Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

City Related Abstracts

16 Civility in Indonesia: Comparison of Indonesian People's Friendliness with the Past

Authors: Abshari Nabilah Fiqi, Sekar Ayu Dian Kusumaningtyas, Amira Eka Pratiwi

Abstract:

Since a very long time ago, Indonesia are well known for their hospitality. Hospitality has been one of the civility concepts that represented Indonesia’s culture. However, as an Indonesian, we found that nowadays we are starting to lose this particular culture. The influence of modern culture is undeniably strong. As a capital city, Jakarta is one of the most modern cities in Indonesia. We conduct this experimental study to find out whether the people in Jakarta are still willing to maintain their identity as a friendly Indonesian or not by testing their willingness to reply greetings from strangers.

Keywords: Culture, hospitality, City, modern, civility, greetings

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15 Process of Revitalization of the City Centres in Poland: The Problem of Cooperation between Sectors

Authors: Ewa M. Boryczka

Abstract:

Contemporary city is a subject to rapid economic and social changes. Therefore it requires an active policy designed to meet the diverse needs of their residents, build competitive position and capacity to compete with other cities. Competitiveness of cities depends largely on their resources, but also to a large extent, on the policies and performance of local authorities. Cooperation with private and social sectors also plays an important role, as it affects the use of resources and builds an advantage over other cities. The subject of this article is city's contemporary problems of development with particular emphasis on central areas. This issue is a starting point for reflection on the process of urban regeneration in medium size cities in Poland, as well as cooperation between various actors and their roles in the revitalization processes of Polish cities' centres.

Keywords: City, cooperation between sectors, crisis of city centres, revitalization

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14 Art, Nature, and City in the Construction of Contemporary Public Space

Authors: Rodrigo Coelho

Abstract:

We believe that in the majority of the “recent production of public space", the overvaluation of the "image", of the "ephemeral" and of the "objectual", has come to determine the configuration of banal and (more or less) arbitrary "public spaces", mostly linked to a problem of “outdoor decoration”, reflecting a clear sign of uncertainty and arbitrariness about the meaning, the role and shape of public space and public art.This "inconsistency" which is essentially linked to the loss of urban, but also social, cultural and political, vocation of the disciplines that “shape” the urban space (but is also linked to the lack of urban and technical culture of techinicians and policy makers) converted a significant set of the recently built "public space" and “urban art” into diffuse and multi-referenced pieces, which generally shares the inability of confering to the urban space, civic, aesthetic, social and symbolic meanings. In this sense we consider it is essential to undertake a theoretical reflection on the values, the meaning(s) and the shape(s) that open space, and urban art may (or must) take in the current urban and cultural context, in order to redeem for public space its status of significant physical reference, able to embody a spatial and urban identity, and simultaneously enable the collective accession and appropriation of public space. Taking as reference public space interventions built in the last decade on the European context, we will seek to explore and defend the need of considering public space as a true place of exception, an exceptional support where the emphasis is placed on the quality of the experience, especially by the relations public space/urban art can established with the city, with nature and geography in a broad sense, referring us back to a close and inseparable and timeless relationship between nature and culture.

Keywords: Art, City, Nature, Public space

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13 Evaluation of the Cities Specific Characteristics in the Formation of the Safavid Period Mints

Authors: Mahmood Seyyed, Akram Salehi Heykoei, Hamidreza Safakish Kashani

Abstract:

Among the remaining resource of the past, coins considered as an authentic documents among the most important documentary sources. The coins were minted in a place that called mint. The number and position of the mints in each period reflects the amount of economic power, political security and business growth, which was always fluctuated its position with changing the political and economic condition. Considering that, trade has more growth during the Safavid period than previous ones, the mint also has been in greater importance. It seems the one hand, the growth of economic in Safavid period has a direct link with the number and places of the mints at that time and in the other hand, the mints have been formed in some places because of the specific characteristic of cities and regions. Increasing the number of mints in the north of the country due to the growth of silk trade and in the west and northwest due to the political and commercial relation with Ottoman Empire, also the characteristics such as existence of mines, located in the Silk Road and communication ways, all are the results of this investigation. Accordingly, in this article researcher tries to examine the characteristics that give priority to a city for having mint. With considering that in the various historical periods, the mints were based in the most important cities in terms of political and social, at that time, this article examines the cities specific characteristics in the formation of the mints in Safavid period.

