Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Clay Related Abstracts

38 Microbial Evaluation of Geophagic and Cosmetic Clays from Southern and Western Nigeria: Potential Natural Nanomaterials

Authors: Kehinde A. Adediran, Saheed A. Akinola, Bisi-Johnson, Mary A., Hamzart A. Oyelade

Abstract:

Geophagic and cosmetic clays are among potential nano-material which occur naturally and are of various forms. The use of these nano-clays is a common practice in both rural and urban areas mostly due to tradition and medicinal reasons. These naturally occurring materials can be valuable sources of nano-material by serving as nano-composites. The need to ascertain the safety of these materials is the motivation for this research. Physical Characterization based on the hue value and microbiological qualities of the nano-clays were carried out. The Microbial analysis of the clay samples showed considerable contamination with both bacteria and fungi with fungal contaminants taking the lead. This observation may not be unlikely due to the ability of fungi species to survive harsher growth conditions than bacteria. 'Atike pupa' showed no bacterial growth. The clay with the largest bacterial count was Calabash chalk (Igbanke), while that with the highest fungal count was 'Eko grey'. The most commonly isolated bacteria in this study were Clostridium spp. and Corynebacterium spp. while fungi included Aspergillus spp. These results are an indication of the need to subject these clay materials to treatments such as heating before consumption or topical usage thereby ascertaining their safety.

Keywords: Quality, Microorganism, Clay, nano-material

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
37 Corellation between Soil Electrical Resistivity and Metal Corrosion Based on Soil Types for Structure Designs

Authors: L. O. A. Oyinkanola, J.A. Fajemiroye

Abstract:

Soil resistivity measurements are an important parameter employed in the designing earthing installations. Thus, The knowledge of soil resistivity with respect to how it varies with related parameters such as moisture content, Temperature and depth at the intended site is very vital to determine how the desired earth resistance value can be attained and sustained over the life of the installation with the lowest cost and effort. The relationship between corrosion and soil resistivity has been investigated in this work. Varios soil samples: Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay and Silt were collected from different spot within the vicinity.

Keywords: Corrosion, Hydraulic Conductivity, Clay, resistivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
36 Laboratory Study on Behavior of Compacted Soils

Authors: M. M. Mekkakia, M. P Luong, A. Arab

Abstract:

These controlling the water content of compaction are a major concern of fundamental civil engineers. Also, the knowledge of the fundamentals of the behaviour of compacted clay soils is essential to predict and quantify the effects of a change in water content. The study of unsaturated soils is a very complex area which several studies are directed to in recent years. Our job work is to perform tests of Proctor, Oedometer and shear, on samples of unsaturated clay in order to see the influence of water content on the compressibility and the shear strength. The samples were prepared at different amounts of water from water content to optimum water contents close to saturation. This study thus allowed us to measure and monitor the parameters of compressibility and shear strength as a function of water content.

Keywords: laboratory tests, Clay, unsaturated soil, atterberg limits, compaction, compressibility, shear

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
35 Developing of Ecological Internal Insulation Composite Boards for Innovative Retrofitting of Heritage Buildings

Authors: J. N. Nackler, K. Saleh Pascha, W. Winter

Abstract:

WHISCERS™ (Whole House In-Situ Carbon and Energy Reduction Solution) is an innovative process for Internal Wall Insulation (IWI) for energy-efficient retrofitting of heritage building, which uses laser measuring to determine the dimensions of a room, off-site insulation board cutting and rapid installation to complete the process. As part of a multinational investigation consortium the Austrian part adapted the WHISCERS system to local conditions of Vienna where most historical buildings have valuable stucco facades, precluding the application of an external insulation. The Austrian project contribution addresses the replacement of commonly used extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) with renewable materials such as wood and wood products to develop a more sustainable IWI system. As the timber industry is a major industry in Austria, a new innovative and more sustainable IWI solution could also open up new markets. The first approach of investigation was the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to define the performance of wood fibre board as insulation material in comparison to normally used XPS-boards. As one of the results the global-warming potential (GWP) of wood-fibre-board is 15 times less the equivalent to carbon dioxide while in the case of XPS it´s 72 times more. The hygrothermal simulation program WUFI was used to evaluate and simulate heat and moisture transport in multi-layer building components of the developed IWI solution. The results of the simulations prove in examined boundary conditions of selected representative brickwork constructions to be functional and usable without risk regarding vapour diffusion and liquid transport in proposed IWI. In a further stage three different solutions were developed and tested (1 - glued/mortared, 2 - with soft board, connected to wall with gypsum board as top layer, 3 - with soft board and clay board as top layer). All three solutions presents a flexible insulation layer out of wood fibre towards the existing wall, thus compensating irregularities of the wall surface. From first considerations at the beginning of the development phase, three different systems had been developed and optimized according to assembly technology and tested as small specimen in real object conditions. The built prototypes are monitored to detect performance and building physics problems and to validate the results of the computer simulation model. This paper illustrates the development and application of the Internal Wall Insulation system.

