Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

clayey sand Related Abstracts

4 The Effect of Nanoclay on the Hydraulic Conductivity of Clayey Sand Soils

Authors: Javad Saeidaskari, Mohammad Hassan Baziar


Soil structures have been frequently damaged during piping, earthquake and other types of failures. As far as adverse circumstances were developed subsequent to piping or other similar failure types, hydraulic parameters of soil such as hydraulic conductivity should be considered. As a result, acquiring an approach to diminish soil permeability is inevitable. There are many ground improvement methods to reduce seepage, which are classified under soil treatment and stabilization methods. Recently, one of the soil improvement methods is known as nanogeotechnology. This study aims to investigate the influence of Cloisite 30B nanoclay on permeability of compacted clayey sand soils. The samples are prepared by mixing two soil types, including Kaolin clay and Firouzkooh sand, in 1:9 and 1:5 clay:sand (by mass) proportions. In experimental procedure, initially, the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of each samples were obtained for compaction. Then, series of permeability tests were conducted by triaxial apparatus on prepared specimens with identical relative density of 95% of maximum dry density and water content of 1% wet of optimum for different weight percentages of nanoclay (1% to 4%). Therefore, in this paper, the effect of time on treated specimen was appraised, as well as two approaches of manual mixing and ball milling were compared to reveal the importance of dispersion issue. The results show that adding nanoclay up to 3%, as its optimum content, causes notable reduction in permeability (1.60e-03 to 5.51e-05 cm/s and 3.32e-04 to 8.44e-07 cm/s in samples with 1:9 and 1:5 mixture proportions, respectively). The hydraulic conductivity of treated clayey sand (1:5 mixture proportion with 3% nanoclay) decreases gradually from 8.44e-07 to 3.00e-07 cm/s within 90 days and then tends to be consistent. The influence of mixing method on permeability results shows that the utilization of ball mill mixing effectively leads to lower values than those of manual mixing, in other words, by adding 3% nanoclay, hydraulic conductivity of specimen declines from 8.44e-07 to 2.00e-07 cm/s. In order to evaluate the interaction between soil particles and, to ensure proper dispersion of nanoparticles through clayey sand mixture, they were magnified by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM). In conclusion, the nanoclay particles in vicinity of moisture can cause soil stabilization to prevent water penetration, which eventually result in lower usage of clay and operation costs.

Keywords: Hydraulic Conductivity, nanoclay, cloisite 30b, clayey sand

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3 Collapse Surface Definition of Clayey Sands

Authors: Omid Naeemifar, Ibrahim Naeimifar, Roza Rahbari


It has been shown that a certain collapse surface may be defined for loose sands in the three dimensional space in which the sample sand experiences collapse and instability leading to an unsteady and strain-softening behaviour. The unsteady state due to collapse surface may lead to such phenomena in the sand as liquefaction and flow behaviour during undrained loading. Investigating the existence of the collapse surface in Firoozkooh 161 sand and its different clay mixtures with various plasticities, the present study aims to carry out an in-depth investigation of the effects of clay percent and its plasticity on the clayey sand behaviours. The results obtained indicate that collapse surface characteristics largely depend on fine percent and its plasticity. Interesting findings are also reported in this paper on the effects of fine sand percent and its plasticity on the behavioural characteristics and liquefaction potential of clayey sands.

Keywords: Liquefaction, clayey sand, critical state, collapse surface

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2 An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content

Authors: S. Asreazad


This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand specimens reached their peak strength after a very small axial strain followed by a post-peak softening towards an ultimate value. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress. However, the amount of contraction increased with increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.

Keywords: Unsaturated Soils, triaxial test, silty sand, clayey sand

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1 Effect of Plastic Fines on Undrained Behavior of Clayey Sands

Authors: Saeed Talamkhani, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini


In recent years, the occurrence of several liquefactions in sandy soils containing various values of clay content has shown that in addition to silty sands, clayey sands are also susceptible to liquefaction. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the properties of these soil compositions and their behavioral characteristics. This paper presents the effect of clay fines on the undrained shear strength of sands at various confining pressures. For this purpose, a series of unconsolidated undrained triaxial shear tests were carried out on clean sand and sand mixed with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 percent of clay fines. It was found that the presence of clay particle in sandy specimens change the dilative behavior to contraction. The result also showed that increasing the clay fines up to 10 percent causes to increase the potential for liquefaction, and decreases it at higher values fine content. These results reveal the important role of clay particles in changing the undrained strength of the sandy soil.

Keywords: Liquefaction, triaxial test, clayey sand, undrained shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 34