Keywords: City, mint, documentary sources, coins, Safavid

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12 Sustainable Micro Architecture: A Pattern for Urban Release Areas

Authors: Saber Fatourechian

Abstract:

People within modern cities have faced macro urban values spreads rapidly through current style of living. Unexpected phenomena without any specific features of micro scale, humanity and urban social/cultural patterns. The gap between micro and macro scale is unidentified and people could not recognize where they are especially in the interaction between life and city. Urban life details were verified. Micro architecture is a pattern in which human activity derives from human needs in an unconscious position. Sustainable attitude via micro architecture causes flexibility in decision making through micro urbanism essentially impacts macro scale. In this paper the definition of micro architecture and its relation with city and human activity are argued, there after the interaction between micro and macro scale is presented as an effective way for urban sustainable development.

Keywords: Sustainability, City, Human Activity, micro architecture

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11 Physical Planning Antidote to Urban Malice

Authors: Adelayo Akeem Jolaoye

Abstract:

Historically urban centers serve as the fulcrum upon which significant complex social and economic development rest. Despite their fixed geographical locations, though in different degree, cities generate self-sustenance and multiplier effects in all aspects of life. They also house inestimable human capital, which serves as a power house for future generation transformation requirements. Unfortunately, the untamed global urbanization process has resulted in an unimaginable damage to the urban social structure as well as urban environmental value. The preceding has caused cities failure in performing their expected roles worst still becoming a regional burden and national liabilities. This paper briefly discusses the ecological concept of urban settlements and reviews the world historical urban evolution and growth. Also, given the above-mentioned anomalies, the paper also raised conceptual principles of urban planning as well as administrative policies for its strategic management.

Keywords: Urban Planning, City, Urbanization, urban malice

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10 Assessment of the Indices in Converting Affect Rural to Urban Settlements Case Study: Torqabe and Shandiz Rural Districts in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Elham Sanagar Darbani, Behnosh Khir Khah, R.Khatami

Abstract:

Rural and ruralism is one of the residential forms that form in special natural areas, and the Interaction between their internal and external forces cause developments and changes that are different in time and space. Over time, historical developments, social and economic changes in the political system cause developments and rapid growth of the rural to urban settlements. However, criteria for recognizing rural settlements to the city are different in every land. One of the problems in modern plan is inattention to indicators and criteria of changing these settlements to the city. The method of this research is a type of applied and compilation research and library and field methods are used in it. And also qualitative and quantitative indicators have been provided while collecting documents and studies from rural districts like Dehnow, Virani, Abardeh, Zoshk, Nowchah, Jaqarq in tourism area of Mashhad. In this research, the used tool is questionnaire and for analyzing quantitative variables by Morris and Mac Granahan examination, the importance of each factor and the development settlements are evaluated, and the rural that can convert to the city was defined. In result, according to Askalvgram curve obtained from analysis, it was found that among the mentioned villages, Virani and Nowchah rural districts have this ability to convert to the city; Zoshk rural district will be converting to the city in future and Dehnow, Abardeh and Jaqarq rural districts won’t be converting.

Keywords: City, indicators, rural settlements, Torqabe and Shandiz rural districts

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9 An Odyssey to Sustainability: The Urban Archipelago of India

Authors: B. Sudhakara Reddy

Abstract:

This study provides a snapshot of the sustainability of selected Indian cities by employing 70 indicators in four dimensions to develop an overall city sustainability index. In recent years, the concept of ‘urban sustainability’ has become prominent due to its complexity. Urban areas propel growth and at the same time poses a lot of ecological, social and infrastructural problems and risks. In case of developing countries, the high population density of and the continuous in-migration run the highest risk in natural and man-made disasters. These issues combined with the inability of policy makers in providing basic services makes the cities unsustainable. To assess whether any given policy is moving towards or against urban sustainability it is necessary to consider the relationships among its various dimensions. Hence, in recent years, while preparing the sustainability index, an integral approach involving indicators of different dimensions such as ‘economic’, ‘environmental’ and 'social' is being used. It is also important for urban planners, social analysts and other related institutions to identify and understand the relationships in this complex system. The objective of the paper is to develop a city performance index (CPI) to measure and evaluate the urban regions in terms of sustainable performances. The objectives include: i) Objective assessment of a city’s performance, ii) setting achievable goals iii) prioritise relevant indicators for improvement, iv) learning from leaders, iv) assessment of the effectiveness of programmes that results in achieving high indicator values, v) Strengthening of stakeholder participation. Using the benchmark approach, a conceptual framework is developed for evaluating 25 Indian cities. We develop City Sustainability index (CSI) in order to rank cities according to their level of sustainability. The CSI is composed of four dimensions: Economic, Environment, Social, and Institutional. Each dimension is further composed of multiple indicators: (1) Economic that considers growth, access to electricity, and telephone availability; (2) environmental that includes waste water treatment, carbon emissions, (3) social that includes, equity, infant mortality, and 4) institutional that includes, voting share of population, urban regeneration policies. The CSI, consisting of four dimensions disaggregate into 12 categories and ultimately into 70 indicators. The data are obtained from public and non-governmental organizations, and also from city officials and experts. By ranking a sample of diverse cities on a set of specific dimensions the study can serve as a baseline of current conditions and a marker for referencing future results. The benchmarks and indices presented in the study provide a unique resource for the government and the city authorities to learn about the positive and negative attributes of a city and prepare plans for a sustainable urban development. As a result of our conceptual framework, the set of criteria we suggest is somewhat different to any already in the literature. The scope of our analysis is intended to be broad. Although illustrated with specific examples, it should be apparent that the principles identified are relevant to any monitoring that is used to inform decisions involving decision variables. These indicators are policy-relevant and, hence they are useful tool for decision-makers and researchers.

Keywords: Sustainability, Performance, City, Indicator, benchmark

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8 Shopping Centers in the Context of a Growing and Changing City: The Case of Konya Kent Plaza

Authors: H. Derya Arslan

Abstract:

Shopping centers have become an important part of urban life. The numbers of shopping centers have rapidly increased for ten years, in Turkey. Malls that have been built with increasing speed in the last two decades meet most social and cultural needs of people. In this study, architectural characteristics of a recent mall built in the city of Konya in Turkey have been discussed. The assessment of the mall in question has been made in the context of a growing and changing city. The study opened up new horizons and discussion areas to entrepreneurs who make significant investments in shopping centers, architects who design shopping centers as efficient commercial and social environments, and social scientists that investigate the effects of increase in these closed urban spaces on urban life.

Keywords: Architecture, Social, City, shopping center

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7 City Buses and Sustainable Urban Mobility in Kano Metropolis 1967-2015: An Historical Perspective

Authors: Yusuf Umar Madugu

Abstract:

Since its creation in 1967, Kano has tremendously undergone political, social and economic transformations. Public urban transportation has been playing a vital role in sustaining economic growth of Kano metropolis, especially with the existence of modern buses with the regular network of roads, in all the main centers of trade. This study, therefore, centers on the role of intra-city buses in molding the economy of Kano. Its main focus is post-colonial Kano (i.e. 1967-2015), a period that witnessed rapid expansion of commercial activities and ever increasing urbanization which goes along with it population explosion. The commuters patronized the urban transport, a situation that made the business lucrative. More so, the traders who had come from within and outside Kano relied heavily on commercial vehicles to transport their merchandise to their various destinations. Commercial road transport system, therefore, had become well organized in Kano with a significant number of people earning their means of livelihood from it. It also serves as a source of revenue to governments at different levels. However, the study of transport and development as an academic discipline is inter-disciplinary in nature. This study, therefore, employs the services and the methodologies of other disciplines such as Geography, History, Urban and Regional Planning, Engineering, Computer Science, Economics, etc. to provide a comprehensive picture of the issues under investigation. The source materials for this study included extensive use of written literature and oral information. In view of the crucial importance of intra-city commercial transport services, this study demonstrates its role in the overall economic transformation of the study area. It generally also, contributed in opening up a new ground and looked into the history of commercial transport system. At present, Kano Metropolitan area is located between latitude 110 50’ and 12007’, and longitude 80 22’ and 80 47’ within the Semi-Arid Sudan Savannah Zone of West Africa about 840kilometers of the edge of the Sahara desert. The Metropolitan area has expanded over the years and has become the third largest conurbation in Nigeria with a population of about 4million. It is made up of eight local government areas viz: Kano Municipal, Gwale, Dala, Tarauni, Nasarawa, Fage, Ungogo, and Kumbotso.