Keywords: monitoring, Clay, internal insulation, wood fibre, hygrothermal simulations, condensate

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
34 Effect of Coal on Engineering Properties in Building Materials: Opportunity to Manufacturing Insulating Bricks

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Halima Chemani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adding coal to obtain insulating ceramic product. The preparation of mixtures is achieved with 04 types of different masse compositions, consisting of gray and yellow clay, and coal. Analyses are performed on local raw materials by adding coal as additive. The coal content varies from 5 to 20 % in weight by varying the size of coal particles ranging from 0.25 mm to 1.60 mm. Initially, each natural moisture content of a raw material has been determined at the temperature of 105°C in a laboratory oven. The Influence of low-coal content on absorption, the apparent density, the contraction and the resistance during compression have been evaluated. The experimental results showed that the optimized composition could be obtained by adding 10% by weight of coal leading thus to insulating ceramic products with water absorption, a density and resistance to compression of 9.40 %, 1.88 g/cm3, 35.46 MPa, respectively. The results show that coal, when mixed with traditional raw materials, offers the conditions to be used as an additive in the production of lightweight ceramic products.

Keywords: Coal, Clay, resistance to compression, insulating bricks

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
33 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Dagmar Měřínská, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Vít Petránek

Abstract:

Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: nanocomposite, Polyethylene, Clay, Polypropylene, montmorillonite, polyethylene(vinyl acetate)

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
32 Effect of Clay Content on the Drained Shear Strength

Authors: Navid Khayat

Abstract:

Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand–clay at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first clay and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50, and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress –strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: Sand, Clay, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
31 Comparative Studies of Modified Clay/Polyaniline Nanocomposites

Authors: Fatima Zohra Zeggai, Benjamin Carbonnier, Aïcha Hachemaoui, Ahmed Yahiaoui, Samia Mahouche-Chergui, Zakaria Salmi

Abstract:

A series of polyaniline (PANI)/modified Montmorillonite (MMT) Clay nanocomposite materials have been successfully prepared by In-Situ polymerization in the presence of modified MMT-Clay or Diazonium-MMT-Clay. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized and compared by various physicochemical techniques. The presence of physicochemical interaction, probably hydrogen bonding, between clay and polyaniline, which was confirmed by FTIR, UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of neat PANI and a series of the obtained nanocomposites were also studied by cyclic voltammograms.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Clay, polyaniline, in-situ polymerization, polymers conductors, diazonium salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
30 Phosphate Sludge Ceramics: Effects of Firing Cycle Parameters on Technological Properties and Ceramic Suitability

Authors: Mohamed Loutou, Mohamed Hajjaji, Mohamed Ait Babram, Mohammed Mansori, Rachid Hakkou, Claude Favotto

Abstract:

More than 26,4 million tons of phosphates are produced by the phosphates industries in Morocco (2010), generating huge amounts of sludge by flocculation during the ore beneficiation. They way are stored at the end of the process in open air ponds. Its accumulation and storage may have an impact on several scales such as ground water and human being. For this purpose, an efficient way to use it the field of the ceramic is proposed. The as received sludge and a clay-rich sediment have been studied in terms of chemical, mineralogical and micro-structural side using various analytical methods. Several formulations have been performed by mixing the sludge with the binder shaped in the form of granules. After being dried at 105 °C, the samples were heated in the range of 900-1200 °C. As well as the ceramic properties (firing shrinkage, water absorption, total porosity and compressive strength) the micro structure has been investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The relations between properties and the operating factors were formulated using the design of experiments (DOE). Gehlenite was the only phase neo-formed in the sintering samples. SEM micrographs revealed the presence of nano metric stains. Based on RSM results, all factors had positive effects on Firing shrinkage, compressive strength and total porosity. However, they manifested opposite effects on density and water absorption.

