Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Clay Minerals Related Abstracts

7 Assessment of Some Local Clay Minerals Used for the Production of Floor Tiles: Panacea for Economic Growth

Authors: Ekenyem Stan Chinweike


The suitability of some clay deposits in south eastern Nigeria (Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu) as materials for the production of floor tiles was investigated. The clay samples were analyzed using wet classical method to determine their chemical composition. Floor tile test specimens were produced using standard method. The test specimens were tested for physical properties such as compressive strength and porosity at 1050◦c and 1150◦c temperature levels. The chemical analysis showed the following results: Unwana (5102 52.24%, AL2o3, 27.20%, Fe2o3 7%, T102 (1.52%), Ekebedi (S102 (58.53%), Al2o3 28.42%, Fe2o3 7%, Ti o2 (1.12%),NSU SIo2 (58.16%), Al2O3 (28.42%), Fe2O3 1.89%, T102 (0.82%) The compressive strength of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively: 15MPa, 13.75MPa and 13.5MPa. At 1150◦c, the values are 16.2MPa and 16.0MPa for Ekebedi and Nsu clays respectively. The porosity of Unwana, Ekebedi and Nsu clays at 1050◦c are respectively31.57%, 23.15% and 24.21%. At 1150◦c, the values are 23.65% and 24.75% for Ekebedi and Nsu respectively. The three clays can be used for production of tiles but Ekebedi has the highest compressive strength which makes it the most suitable clay for the production of floor tiles when compared with floor tiles of the same nominal size stipulated by ASTM standard.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, compressive strength, porosity, feldspar, quartz

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6 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu


A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: Stabilization, Clay Minerals, A-3 soil, pozzolanic action

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5 Geochemical and Mineralogical Characters of the Coastal Plain Sediments of the Arabian Gulf, Kuwait

Authors: Adel Ahmed Aly Elhabab, Ibrahim Adsani


The present study deals with detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies of the coastal plain sediments formed along the shoreline of the Arabian Gulf area, Kuwait. These deposits are mainly fluviomarine and beach sands. The coastal plain deposits of the central Kuwait shoreline zone were found to consist of average medium-grained sand. The sand composed, on average of about 90% sand, and about 10% or less is mud, and has a unimodal distribution with a mode of medium sand (1-2 ф). The sediments consist mainly quartz, Feldspar, clay minerals with carbonate minerals (detritus calcite and dolomite) and rock fragments (chert). The mineralogy of the clay fractions of the sediments is dominated by illite, palygorskite, mixed layer illite-montmorillonite with minor amounts of chlorite and Kaolinite Heavy minerals are concentrated in the very fine sand fraction and are dominated by opaque minerals, and non opaque minerals which represented by amphiboles, pyroxenes, epidotes, dolomite, zircon, tourmaline, rutile, garnet and other which represented by Staurolite, Kyanite, Andalusite and Sillimenite as a trace amounts. The chemical analysis for the detrital amphibole grains from sandstone of coastal plain sediments shows the following features; the grains which have (Na+K) <0.50 its composition ranges from actino hornblende to magnesio hornblende, but the grains which have (Na+K) >0.50 its composition have wide variation and on the (Na+K)-AlIV diagram can be characterized two association: Association 1 which characterized by low amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), by comparing the chemical composition of this association and the chemical composition of amphibole grains from older basement rock, can be say, these association may be derived from metamorphic source rocks and association 2 which characterized by high amount of AlIV and low amount of (Na+K), may be derived from volcanic source rocks.

Keywords: Heavy Minerals, Chemical Composition, Clay Minerals, coastal area, electro probe micro analyzer (EPMA), fluviomarine sediments

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4 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz


14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, XRD, mudstone, Mukdadiya Formation, Shewasoor

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3 Texture Characteristics and Depositional Environment of the Lower Mahi River Sediment, Mainland Gujarat, India