Keywords: Mobility, Sustainable, Assessment, City, buses

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6 The Role of Facades in Conserving the Image of the City

Authors: Hemadri Raut

Abstract:

The city is a blend of the possible interactions of the built form, open spaces and their spatial organization layout in a geographical area to obtain an integrated pattern and environment with building facades being a dominant figure in the body of a city. Façades of each city have their own inherent properties responsive to the human behaviour, weather conditions, safety factors, material availability and composition along with the necessary aesthetics in coordination with adjacent building facades. Cities experience a huge transformation in the culture, lifestyle; socioeconomic conditions and technology nowadays because of the increasing population, urban sprawl, industrialization, contemporary architectural style, post-disaster consequences, war reconstructions, etc. This leads to the loss of the actual identity and architectural character of the city which in turn induces chaos and turbulence in the city. This paper attempts to identify and learn from the traditional elements that would make us more aware of the unique identity of the local communities in a city. It further studies the architectural style, color, shape, and design techniques through the case studies of contextual cities. The work focuses on the observation and transformation of the image of the city through these considerations in the designing of the facades to achieve the reconciliation of the people with urban spaces.

Keywords: Identity, Urban, Community, Transformation, heritage, City, Building Facades

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5 Understanding the Issue of Reproductive Matters among Urban Women: A Study of Four Cities in India from National Family Health Survey-4

Authors: Priyanka Dixit

Abstract:

Reproductive health problem is an important public health issue in most of the developing countries like India. It is a common problem in India for women in the reproductive age group to suffer from reproductive illnesses and not seek care. Existing literatures tell us very little about the several dimensions of reproductive morbidity. In addition the general perception says, metros have better medical infrastructure, so its residents should lead a healthier life. However some of the studies reveal a very different picture. Therefore, the present study is conducted with the specific objectives to find out the prevalence of reproductive health problem and treatment seeking behavior of currently married women in four metro cities in India namely; Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kolkata. In addition, this paper also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on self-reported reproductive health problems. Bi-variate and multivariate regression have been applied to achieve the proposed objectives. Study is based on National Family Health Survey 2015-16 data. The analysis shows that the prevalence of any reproductive health problem among women is the highest in Mumbai followed by Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkata. A bulk of women in all four metro cities has reported abdominal pain, itching and burning sensation as the major problems while urinating. However, in spite of the high prevalence of reproductive health problems, a huge proportion of such women in all these cities do not seek any advice or treatment for these problems. This study also investigates determinants that affect the prevalence of reproductive health problem to policy makers plan for proper interventions for improving women’s reproductive health.

Keywords: Reproductive Health, City, India, national family health survey-4

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4 Meeting Places in the Urban Strategy to Build a Happy City: A Mixed Research Approach

Authors: J. Szoltysek, S. Twarog

Abstract:

The happy city, as the desired effect of changes implemented by cities, involves the deliberate and purposeful evolution of material and spiritual space in which residents pursue happiness, as it is perceived collectively and individually. The quality of life (QoL) has, for many years, been researched as one of the dimensions of happiness. Both literature studies and the observation of how cities function lead to the conclusion that the happy city is the city of meetings. The importance of meeting spaces in cities for the quality of life has been confirmed also for Polish cities and, as a result, the conclusions may be drawn that public space should be planned in such a manner so as to tailor it – to the greatest possible degree – to the needs of the residents of Polish cities. The study embraced both Polish and foreign data concerning both the dimension of the quality of life in cities and the issues related to the existence of common spaces where meetings take place. Both quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques have been used to analyze and interpret the data collected. We sought the answers to the questions on the significance of the factors, identified by the respondents, which affect the QoL in a city. We identified 9 mega factors: being, work, education, recreation, health and safety, mobility, neighborhood, acceptance, agora. We established the preferences of the QoL in relation to the size of a city and the public spaces, that seem to be the cornerstone of the happy city.