Keywords: Clay, phosphate sludge, ceramic properties, granule

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
29 Adsorption of Toluene from Aqueous Solutions by Porous Clay Hetero-Structures

Authors: S. Sabbaghi, M. M. Zerafat, F. Asadi

Abstract:

Among water pollutants, volatile organic compounds can cause severe long lasting effects not only on biotic organism but also on human health. As a result, this material group has attracted more attention in recent years. Adsorption is one of the common processes for remediation of aromatic compounds. In this study, porous clay hetrostructers (PCHs) are synthesized through gallery template approach and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and dodecylamine used as template and co-template, respectively. Porous clay is characterized by XRD and FTIR. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of various adsorption parameters like adsorbent dosage, pH, initial concentration and contact time. It was found that by increasing adsorbent dosage from 0.5gr/lit to 4gr/lit, toluene removal is increased from 34% to 88.1%. Increasing contact time and decreasing the pH of aqueous solution increases toluene removal efficiency.

Keywords: Adsorption, Clay, toluene, nano-porous

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
28 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil over Mg-Al Modified K-10 Clay Catalyst

Authors: Muhammad Ayoub, Abrar Inayat, Bhajan Lal, Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis

Abstract:

Biodiesel which comes from pure renewable resources provide an alternative fuel option for future because of limited fossil fuel resources as well as environmental concerns. The transesterification of vegetable oils for biodiesel production is a promising process to overcome this future crises of energy. The use of heterogeneous catalysts greatly simplifies the technological process by facilitating the separation of the post-reaction mixture. The purpose of the present work was to examine a heterogeneous catalyst, in particular, Mg-Al modified K-10 clay, to produce methyl esters of palm oil. The prepared catalyst was well characterized by different latest techniques. In this study, the transesterification of palm oil with methanol was studied in a heterogeneous system in the presence of Mg-Al modified K-10 clay as solid base catalyst and then optimized these results with the help of Design of Experiments software. The results showed that methanol is the best alcohol for this reaction condition. The best results was achieved for optimization of biodiesel process. The maximum conversion of triglyceride (88%) was noted after 8 h of reaction at 60 ̊C, with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to palm oil and 3 wt % of prepared catalyst.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Clay, palm oil, transestrefication, mesoporous clay, K-10

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27 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: Clay, polyurethane, alendronic acid, ketonic resin

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26 Effect of Mineral Additives on Improving the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Chief

Authors: Rabah Younes

Abstract:

The reduction of available land resources and the increased cout associated with the use of high quality materials have led to the need for local soils to be used in geotechnical construction, however; poor engineering properties of these soils pose difficulties for constructions project and need to be stabilized to improve their properties in other works unsuitable soils with low bearing capacity , high plasticity coupled with high instability are frequently encountered hence, there is a need to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of these soils to make theme more suitable for construction this can be done by using different mechanical and chemical methods clayey soil stabilization has been practiced for sometime but mixing additives, such us cement, lime and fly ash to the soil to increase its strength.

Keywords: Soil Stabilization, Clay, atterberg limits, compaction, naturaln pozzolana, compressive strength shear strength, curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
25 Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Nano TiO2 and Clay Filler Filled Epoxy Composites

Authors: A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal

Abstract:

In this study, the mechanical properties of nano filled epoxy composites were evaluated. The matrix material is epoxy. nano fillers are Al2O3, TiO2 and clay added in 2.5- 10 wt% by weight ratio. Test samples were prepared using an open mould type die. Mechanical tests were carried out. The tensile strength, elastic modulus, elongation at break and the hardness of the composite materials were obtained and evaluated. It was seen from the results that the filler content had a high influence on the level of the mechanical properties of the epoxy composites.

Keywords: Nano, Composite, Clay, epoxy, fillers

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
24 Effect of Mineral Additives on Improving the Geotechnical Properties of Soils in Chlef

Authors: Messaoudi Mohammed Amin

Abstract:

The reduction of available land resources and the increased cout associated with the use of hight quality materials have led to the need for local soils to be used in geotecgnical construction however, poor engineering properties of these soils pose difficulties for constructions project and need to be stabilized to improve their properties in oyher works unsuitable soils with low bearing capacity, high plasticity coupled with high insatbility are frequently encountered hense, there is a need to improve the physical and mechanical charateristics of these soils to make theme more suitable for construction this can be done by using different mechanical and chemical methods clayey soil stabilization has been practiced for quite sometime bu mixing additives, such us cement, lime and fly ash to the soil to increase its strength. The aim of this project is to study the effect of using lime, natural pozzolana or combination of both on the geotecgnical cherateristics of clayey soil. Test specimen were subjected to atterberg limits test, compaction test, box shear test and uncomfined compression test Lime or natural pozzolana was added to clayey soil at rangs of 0-8% and 0-20% respectively. In addition combinations of lime –natural pozzolana were added to clayey soil at the same ranges specimen were cured for 1-7, and 28 days after which they were tested for uncofined compression tests. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that an important decrease of plasticity index was observed for thr samples stabilized with the combinition lime-natural pozzolana in addition, the use of the combination lime-natural pozzolana modifies the clayey soil classification according to casagrand plasiticity chart. Moreover, based on the favourable results of shear and compression strength obtained, it can be concluded that clayey soil can be successfuly stabilized by combined action of lime and natural pozzolana also this combination showed an appreciable improvement of the shear parameters. Finally, since natural pozzolana is much cheaper than lime ,the addition of natural pozzolana in lime soil mix may particulary become attractive and can result in cost reduction of construction.

