reservoir, for development tourism and agriculture, for provision of population with drinking water and for prediction of water supplies in more arid regions of Georgia. Otherwise, the activity of anthropogenic factors has resulted in decreasing of the mowing, arable, unused lands, water resources, shrubs and forests, owing to increasing the production and building. Transformation of one type structural unit into another one has resulted in local climate change and its directly or indirectly impacts on different components of water resources on the territory of Georgia. In the present paper, some hydrological specifications of Georgian water resources and its potential pollutants on the background of regional climate change are presented. Some results of Georgian’s glaciers pollution and its melting process are given. The possibility of surface and subsurface water pollution owing to accidents at oil pipelines or railway routes are discussed. The specific properties of regional climate warming process in the eastern Georgia are studied by statistical methods. The effect of the eastern Georgian climate change upon water resources is investigated.

Keywords: Climate, Water Resources, Pollution, droughts

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24 Investigation of Relationship between Organizational Climate and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: A Research in Health Sector

Authors: Serdar Öge, Pinar Ertürk

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The main objective of this research is to describe the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to examine this relationship, a research is intended to be carried out in relevant institutions and organizations operating in the health sector in Turkey. It will be found whether there is a statistically significant relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior through elated scientific research methods and statistical analysis. In addition, elationships between the dimensions of organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior subscales will be questioned statistically.

Keywords: Climate, Organizational Climate, organizational citizenship, organizational citizenship behavior

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23 Variability of Climatic Elements in Nigeria Over Recent 100 Years

Authors: T. Salami, O. S. Idowu, N. J. Bello

Abstract:

Climatic variability is an essential issue when dealing with the issue of climate change. Variability of some climate parameter helps to determine how variable the climatic condition of a region will behave. The most important of these climatic variables which help to determine the climatic condition in an area are both the Temperature and Precipitation. This research deals with Longterm climatic variability in Nigeria. Variables examined in this analysis include near-surface temperature, near surface minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure, precipitation, wet-day frequency and cloud cover using data ranging between 1901-2010. Analyses were carried out and the following methods were used: - Regression and EOF analysis. Results show that the annual average, minimum and maximum near-surface temperature all gradually increases from 1901 to 2010. And they are in the same case in a wet season and dry season. Minimum near-surface temperature, with its linear trends are significant for annual, wet season and dry season means. However, the diurnal temperature range decreases in the recent 100 years imply that the minimum near-surface temperature has increased more than the maximum. Both precipitation and wet day frequency decline from the analysis, demonstrating that Nigeria has become dryer than before by the way of rainfall. Temperature and precipitation variability has become very high during these periods especially in the Northern areas. Areas which had excessive rainfall were confronted with flooding and other related issues while area that had less precipitation were all confronted with drought. More practical issues will be presented.

Keywords: Climate, variability, Flooding, excessive rainfall

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22 Explanation of Sustainable Architecture Models in Tabriz Residential Fabric Monuments: Case Study of Sharbatoglu House and Ghadaki House

Authors: Elham Kazemi, Fereshteh Pashaei Kamali, Shokooh Neshani Fam

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The subject of sustainable development is a reformist revision of modernism and tradition, proposing reconciliatory strategies between these two. Sustainability in architecture cannot only be interpreted as the construction’s physical stability, but also as stability, the preserving of the continuous totality of earth and its energy resources as well, whose available resources and materials should be employed more efficiently. In other words, by referring to the building ecology, emphasizing the combinatory capacity of the building with the environmental factors (existence context), the aim of sustainability is to achieve spatial quality and comfort, as well as proper design in the architectural composition. To achieve these traditional Iranian architecture objectives, it is essential to plan on protecting the environment, maintaining aesthetic measures and responding to the needs of each climatic region. This study was conducted based on the descriptive-analytical method, and aimed to express the design patterns compatible with the climate of the Tabriz residential fabric. The present article attempts to express the techniques and patterns used in traditional Iranian architecture, especially the Tabriz Sharbatoglu houses and Ghadaki houses, which are supposed to be in accordance with modern concepts of sustainable architecture.

Keywords: Climate, Sustainable Architecture, Tabriz, Sharbatoglu house, Ghadaki house

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21 Energy Saving of the Paint with Mineral Insulators: Simulation and Study on Different Climates

Authors: H. Hosseini, A. A. Azemati, B. Shirkavand Hadavand

Abstract:

By using an adequate thermal barrier coating in buildings the energy saving will be happened. In this study, a range of wall paints with different absorption coefficient in different climates has been investigated. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a common building with different ordinary paints and paint with mineral coating have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and comparison was done between ordinary paints and paint with mineral insulators in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption. The results have been shown that coatings with inorganic micro particles as insulation reduce the energy consumption of buildings around 14%.

