Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

civil construction Related Abstracts

4 Investigation of Passive Solutions of Thermal Comfort in Housing Aiming to Reduce Energy Consumption

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Josiane R. Pires, Bruna L. Brenner, Luciana S. Roos

Abstract:

The concern with sustainability brought the need for optimization of the buildings to reduce consumption of natural resources. Almost 1/3 of energy demanded by Brazilian housings is used to provide thermal solutions. AEC sector may contribute applying bioclimatic strategies on building design. The aim of this research is to investigate the viability of applying some alternative solutions in residential buildings. The research was developed with computational simulation on single family social housing, examining envelope type, absorptance, and insolation. The analysis of the thermal performance applied both Brazilian standard NBR 15575 and degree-hour method, in the scenery of Porto Alegre, a southern Brazilian city. We used BIM modeling through Revit/Autodesk and used Energy Plus to thermal simulation. The payback of the investment was calculated comparing energy savings and building costs, in a period of 50 years. The results shown that with the increment of envelope’s insulation there is thermal comfort improvement and energy economy, with a pay-back period of 24 to 36 years, in some cases.

Keywords: Energy, Design, Economic analysis, Thermal Performance, civil construction

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3 Embodied Energy in Concrete and Structural Masonry on Typical Brazilian Buildings

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Marlova P. Kulakowski, Luciano G. Breitenbach, Felipe Kirch

Abstract:

The AEC sector has an expressive environmental responsibility. Actually, most building materials have severe environmental impacts along their production cycle. Professionals enrolled in building design may choice the materials and techniques with less impact among the viable options. This work presents a study about embodied energy in materials of two typical Brazilian constructive alternatives. The construction options considered are reinforced concrete structure and structural masonry. The study was developed for the region of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. Results indicated that the energy embodied in these two constructive systems is approximately 1.72 GJ•m-2 and 1.26 GJ•m-2, respectively. It may be concluded that the embodied energy is lower in the structural masonry system, with a reduction around to 1/4 in relation to the traditional option. The results can be used to help design decisions.

Keywords: Sustainability, civil construction, embodied energy, Brazil

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2 Flooring Solution for Sports Courts Such as Ecological Mortar

Authors: Helida T. G. Soares, Antonio J. P. da Silva

Abstract:

As the society develops, the accumulation of solid waste in landfills, in the environment, and the depletion of the raw material increases. In this way, there is relevance in researching the interaction between the environmental management and civil construction; therefore, this project has for scope the analysis and the effects of the rubber microparticles use as a small aggregate added to the sand, producing an ecological mortar for the pavement constitution, from the mixture of a paste, composed of Portland cement and water, and its application in sports courts. It was used the detailed reutilization of micro rubber in its most primordial, micro form, highlighting the powder pattern as the additional balancing of the mortar, analyzing the evolution of the mechanical properties. Percentages of 5, 10 and 15% rubber were used based on the total mass of the trace, where there is no removal of aggregates or cement, only increment of the rubber. The results obtained through the mechanical test of simple compression showed that the rubber, added to the mortar, presents low mechanical resistance compared to the reference trait, the study of this subject is vast of possibilities to be explored. In this sense, we seek sustainability and innovation from the use of an ecological material, thus adding value and reducing the impact of this material on the environment. The manufacturing process takes place from the direct mixing of cement paste and rubber, whether manually, mechanically or industrially. It results in the production of a low-cost mortar, through the use of recycled rubber, with high efficiency in general properties, such as compressive strength and friction coefficient, allowing its use for the construction of floors for sports courts with high durability. Thus, it is possible to reuse this micro rubber residue in other applications in simple concrete artifacts.

Keywords: Rubber, civil construction, high efficiency, ecological mortar

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1 Sustainable Solutions for Urban Problems: Industrial Container Housing for Endangered Communities in Maranhao, Brazil

Authors: Helida Thays Gomes Soares, Conceicao De Maria Pinheiro Correia, Fabiano Maciel Soares, Kleymer Silva

Abstract:

There is great discussion around populational increase in urban areas of the global south, and, consequently, the growth of inappropriate housing and the different ways humans have found to solve housing problems around the world. Sao Luís, the capital of the state of Maranhao is a good example. The 1.6 million inhabitant metropole is a colonial tropical city that shelters 22% of the population of Maranhão, brazilian state that still carries the scars of slavery in past centuries. In 2016, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic found that 20% of Maranhão’s inhabitants were living in houses with external walls made of non-durable materials, like recycled wood, cardboard or soil. Out of this problematic, this study aims to propose interventions not only in the physical structure of irregular housing, but also to serve as a guide to intervene in the way eco-friendly, communitarian housing is seen by extreme poor zones inside metropolitan regions around big cities in the global south. The adaptation and reuse of industrial containers from the Harbor of Itaqui for housing is also an aim of the project. The great volume of discarded industrial containers may be an opportunity to solve housing deficit in the city. That way, through field research in São Luís’ neighborhoods mostly occupied by inappropriate housing, the study intends to raise ethnographical and physical values that help to shape new uses of industrial containers and recycled building materials, bringing the community into the process of shaping new-housing for local housing programs, changing the mindset of a concrete/brick model of building. The study used a general feasibility analysis of local engineers regarding strength of the locally used container for construction purposes, and also researched in-loco the current impressions of risky areas inhabitants of housing, traditional housing and the role they played as city shapers, evaluating their perceptions of what means to live and how their houses represent their personality.

Keywords: Sustainability, civil construction, participatory design, container housing, housing deficit

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