Keywords: Soil Stabilization, Clay, atterberg limits, compaction, natural pozzolana, compressive strength shear strength, curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
23 Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Nuhu Dalhat Mu’azu, Abdullahi Usman, A. Bukhari and Muhammad Hussain Essa, Salihu Lukman

Abstract:

Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Soil remediation, Clay, bentonite, mixed contaminants, and electrokinetic-adsorption

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22 New Insulation Material for Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Razika Ihaddadene, Nabila Ihaddadene, Abdelwahaab Betka

Abstract:

1973 energy crisis (rising oil prices) pushed the world to consider other alternative energy resources to existing conventional energies consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Renewable energies such as solar, the wind and geothermal have received renewed interest, especially to preserve nature ( the low-temperature rise of global environmental problems). Solar energy as an available, cheap and environmental friendly alternative source has various applications such as heating, cooling, drying, power generation, etc. In short, there is no life on earth without this enormous nuclear reactor, called the sun. Among available solar collector designs, flat plate collector (FPC) is low-temperature applications (heating water, space heating, etc.) due to its simple design and ease of manufacturing. Flat plate collectors are permanently fixed in position and do not track the sun (non-concentrating collectors). They operate by converting solar radiation into heat and transferring that heat to a working fluid (usually air, water, water plus antifreeze additive) flowing through them. An FPC generally consists of the main following components: glazing, absorber plate of high absorptivity, fluid tubes welded to or can be an integral part of the absorber plate, insulation and container or casing of the above-mentioned components. Insulation is of prime importance in thermal applications. There are three main families of insulation: mineral insulation; vegetal insulation and synthetic organic insulation. The old houses of the inhabitants of North Africa were built of brick made of composite material that is clay and straw. These homes are characterized by their thermal comfort; i.e. the air inside these houses is cool in summer and warm in winter. So, the material composed from clay and straw act as a thermal insulation. In this research document, the polystyrene used as insulation in the ET200 flat plate solar collector is replaced by the cheapest natural material which is clay and straw. Trials were carried out on a solar energy demonstration system (ET 200). This system contains a solar collector, water storage tank, a high power lamp simulating solar energy and a control and command cabinet. In the experimental device, the polystyrene is placed under the absorber plate and in the edges of the casing containing the components of the solar collector. In this work, we have replaced the polystyrene of the edges by the composite material. The use of the clay and straw as insulation instead of the polystyrene increases temperature difference (T2-T1) between the inlet and the outlet of the absorber by 0.9°C; thus increases the useful power transmitted to water in the solar collector. Tank Water is well heated when using the clay and straw as insulation. However, it is less heated when using the polystyrene as insulation. Clay and straw material improves also the performance of the solar collector by 5.77%. Thus, it is recommended to use this cheapest non-polluting material instead of synthetic insulation to improve the performance of the solar collector.

Keywords: Solar Collector, Clay, polystyrene, straw, insulation material

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
21 Conductive Clay Nanocomposite Using Smectite and Poly(O-Anisidine)

Authors: M. Sahin, M. Saçak, E. Erdem

Abstract:

In this study, Na-smectite crystals purificated of bentonite were used after being swelling with benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) as alkyl ammonium salt. Swelling process was carried out using 0.2 g of BTBAB for smectite of 0.8 g with 4 h of mixing time after investigated conditions such as mixing time, the swelling agent amount. Then, the conductive poly(o-anisidine) (POA)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POA content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-anisidine/APS mol ratio. POA/smectite nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques and was compared separately with components of composite.