Keywords: Quality of Life, City, Social Cohesion, Public Spaces, meetings

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3 Rethinking Flâneur: Strolling Spectators in Harlem in Toni Morrison's Jazz

Authors: Yoonjeogn Kim

Abstract:

The concept of flâneur means a walking observer with subjectivity in the urban city and at the same time, an idiomatic and unnamed existence in public. In the modern city, an individual, flâneur walking on the street, observes the street and collects the memories of the past, during which process the individual comes to understand what the past means. However, the concept tends to be narrowly applied to the white middle-class males, thereby excluding females and other marginalized groups. This paper expands the concept to examine black immigrants and black women, who traditionally fall outside the scope of the flâneur. Placing the black immigrants on the trajectory of literary figure of flâneur by reading Tony Morrison's Jazz, this essay revisits the relationship between street and characters in Jazz. In particular, this essay focuses on characters strolling on the street as well as their surroundings. Based on the traditional characteristics of the flâneur, this essay explicates how the black characters in Jazz are reinvented as the flâneur and moving observers with their autonomy to stroll around the city, while the city, which used to be an observer watching and predicting what happens to the characters, takes a position as a mere onlooker. This paper concludes with illustrating the black characters stroll on the street in Harlem and thereby recreating ordinary people living in Harlem as flâneur.

Keywords: Jazz, City, street, the arcades project, flâneur, flânerie

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2 Urban Form of the Traditional Arabic City in the Light of Islamic Values

Authors: Akeel Noori Al-Mulla Hwaish

Abstract:

The environmental impact, economics, social and cultural factors, and the processes by which people define history and meaning had influenced the dynamic shape and character of the traditional Islamic Arabic city. Therefore, in regard to the period when Islam was at its peak (7th- 13th Centuries), Islamic city wasn’t the highly dynamited at the scale of buildings and city planning that demonstrates a distinguished city as an ‘Islamic’ as appeared after centuries when the function of the buildings and their particular arrangement and planning scheme in relation to one another that defined an Islamic city character. The architectural features of the urban fabric of the traditional Arabic Islamic city are a ‎reflection of the spiritual, social, and cultural characteristics of the people. It is a ‎combination of Islamic values ‘Din’ and life needs ‘Dunia’ as Prophet Muhammad built the first Mosque in ‎Madinah in the 1st year of his migration to it, then the Suq or market on 2nd of Hijrah, attached to ‎the mosque to signify the birth of a new Muslims community which considers both, ‎‎’Din’ and ‘Dunia’ and initiated nucleus for what which called after that as an ‘Islamic’ city. This research will discuss the main characteristics and components of the traditional Arab cities and demonstrate the impact of the Islamic values on shaping the planning layout and general built environment features of the early traditional Arab cities.

Keywords: Islamic, Urban, City, Arabic

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1 Community Observatory for Territorial Information Control and Management

Authors: A. Olivi, P. Reyes Cabrera

Abstract:

Ageing and urbanization are two of the main trends that characterize the twenty-first century. Its trending is especially accelerated in the emerging countries of Asia and Latin America. Chile is one of the countries in the Latin American region, where the demographic transition to ageing is becoming increasingly visible. The challenges that the new demographic scenario poses to urban administrators call for searching innovative solutions to maximize the functional and psycho-social benefits derived from the relationship between older people and the environment in which they live. Although mobility is central to people's everyday practices and social relationships, it is not distributed equitably. On the contrary, it can be considered another factor of inequality in our cities. Older people are a particularly sensitive and vulnerable group to mobility. In this context, based on the ageing in place strategy and following the social innovation approach within a spatial context, the "Community Observatory of Territorial Information Control and Management" project aims at the collective search and validation of solutions for the satisfaction of mobility and accessibility specific needs of urban aged people. Specifically, the Observatory intends to: i) promote the direct participation of the aged population in order to generate relevant information on the territorial situation and the satisfaction of the mobility needs of this group; ii) co-create dynamic and efficient mechanisms for the reporting and updating of territorial information; iii) increase the capacity of the local administration to plan and manage solutions to environmental problems at the neighborhood scale. Based on a participatory mapping methodology and on the application of digital technology, the Observatory designed and developed, together with aged people, a crowdsourcing platform for smartphones, called DIMEapp, for reporting environmental problems affecting mobility and accessibility. DIMEapp has been tested at a prototype level in two neighborhoods of the city of Valparaiso. The results achieved in the testing phase have shown high potential in order to i) contribute to establishing coordination mechanisms with the local government and the local community; ii) improve a local governance system that guides and regulates the allocation of goods and services destined to solve those problems.

Keywords: Ageing, Accessibility, Digital Technology, City, local governance

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