Keywords: Climate, inorganic, Energy Consumption, mineral coating

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20 Tourism Climate Index Environmental Assessment of Piranshahr

Authors: Parvaneh Ziviar Pardehei, Esmaeil Hossinnejad

Abstract:

In this research, the tourism climate index Miczcofski (TCI) and to assess climate Trjvng Piranshahr city tourism is discussed. The index is a systematic way to evaluate the climatic conditions for tourism. To calculate the parameters of mean monthly maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, average daily relative humidity, rainfall, sunshine and the wind speed are used. In the months of April, July, August and September of comfort there in December, January, February and March, the nerve is cold comfort factor. Baker calculation method showed that during spring and summer cooling environment, mild, pleasant, and comfortable Byvklymay there. TCI results suggest that the months of April to July are top rated and best climatic conditions in terms of comfort to the tourists. In general, indices used in this paper show that the months of April to October is the best time for tourism in the city Piranshahr.

Keywords: Climate, Tourism, Piranshahr city, TCI indicators and trjvng

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19 Quantitative Ranking Evaluation of Wine Quality

Authors: A. Brunel, A. Kernevez, F. Leclere, J. Trenteseaux

Abstract:

Today, wine quality is only evaluated by wine experts with their own different personal tastes, even if they may agree on some common features. So producers do not have any unbiased way to independently assess the quality of their products. A tool is here proposed to evaluate wine quality by an objective ranking based upon the variables entering wine elaboration, and analysed through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Actual climatic data are compared by measuring the relative distance between each considered wine, out of which the general ranking is performed.

Keywords: Climate, Principal Component Analysis, Wine, Grape, rating, weather conditions, metric analysis

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18 Climate Change Adaptation Success in a Low Income Country Setting, Bangladesh

Authors: Tanveer Ahmed Choudhury

Abstract:

Background: Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world, with high population density and high rates of poverty and illiteracy. 80% of the country is on low-lying floodplains, leaving the country one of the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change: sea level rise, cyclones and storms, salinity intrusion, rising temperatures and heavy monsoon downpours. Such climatic events already limit Economic Development in the country. Although Bangladesh has had little responsibility in contributing to global climatic change, it is vulnerable to both its direct and indirect impacts. Real threats include reduced agricultural production, worsening food security, increased incidence of flooding and drought, spreading disease and an increased risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. Currently, 8.3 million Bangladeshis live in cyclone high risk areas. However, by 2050 this is expected to grow to 20.3 million people, if proper adaptive actions are not taken. Under a high emissions scenario, an additional 7.6 million people will be exposed to very high salinity by 2050 compared to current levels. It is also projected that, an average of 7.2 million people will be affected by flooding due to sea level rise every year between 2070-2100 and If global emissions decrease rapidly and adaptation interventions are taken, the population affected by flooding could be limited to only about 14,000 people. To combat the climate change adverse effects, Bangladesh government has initiated many adaptive measures specially in infrastructure and renewable energy sector. Government is investing huge money and initiated many projects which have been proved very success full. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to describe some successful measures initiated by Bangladesh government in its effort to make the country a Climate Resilient. Methodology: Review of operation plan and activities of different relevant Ministries of Bangladesh government. Result: The following initiative projects, programs and activities are considered as best practices for Climate Change adaptation successes for Bangladesh: 1. The Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL); 2. Climate Change and Health Promotion Unit (CCHPU); 3. The Climate Change Trust Fund (CCTF); 4. Community Climate Change Project (CCCP); 5. Health, Population, Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP, 2011-2016)- "Climate Change and Environmental Issues"; 6. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh and WHO Collaboration; - National Adaptation Plan. -"Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH". 7. COP-21 “Climate and health country profile -2015 Bangladesh. Conclusion: Due to a vast coastline, low-lying land and abundance of rivers, Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to climate change. Having extensive experience with facing natural disasters, Bangladesh has developed a successful adaptation program, which led to a significant reduction in casualties from extreme weather events. In a low income country setting, Bangladesh had successfully adapted various projects and initiatives to combat future Climate Change challenges.

Keywords: Climate, Change, Bangladesh, success

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17 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida

Abstract:

The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: Climate, Assessment, Conceptual, Change, Adaptation, Vulnerability, framework

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16 Impact of Meteorological Factors on Influenza Activity in Pakistan; A Tale of Two Cities

Authors: Nadia Nisar

Abstract:

Background: In the temperate regions Influenza activities occur sporadically all year round with peaks coinciding during cold months. Meteorological and environmental conditions play significant role in the transmission of influenza globally. In this study, we assessed the relationship between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in two geographical areas of Pakistan. Methods: Influenza data were collected from Islamabad (north) and Multan (south) regions of national influenza surveillance system during 2010-2015. Meteorological database was obtained from National Climatic Data Center (Pakistan). Logistic regression model with a stepwise approach was used to explore the relationship between meteorological parameters with influenza peaks. In statistical model, we used the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples to represent Influenza activity with metrological parameters as the covariates (temperature, humidity and precipitation). We also evaluate the link between environmental conditions associated with seasonal influenza epidemics: 'cold-dry' and 'humid-rainy'. Results: We found that temperature and humidity was positively associated with influenza in north and south both locations (OR = 0.927 (0.88-0.97)) & (OR = 0.1.078 (1.027-1.132)) and (OR = 1.023 (1.008-1.037)) & (OR = 0.978 (0.964-0.992)) respectively, whilst precipitation was negatively associated with influenza (OR = 1.054 (1.039-1.070)) & (OR = 0.949 (0.935-0.963)). In both regions, temperature and humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to the precipitation. We revealed that the p-value for all of climate parameters is <0.05 by Independent-sample t-test. These results demonstrate that there were significant relationships between climate factors and influenza infection with correlation coefficients: 0.52-0.90. The total contribution of these three climatic variables accounted for 89.04%. The reported number of influenza cases increased sharply during the cold-dry season (i.e., winter) when humidity and temperature are at minimal levels. Conclusion: Our findings showed that measures of temperature, humidity and cold-dry season (winter) can be used as indicators to forecast influenza infections. Therefore integrating meteorological parameters for influenza forecasting in the surveillance system may benefit the public health efforts in reducing the burden of seasonal influenza. More studies are necessary to understand the role of these parameters in the viral transmission and host susceptibility process.

Keywords: Climate, Environmental, Influenza, metrological

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15 Energy Policy of India: An Assessment of Its Impacts and Way Forward

Authors: Mrinal Saurabh Bhaskar, Rahul E Ravindranathan, Priyangana Borah

Abstract:

Energy plays a key role and as a driving force for economic and social growth for any country. To manage the energy sources and its efficient utilization in different economic sectors, energy policy of a country is critical. The energy performance of a country is measured in Energy Intensity and India’s Energy Intensity due to several policies interventions has reduced from 0.53 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2000 to 0.38 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2014, which is about 28 per cent reduction. The Government of India has taken several initiates to manage their increasing energy demand and meet the climate change goals defined by them. The major policy milestones in India related to energy are (i) Enactment of Energy Conservation (EC) Act 2001 (ii) Establishment of Bureau of Energy Efficiency 2001 (iii) National Action Plan on Climate Change (iv) Launch of Demand Side Management schemes (v) Amendment of EC Act 2010 (vi) Launch of Perform Achieve and Trade scheme 2012. Through a critical review, this paper highlights the key energy policy interventions by India, its benefits and impact, challenges faced and efforts of the Government to overcome such challenges. Such take away would be helpful for other countries who are proposing to prepare or amend their energy policy for their different economic sectors.

Keywords: Energy, Climate, Policy, Efficiency

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14 Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates

Authors: Qiong He, S. Thomas Ng

Abstract:

Upgrading the thermal performance of building envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time. Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously, overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of overhang device on building energy performance under different climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.

Keywords: Climate, Energy Analysis, high-rise residential building, overhang, computer-based simulation, design builder, BIM model

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13 Modelling Dengue Disease With Climate Variables Using Geospatial Data For Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam

Authors: Thi Thanh Nga Pham, Damien Philippon, Alexis Drogoul, Thi Thu Thuy Nguyen, Tien Cong Nguyen

Abstract:

Mekong River Delta region of Vietnam is recognized as one of the most vulnerable to climate change due to flooding and seawater rise and therefore an increased burden of climate change-related diseases. Changes in temperature and precipitation are likely to alter the incidence and distribution of vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever. In this region, the peak of the dengue epidemic period is around July to September during the rainy season. It is believed that climate is an important factor for dengue transmission. This study aims to enhance the capacity of dengue prediction by the relationship of dengue incidences with climate and environmental variables for Mekong River Delta of Vietnam during 2005-2015. Mathematical models for vector-host infectious disease, including larva, mosquito, and human being were used to calculate the impacts of climate to the dengue transmission with incorporating geospatial data for model input. Monthly dengue incidence data were collected at provincial level. Precipitation data were extracted from satellite observations of GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation), land surface temperature and land cover data were from MODIS. The value of seasonal reproduction number was estimated to evaluate the potential, severity and persistence of dengue infection, while the final infected number was derived to check the outbreak of dengue. The result shows that the dengue infection depends on the seasonal variation of climate variables with the peak during the rainy season and predicted dengue incidence follows well with this dynamic for the whole studied region. However, the highest outbreak of 2007 dengue was not captured by the model reflecting nonlinear dependences of transmission on climate. Other possible effects will be discussed to address the limitation of the model. This suggested the need of considering of both climate variables and another variability across temporal and spatial scales.

Keywords: Climate, Infectious Disease, Dengue, Geospatial Data

Procedia PDF Downloads 173