Keywords: Composite, Clay, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
20 The Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(O-Toluidine)/Smectite Clay Nanocomposite

Authors: M. Sahin, M. Saçak, E. Erdem

Abstract:

Smectite is a layered silicate and modified with alkyl ammonium salts to make both the hydrophilic silicate surfaces organophilic, and to expand the clay layers. Thus, a nanocomposite structure can be formed enabling to enter various types of polymers between the layers. In this study, Na-smectite crystals were prepared by purification of bentonite. Benzyltributylammonium bromide (BTBAB) was used as a swelling agent. The mixing time and additive concentration were changed during the swelling process. It was determined that the 4 h of mixing time and 0.2 g of BTBAB were sufficient and the usage of higher amounts of salt did not increase the interlayer space between the clay layers. Then, the conductive poly(o-toluidine) (POT)/smectite nanocomposite was prepared in the presence of swollen Na-smectite using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. The POT content and conductivity of the prepared nanocomposite were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as the treatment time of swollen smectite in monomer solution and o-toluidine/APS mol ratio. The POT content and conductivity of nanocomposite increased with increasing monomer/oxidant mol ratio up to 1 and did not change at higher ratios. The maximum polymer yield and the highest conductivity value of the composite were 26.0% and 4.0×10-5 S/cm, respectively. The structural and morphological analyses of the POT/smectite nanocomposite were carried out by XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques, respectively.

Keywords: Composite, Clay, conducting polymer, poly(o-anisidine)

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
19 Adsorption of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Raw Clay: A Fixed Bed Column Study

Authors: A. Ghribi, M. Bagane

Abstract:

The discharge of dye in industrial effluents is of great concern because their presence and accumulation have a toxic or carcinogenic effect on living species. The removals of such compounds at such low levels are a difficult problem. Physicochemical technique such as coagulation, flocculation, ozonation, reverse osmosis and adsorption on activated carbon, manganese oxide, silica gel and clay are among the methods employed. The adsorption process is an effective and attractive proposition for the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater. Activated carbon adsorption in fixed beds is a very common technology in the treatment of water and especially in processes of decolouration. However, it is expensive and the powdered one is difficult to be separated from aquatic system when it becomes exhausted or the effluent reaches the maximum allowable discharge level. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon by chemical and thermal procedure is also expensive and results in loss of the sorbent. Dye molecules also have very high affinity for clay surfaces and are readily adsorbed when added to clay suspension. The elimination of the organic dye by clay was studied by serval researchers. The focus of this research was to evaluate the adsorption potential of the raw clay in removing congo red from aqueous solutions using a laboratory fixed-bed column. The continuous sorption process was conducted in this study in order to simulate industrial conditions. The effect of process parameters, such as inlet flow rate, adsorbent bed height and initial adsorbate concentration on the shape of breakthrough curves was investigated. A glass column with an internal diameter of 1.5 cm and height of 30 cm was used as a fixed-bed column. The pH of feed solution was set at 7.Experiments were carried out at different bed heights (5-20 cm), influent flow rates (1.6- 8 mL/min) and influent congo red concentrations (10-50 mg/L). The obtained results showed that the adsorption capacity increases with the bed depth and the initial concentration and it decreases at higher flow rate. The column regeneration was possible for four adsorption–desorption cycles. The clay column study states the value of the excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of congo red from aqueous solution. Uptake of congo red through a fixed-bed column was dependent on the bed depth, influent congo red concentration and flow rate.

Keywords: Adsorption, Regeneration, Clay, fixed bed column, Congo Red, breakthrough curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
18 Removal of Rhodamine B from Aqueous Solution Using Natural Clay by Fixed Bed Column Method

Authors: A. Ghribi, M. Bagane

Abstract:

The discharge of dye in industrial effluents is of great concern because their presence and accumulation have a toxic or carcinogenic effect on living species. The removal of such compounds at such low levels is a difficult problem. The adsorption process is an effective and attractive proposition for the treatment of dye contaminated wastewater. Activated carbon adsorption in fixed beds is a very common technology in the treatment of water and especially in processes of decolouration. However, it is expensive and the powdered one is difficult to be separated from aquatic system when it becomes exhausted or the effluent reaches the maximum allowable discharge level. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon by chemical and thermal procedure is also expensive and results in loss of the sorbent. The focus of this research was to evaluate the adsorption potential of the raw clay in removing rhodamine B from aqueous solutions using a laboratory fixed-bed column. The continuous sorption process was conducted in this study in order to simulate industrial conditions. The effect of process parameters, such as inlet flow rate, adsorbent bed height, and initial adsorbate concentration on the shape of breakthrough curves was investigated. A glass column with an internal diameter of 1.5 cm and height of 30 cm was used as a fixed-bed column. The pH of feed solution was set at 8.5. Experiments were carried out at different bed heights (5 - 20 cm), influent flow rates (1.6- 8 mL/min) and influent rhodamine B concentrations (20 - 80 mg/L). The obtained results showed that the adsorption capacity increases with the bed depth and the initial concentration and it decreases at higher flow rate. The column regeneration was possible for four adsorption–desorption cycles. The clay column study states the value of the excellent adsorption capacity for the removal of rhodamine B from aqueous solution. Uptake of rhodamine B through a fixed-bed column was dependent on the bed depth, influent rhodamine B concentration, and flow rate.