Authors: Shazi Farooqui, Anupam Sharma


The Mahi River (~600km long) is an important west flowing the river of Central India. It originates in Madhya Pradesh and starts flowing in NW direction and enters into the state of Rajasthan. It flows across southern Rajasthan and then enters into Gujarat and finally debouches in the Gulf of Cambay. In Gujarat state, it flows through all four geomorphic zones i.e. eastern upland zone, shallow buried piedmont zone, alluvial zone and coastal zone. In lower reaches and particularly when it is flowing under the coastal regime, it provides an opportunity to study – 1. Land–Sea interaction and role of relative sea level changes, 2. Coastal/estuarine geological process, 3. Landscape evolution in marginal areas and so on. The Late Quaternary deposits of Mainland Gujarat is appreciably studied by Chamyal and his group of MS University of Baroda, and they have established that the 30-35m thick sediment package of the Mainland Gujarat is comprised of marine, fluvial and aeolian sediments. It is also established that in the estuarine zone, the upper few meter thick sediments package is of marine nature. However, its thickness, characters and the depositional environment including the role of climate and tectonics is still not clearly defined. To understand few aspects of the above mentioned, in the present study, a 17m subsurface sediment core has been retrieved from the estuarine zone of Mahi river basin. The Multiproxy studies which include the textural analysis (grain size), Loss on ignition (LOI), Bulk and clay mineralogy and geochemical studies have been carried out. In the entire sedimentary sequence, the grain size largely varies from coarse sand to clay; however, a solitary gravel bed is also noticed. The lower part (depth 9-17m), is mainly comprised of sub equal proportion of sand and silt. The sediments mainly have bimodal and leptokurtic distribution and deposited in alternate sand-silt package, probably indicating flood deposits. Relatively low moisture (1.8%) and organic carbon (2.4%) with increased carbonate values (12%) indicate that conditions must have to remain oxidizing. The middle part (depth 9–6m) has a 1m thick gravel bed at the bottom and overlain by coarse sand to very fine sand showing fining upward sequence. The presence of gravel bed suggests some kind of tectonic activity resulting into change in base level or enhanced precipitation in the catchment region. The upper part (depth 6–0m; top part of sequence) mainly comprised of fine sand to silt size grains (with appreciable clay content). The sediment of this part is Unimodal and very leptokurtic in nature suggesting wave and winnowing process and deposited in low energy suspension environment. This part has relatively high moisture (2.1%) and organic carbon (2.7%) with decreased carbonate content (4.2%) indicating change in the depositional environment probably under estuarine conditions. The presence of chlorite along with smectite clay mineral further supports the significant marine contribution in the formation of upper part of the sequence.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Clay Minerals, loi, grain size, late quaternary

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2 Palygorskite Bearing Calcic-Soils from Western Thar Desert: Implications for Late Quaternary Monsoonal Fluctuations

Authors: A. Hameed, N. Upreti, P. Srivastava


Main objective the present study is to investigate microscopic, sub-microscopic, clay mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of three calcic soil profiles from the western Thar Desert for the last 30 ka paleoclimatic information. Thin-sections of the soils show weakly to moderately developed pedofeatures dominated by powdery to well-indurated pedogenic calcium carbonate. Sub-microscopy of the representative calcretes show extensive growth of fibrous palygorskite in pore spaces of micritic and sparitic nodules. XRD of the total clay ( < 2 µm) and fine clay ( < 0.2 µm) fractions of the soils show dominance of smectite, palygorskite, chlorite, mica, kaolinite and small amounts of quartz and feldspar. Formation of the palygorskite is attributed to pedogenic processes associated with Bw, Bss and Bwk horizons during drier conditions over the last 30 ka. Formation of palygorskite was mainly favoured by strongly evaporating percolating water and precipitation of secondary calcite, high pH (9-10), high Mg, Si and low Al activities during pedogenesis. Age estimate and distribution of calcretes, palygorskite, and illuvial features indicate fluctuating monsoonal strength during MIS3-MIS1 stages. The pedogenic features in calcic soils of western Thar suggest relatively arid conditions during MIS3-MIS2 transition and LGM time that changed to relatively wetter conditions during post LGM time and again returned to dry conditions at ~4 ka in MIS1.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, palygorskite, late quaternary, Thar, aridisol

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1 Industrial Kaolinite Resource Deposits Study in Grahamstown Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Adeola Ibukunoluwa Samuel, Afsoon Kazerouni


Industrial mineral kaolin has many favourable properties such as colour, shape, softness, non-abrasiveness, natural whiteness, as well as chemical stability. It occurs extensively in North of Bedford road Grahamstown, South Africa. The relationship between both the physical and chemical properties as lead to its application in the production of certain industrial products which are used by the public; this includes the prospect of production of paper, ceramics, rubber, paint, and plastics. Despite its interesting economic potentials, kaolinite clay mineral remains undermined, and this is threatening its sustainability in the mineral industry. This research study focuses on a detailed evaluation of the kaolinite mineral and possible ways to increase its lifespan in the industry. The methods employed for this study includes petrographic microscopy analysis, X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), and proper field reconnaissance survey. Results emanating from this research include updated geological information on Grahamstown. Also, mineral transformation phases such as quartz, kaolinite, calcite and muscovite were identified in the clay samples. Petrographic analysis of the samples showed that the study area has been subjected to intense tectonic deformation and cement replacement. Also, different dissolution patterns were identified on the Grahamstown kaolinitic clay deposits. Hence incorporating analytical studies and data interpretations, possible ways such as the establishment of processing refinery near mining plants, which will, in turn, provide employment for the locals and land reclamation is suggested. In addition, possible future sustainable industrial applications of the clay minerals seem to be possible if additives, cellulosic wastes are used to alter the clay mineral.

Keywords: Sustainability, Clay Minerals, kaolinite, industrial use, Grahamstown

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