Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

click reaction Related Abstracts

2 Synthesis of 5'-Azidonucleosides as Building Blocks for the Preparation of Biologically Active Bioconjugates

Authors: Brigitta Bodnár, Lajos Kovács, Zoltán Kupihár

Abstract:

The cancer cells require higher amount of nucleoside building blocks for their proliferation, therefore they have significantly higher uptake of nucleosides by the different nucleoside transporters. Therefore, the conjugation with nucleosides may significantly increase the efficiency and selectivity of potential active pharmaceutical ingredients. On the other hand, the advantage of using a nucleoside could be either the higher activity on targeted enzymes overrepresented in cancer cells or an enhanced cellular uptake of the bioconjugates in these cells compared to the healthy ones. This fact can be used to make the nucleosides, as targeting moieties covalently bound to anti-cancer drug molecules which can selectively accumulate in cancer cells. However, in order to form the nucleoside-drug conjugates, such nucleoside building blocks are needed, which can selectively be coupled to the drug molecules containing even a high number of diverse functional groups. One of the most selective conjugation techniques is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction that requires the presence of an alkyl group on one of the conjugated molecules and an azide group on the other. In case of nucleosides, the development of azide group is simpler for which the replacement of the 5'-hydroxy group is the most suitable. This transformation generally involves many side reactions and result in very low yields. In addition, during our experiments, the transformation of the 2'-deoxyguanosine to the corresponding 5'-deoxy-5’-azido-2’-deoxyguanosine could not be performed with any of the methods described in the literature. Therefore, we have tried to overcome these difficulties with not only using the traditional process based on the 2 step exchange of tosyl to azide, but also using the Mitsunobu reaction which requires only one step. However, this path proved to be unsuccessful in spite of the optimizing the reaction conditions. Finally, a method has been developed whereby the azide groups were incorporated into the 5’-position resulting in significantly better yields compared to all other previous methods, and we were able to produce all the four nucleoside derivatives.

Keywords: proliferation, bioconjugate, click reaction

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1 Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Copper Catalysts Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Iwona Misztalewska-Turkowicz, Agnieszka Z. Wilczewska, Karolina H. Markiewicz

Abstract:

Carbenes - species which possess neutral carbon atom with two shared and two unshared valence electrons, are known for their high reactivity and instability. Nevertheless, it is also known, that some carbenes i.e. N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), can form stable crystals. The usability of NHCs in organic synthesis was studied. Due to their exceptional properties (high nucleophilicity) NHCs are commonly used as organocatalysts and also as ligands in transition metal complexes. NHC ligands possess better electron-donating properties than phosphines. Moreover, they exhibit lower toxicity. Due to these features, phosphines are frequently replaced by NHC ligands. In this research is discussed the synthesis of five-membered NHCs which are mainly obtained by deprotonation of azolium salts, e.g., imidazolium or imidazolinium salts. Some of them are immobilized on a solid support what leads to formation of heterogeneous, recyclable catalysts. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are often used as a solid support for catalysts. MNPs can be easily separated from the reaction mixture using an external magnetic field. Due to their low size and high surface to volume ratio, they are a good choice for immobilization of catalysts. Herein is presented synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene copper complexes directly on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. Formation of four different catalysts is discussed. They vary in copper oxidation state (Cu(I) and Cu(II)) and structure of NHC ligand. Catalysts were tested in Huisgen reaction, a type of copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Huisgen reaction represents one of the few universal and highly efficient reactions in which 1,2,3-triazoles can be obtained. The catalytic activity of all synthesized catalysts was compared with activity of commercially available ones. Different reaction conditions (solvent, temperature, the addition of reductant) and reusability of the obtained catalysts were investigated and are discussed. The project was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, grant no. 2016/21/N/ST5/01316. Analyses were performed in Centre of Synthesis and Analyses BioNanoTechno of University of Bialystok. The equipment in the Centre of Synthesis and Analysis BioNanoTechno of University of Bialystok was funded by EU, as a part of the Operational Program Development of Eastern Poland 2007-2013, project: POPW.01.03.00-20-034/09-00 and POPW.01.03.00-20-004/11.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, click reaction, N-heterocyclic carbenes, copper catalysts

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