Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

citric acid Related Abstracts

6 Calibration Model of %Titratable Acidity (Citric Acid) for Intact Tomato by Transmittance SW-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, S. Kumchoo


The acidity (citric acid) is one of the chemical contents that can refer to the internal quality and the maturity index of tomato. The titratable acidity (%TA) can be predicted by a non-destructive method prediction by using the transmittance short wavelength (SW-NIR). Spectroscopy in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. The set of 167 tomato samples divided into groups of 117 tomatoes sample for training set and 50 tomatoes sample for test set were used to establish the calibration model to predict and measure %TA by partial least squares regression (PLSR) technique. The spectra were pretreated with MSC pretreatment and it gave the optimal result for calibration model as (R = 0.92, RMSEC = 0.03%) and this model obtained high accuracy result to use for %TA prediction in test set as (R = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.05%). From the result of prediction in test set shown that the transmittance SW-NIR spectroscopy technique can be used for a non-destructive method for %TA prediction of tomatoes.

Keywords: Quality, prediction, tomato, titratable acidity, transmittance, citric acid

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5 Effect of Citric Acid and Clove on Cured Smoked Meat: A Traditional Meat Product

Authors: Esther Eduzor, Charles A. Negbenebor, Helen O. Agu


Smoking of meat enhances the taste and look of meat, it also increases its longevity, and helps preserve the meat by slowing down the spoilage of fat and growth of bacteria. The Lean meat from the forequarter of beef carcass was obtained from the Maiduguri abattoir. The meat was cut into four portions with weight ranging from 525-545 g. The meat was cut into bits measuring about 8 cm in length, 3.5 cm in thickness and weighed 64.5 g. Meat samples were washed, cured with various concentration of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, citric acid and clove for 30 min, drained and smoked in a smoking kiln at a temperature range of 55-600°C, for 8 hr a day for 3 days. The products were stored at ambient temperature and evaluated microbiologically and organoleptically. In terms of processing and storage there were increases in pH, free fatty acid content, a decrease in water holding capacity and microbial count of the cured smoked meat. The panelists rated control samples significantly (p < 0.05) higher in terms of colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability. The following organisms were isolated and identified during storage: Bacillus specie, Bacillus subtilis, streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus niger, Candida and Penicillium specie. The study forms a basis for new product development for meat industry.

Keywords: Bioengineering, citric acid, cloves, smoked meat

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4 Preparation of Nano-Sized Samarium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet

Authors: M. Tabatabaee, N. Binavayan, M. R. Nateghi


In this research nano-size of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) containing lanthanide metals was synthesized by the sol-gel method in presente citric acid as a complexing agent. Samarium (III) was used to synthesis of YAG:M3+. The prepared powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). The size distribution and morphology of the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that Sm, La, and ce doped YAG crystallizes in the cubic system and additional peaks compared to pure YAG can be assigned to the presence of Sm in the synthesize YAG. The SEM images show possess spherical nano-sized particle with average 50 nm in diameter.

Keywords: citric acid, samarium, nano particle, yttrium aluminum garnet

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3 Reactivity Study on South African Calcium Based Material Using a pH-Stat and Citric Acid: A Statistical Approach

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto, Mbali Chiliza


The study on reactivity of calcined calcium-based material is very important in dry flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) process, so as to produce absorbent with high sulphur dioxide capture capacity during the hydration process. The effect of calcining temperature and time on the reactivity of calcined limestone material were investigated. In this study, the reactivity was measured using a pH stat apparatus and also confirming the result by performing citric acid reactivity test. The reactivity was calculated using the shrinking core model. Based on the experiments, a mathematical model is developed to correlate the effect of time and temperature to the reactivity of absorbent. The calcination process variables were temperature (700 -1000°C) and time (1-6 hrs). It was found that reactivity increases with an increase in time and temperature.

Keywords: Reactivity, Time, citric acid, calcination

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2 Effect of Solvents in the Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanin from the Petals of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: S. Shalini, N. Prabavathy, R. Balasundaraprabhu, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, S. Prasanna, N. Muthukumarasamy


Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has become a significant research area due to their fundamental and scientific importance in the area of energy conversion. Synthetic dyes as sensitizer in DSSC are efficient and durable but they are costlier, toxic and have the tendency to degrade. Natural sensitizers contain plant pigments such as anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid, and chlorophyll which promote light absorption as well as injection of charges to the conduction band of TiO2 through the sensitizer. But, the efficiency of natural dyes is not up to the mark mainly due to instability of the pigment such as anthocyanin. The stability issues in vitro are mainly due to the effect of solvents on extraction of anthocyanins and their respective pH. Taking this factor into consideration, in the present work, the anthocyanins were extracted from the flower Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrimma) with various solvents and their respective stability and pH values are discussed. The usage of citric acid as solvent to extract anthocyanin has shown good stability than other solvents. It also helps in enhancing the sensitization properties of anthocyanins with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods. The IPCE spectra show higher photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized TiO2nanorods using citric acid as solvent. The natural DSSC using citric acid as solvent shows a higher efficiency compared to other solvents. Hence citric acid performs to be a safe solvent for natural DSSC in boosting the photovoltaic performance and maintaining the stability of anthocyanins.

Keywords: citric acid, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, dye sensitized solar cells, TiO₂ nanorods

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1 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Chitosan Based Composite Hydrogels for Biomedical and Non-Biomedical Applications

Authors: K. Uyanga, W. Daoud


Hydrogels have attracted much academic and industrial attention due to their unique properties and potential biomedical and non-biomedical applications. Limitations on extending their applications have resulted from the synthesis of hydrogels using toxic materials and complex irreproducible processing techniques. In order to promote environmental sustainability, hydrogel efficiency, and wider application, this study focused on the synthesis of composite hydrogels matrices from an edible non-toxic crosslinker-citric acid (CA) using a simple low energy processing method based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CSN) natural polymers. Composite hydrogels were developed by chemical crosslinking. The results demonstrated that CMC:2CSN:CA exhibited good performance properties and super-absorbency 21× its original weight. This makes it promising for biomedical applications such as chronic wound healing and regeneration, next generation skin substitute, in situ bone regeneration and cell delivery. On the other hand, CMC:CSN:CA exhibited durable well-structured internal network with minimum swelling degrees, water absorbency, excellent gel fraction, and infra-red reflectance. These properties make it a suitable composite hydrogel matrix for warming effect and controlled and efficient release of loaded materials. CMC:2CSN:CA and CMC:CSN:CA composite hydrogels developed also exhibited excellent chemical, morphological, and thermal properties.

Keywords: citric acid, tartaric acid, fumaric acid, zinc nitrate hexahydrate

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