Keywords: Adsorption, Regeneration, Clay, fixed bed column, rhodamine B, breakthrough curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
17 Effect of Low Plastic Clay Quantity on Behavioral Characteristics of Loose Sand

Authors: Roza Rahbari

Abstract:

After the Nigatta earthquake in Japan, in 1960, the liquefaction and its related hazards, moved to the thick of matter. Most of the research have been carried out on clean sands and silty sands so far, in order to study the effect of fine particles, confinement pressures, density and so on. However, because of this delusion that adhesiveness of clay prevents the liquefaction in sand, studies on clayey sands have not been taken seriously. However, several liquefactions happened in clayey sands in recent years, and lead to the necessity of more studies in this field. The studies which were carried out so far focused on high plastic clays. In this paper, the effect of low plasticity clays on the behavioral characteristics of sands is discussed. Thus, some triaxial tests were carried out on clean sands and clayey sands with different percentages of added clay. Specimens were compacted in various densities to study the effect of quantity of clay on various densities, too. Based on the findings, the amount of clay affects the behavior of sand greatly and leads to substantial changes in peak bearing capacity and steady state values.

Keywords: Sand, Liquefaction, Failure, Clay, monotonic, triaxial

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
16 Evaluation on Mechanical Stabilities of Clay-Sand Mixtures Used as Engineered Barrier for Radioactive Waste Disposal

Authors: Ahmet E. Osmanlioglu

Abstract:

In this study, natural bentonite was used as natural clay material and samples were taken from the Kalecik district in Ankara. In this research, bentonite is the subject of an analysis from standpoint of assessing the basic properties of engineered barriers with respect to the buffer material. Bentonite and sand mixtures were prepared for tests. Some of clay minerals give relatively higher hydraulic conductivity and lower swelling pressure. Generally, hydraulic conductivity of these type clays is lower than <10-12 m/s. The hydraulic properties of clay-sand mixtures are evaluated to design engineered barrier specifications. Hydraulic conductivities of bentonite-sand mixture were found in the range of 1.2x10-10 to 9.3x10-10 m/s. Optimum B/S mixture ratio was determined as 35% in terms of hydraulic conductivity and mechanical stability. At the second stage of this study, all samples were compacted into cylindrical shape molds (diameter: 50 mm and length: 120 mm). The strength properties of compacted mixtures were better than the compacted bentonite. In addition, the larger content of the quartz sand in the mixture has the greater thermal conductivity.

Keywords: nuclear waste disposal, Clay, engineered barriers, mechanical stability

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15 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polycaprolactone-Soy Lecithin Modified Bentonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Danila Merino, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez

Abstract:

Clays are commonly used to reinforce polymeric materials. In order to modify them, long-chain quaternary-alkylammonium salts have been widely employed. However, the application of these clays in biological fields is limited by the toxicity and poor biocompatibility presented by these modifiers. Meanwhile, soy lecithin, acts as a natural biosurfactant and environment-friendly biomodifier. In this report, we analyse the effect of content of soy lecithin-modified bentonite on the properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposites. Commercial grade PCL (CAPA FB 100) was supplied by Perstorp, with Mw = 100000 g/mol. Minarmco S.A. and Melar S.A supplied bentonite and soy lecithin, respectively. Clays with 18, 30 and 45 wt% of organic content were prepared by exchanging 4 g of Na-Bent with 1, 2 and 4 g of soy lecithin aqueous and acid solution (pH=1, with HCl) at 75ºC for 2 h. Then, they were washed and lyophilized for 72 h. Samples were labeled A, B and C. Nanocomposites with 1 and 2 wt.% of each clay were prepared by melt-intercalation followed by compression-moulding. An intensive Brabender type mixer with two counter-rotating roller rotors was used. Mixing temperature was 100 ºC; speed of rotation was 100 rpm. and mixing time was 10 min. Compression moulding was carried out in a hydraulic press under 75 Kg/mm2 for 10 minutes at 100 ºC. The thickness of the samples was about 1 mm. Thermal and mechanical properties were analysed. PCL nanocomposites with 1 and 2% of B presented the best mechanical properties. It was observed that an excessive organic content produced an increment on the rigidity of PCL, but caused a detrimental effect on the tensile strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites. Thermogravimetrical analyses suggest that all reinforced samples have higher resistance to degradation than neat PCL.

Keywords: Characterization, nanocomposite, Chemical Modification, Clay

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14 Correlation between the Undrained Shear Strength of Clay of the Champlain Sea as Determined by the Vane Test and the Swedish Cone

Authors: Tahar Ayadat

Abstract:

The undrained shear strength is an essential parameter for determining the consistency and the ultimate bearing capacity of a clay layer. The undrained shear strength can be determined by field tests such as the in situ vane test or in laboratory, including hand vane test, triaxial, simple compression test, and the consistency penetrometer (i.e. Swedish cone). However, the field vane test and the Swedish cone are the most commonly used tests by geotechnical experts. In this technical note, a comparison between the shear strength results obtained by the in situ vane test and the cone penetration test (Swedish cone) was conducted. A correlation between the results of these two tests, concerning the undrained shear strength of the Champlain sea clay, has been developed. Moreover, some applications of the proposed correlation on some geotechnical problems have been included, such as the determination of the consistency and the bearing capacity of a clay layer.

Keywords: correlation, Shear Strength, Clay, vane test, Swedish cone

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13 Performance of Axially Loaded Single Pile Embedded in Cohesive Soil with Cavities

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

The stability of a single model pile located adjacent to a continuous cavity was studied. This paper is an attempt to understand the behaviour of axially loaded single pile embedded in clayey soil with the presences of cavities. The performance of piles located in such soils was studied analytically. A verification analysis was carried out on available studies to assess the ability of analytical model to correctly interpret the system behaviour. The study was adopted by finite element program (PLAXIS). The study included many cases; in each case, there is a critical value in which the presence of cavities has shown minimum effect on the pile performance. Figures including the load carrying capacity of pile with the affecting factors are presented. These figures provide beneficial information for pile design constructed close to underground cavities. It was concluded that the load carrying capacity of the pile is reduced by the presence of the cavity within the soil mass. This reduction varies according to the size and location of cavity.

Keywords: Clay, cavity, ultimate capacity, pile, axial load

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12 Effect of Twin Cavities on the Axially Loaded Pile in Clay

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

Presence of cavities in soil predictably induces ground deformation and changes in soil stress, which might influence adjacent existing pile foundations, though the effect of twin cavities on a nearby pile needs to be understood. This research is an attempt to identify the behaviour of piles subjected to axial load and embedded in cavitied clayey soil. A series of finite element modelling were conducted to investigate the performance of piled foundation located in such soils. The validity of the numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing it with available field test and alternative analytical model. The study involved many parameters such as twin cavities size, depth, spacing between cavities, and eccentricity of cavities from the pile axis on the pile performance subjected to axial load. The study involved many cases; in each case, a critical value has been found in which cavities’ presence has shown minimum impact on the behaviour of pile. Load-displacement relationships of the affecting parameters on the pile behaviour were presented to provide helpful information for designing piled foundation situated near twin underground cavities. It was concluded that the presence of the cavities within the soil mass reduces the ultimate capacity of pile. This reduction differs according to the size and location of the cavity.

Keywords: Clay, finite element, ultimate capacity, pile, axial load, twin cavities

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11 Characteristics of Interaction Forces Acting on a Newly-Design Rotary Blade for Thai Walking Tractor

Authors: Sirisak Choedkiatphon, Tanya Niyamapa

Abstract:

This research aimed to indeed understand the soil-rotary blade interaction of the newly-design rotary blade for Thai walking tractor. Therefore, this study was carried out to clarify the characteristics of the horizontal and the vertical forces and the moment around a rotary shaft of prototype rotary blade 15 lengthwise slice angle. It was set up and tested in laboratory soil bin at Kasetsart University under sandy loam and clay soil at soil dry bulk density and soil specific weight of 9.81 kN/m3 and 11.3% (d.b.), respectively. The tests were conducted at travel speeds of 0.069 and 0.142 m/s and rotational speeds of 150, 250 and 350 rpm. The characteristic of pushing-forward and lifting-up forces and moment around a rotor shaft were obtained by using the EOR transducer. Also, the acting point of resultant force of these soil-blade reaction forces was determined. The pushing-forward and lifting-up forces, moment around a rotor shaft and resultant force increased at higher travel speed and higher soil moisture content. In tilling stage, the acting points of resultant force located inside the circumstance of the blade locus. The results showed that the variation of magnitude and direction of pushing-forward, lifting-up and resultant forces corresponded to soil-blade interaction of the newly-design in tilling stage.

Keywords: Clay, rotary blde, soil-blade interaction, walking tractor, sandy loam

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10 Effects of Potential Chloride-Free Admixtures on Selected Mechanical Properties of Kenya Clay-Based Cement Mortars

Authors: Joseph Mwiti Marangu, Joseph Karanja Thiong'o, Jackson Muthengia Wachira

Abstract:

The mechanical performance of hydrated cements mortars mainly depends on its compressive strength and setting time. These properties are crucial in the construction industry. Pozzolana based cements are mostly characterized by low 28 day compressive strength and long setting times. These are some of the major impediments to their production and diverse uses despite numerous technological and environmental benefits associated with them. The study investigated the effects of potential chemical activators on calcined clay- Portland cement blends with an aim to achieve high early compressive strength and shorter setting times in cement mortar. In addition, standard consistency, soundness and insoluble residue of all cement categories was determined. The test cement was made by blending calcined clays with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) at replacement levels from 35 to 50 percent by mass of the OPC to make test cement labeled PCC for the purposes of this study. Mortar prisms measuring 40mmx40mmx160mm were prepared and cured in accordance with KS EAS 148-3:2000 standard. Solutions of Na2SO4, NaOH, Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3 containing 0.5- 2.5M were separately added during casting. Compressive strength was determined at 2rd, 7th, 28th and 90th day of curing. For comparison purposes, commercial Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were also investigated without activators under similar conditions. X-Ray Florescence (XRF) was used for chemical analysis while X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for mineralogical analysis of the test samples. The results indicated that addition of activators significantly increased the 2nd and 7th day compressive strength but minimal increase on the 28th and 90th day compressive strength. A relatively linear relationship was observed between compressive strength and concentration of activator solutions up to 28th of curing. Addition of the said activators significantly reduced both initial and final setting time. Standard consistency and soundness varied with increased amount of clay in the test cement and concentration of activators. Amount of insoluble residues increased with increased replacement of OPC with calcined clays. Mineralogical studies showed that N-A-S-H is formed in addition to C-S-H. In conclusion, the concentration of 2 molar for all activator solutions produced the optimum compressive strength and greatly reduced the setting times for all cement mortars.

Keywords: cement, Clay, admixture, activators, pozzolana

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9 Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme on Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Istvan Szilagyi, Marko Pavlovic, Paul Rouster

Abstract:

Antioxidant enzymes are the most efficient defense systems against reactive oxygen species, which cause severe damage in living organisms and industrial products. However, their supplementation is problematic due to their high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. Immobilization on carrier nanoparticles is a promising research direction towards the improvement of their functional and colloidal stability. In that way, their applications in biomedical treatments and manufacturing processes in the food, textile and cosmetic industry can be extended. The main goal of the present research was to prepare and formulate antioxidant bionanocomposites composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme, anionic clay (layered double hydroxide, LDH) nanoparticle and heparin (HEP) polyelectrolyte. To characterize the structure and the colloidal stability of the obtained compounds in suspension and solid state, electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques. LDH-SOD composite was synthesized by enzyme immobilization on the clay particles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in a strong adsorption of the SOD on the LDH surface, i.e., no enzyme leakage was observed once the material was suspended in aqueous solutions. However, the LDH-SOD showed only limited resistance against salt-induced aggregation and large irregularly shaped clusters formed during short term interval even at lower ionic strengths. Since sufficiently high colloidal stability is a key requirement in most of the applications mentioned above, the nanocomposite was coated with HEP polyelectrolyte to develop highly stable suspensions of primary LDH-SOD-HEP particles. HEP is a natural anticoagulant with one of the highest negative line charge density among the known macromolecules. The experimental results indicated that it strongly adsorbed on the oppositely charged LDH-SOD surface leading to charge inversion and to the formation of negatively charged LDH-SOD-HEP. The obtained hybrid materials formed stable suspension even under extreme conditions, where classical colloid chemistry theories predict rapid aggregation of the particles and unstable suspensions. Such a stabilization effect originated from electrostatic repulsion between the particles of the same sign of charge as well as from steric repulsion due to the osmotic pressure raised during the overlap of the polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the SOD enzyme kept its structural and functional integrity during the immobilization and coating processes and hence, the LDH-SOD-HEP bionanocomposite possessed excellent activity in decomposition of superoxide radical anions, as revealed in biochemical test reactions. In conclusion, due to the improved colloidal stability and the good efficiency in scavenging superoxide radical ions, the developed enzymatic system is a promising antioxidant candidate for biomedical or other manufacturing processes, wherever the aim is to decompose reactive oxygen species in suspensions.

Keywords: enzyme, Formulation, Clay, polyelectrolyte

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