Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

citizen participation Related Abstracts

12 Strategic Citizen Participation in Applied Planning Investigations: How Planners Use Etic and Emic Community Input Perspectives to Fill-in the Gaps in Their Analysis

Authors: John Gaber


Planners regularly use citizen input as empirical data to help them better understand community issues they know very little about. This type of community data is based on the lived experiences of local residents and is known as "emic" data. What is becoming more common practice for planners is their use of data from local experts and stakeholders (known as "etic" data or the outsider perspective) to help them fill in the gaps in their analysis of applied planning research projects. Utilizing international Health Impact Assessment (HIA) data, I look at who planners invite to their citizen input investigations. Research presented in this paper shows that planners access a wide range of emic and etic community perspectives in their search for the “community’s view.” The paper concludes with how planners can chart out a new empirical path in their execution of emic/etic citizen participation strategies in their applied planning research projects.

Keywords: citizen participation, emic data, etic data, Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

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11 From Manipulation to Citizen Control: A Case Study Revealing the Level of Participation in the Citizen Participatory Audit

Authors: Mark Jason E. Arca, Jay Vee R. Linatoc, Rex Francis N. Lupango, Michael Joe A. Ramirez


Participation promises an avenue for citizens to take part in governance, but it does not necessarily mean effective participation. The proper integration of participants in the decision-making process should be properly addressed to ensure effectiveness. This study explores the integration of the participants in the decision-making process to reveal the level of participation in the Solid Waste Management audit done by the Citizen Participatory Audit (CPA), a program under the supervision of the Commission on Audit. Specifically, this study will use the experience of participation to identify emerging themes that will help reveal the level of participation through the integrated ladder of participation. The researchers used key informant interviews to gather necessary data from the actors of the program. The findings revealed that the level of participation present in the CPA is at the Placation level, a level below the program’s targeted level of participation. The study also allowed the researchers to reveal facilitating factors in the program that contributed to a better understanding of the practice of participation.

Keywords: citizen participation, culture of participation, ladder of participation, level of participation

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10 Implementation of Geo-Crowdsourcing Mobile Applications in e-Government of V4 Countries: A State-of-the-Art Survey

Authors: Barbora Haltofová


In recent years, citizens have become an important source of geographic information and, therefore, geo-crowdsourcing, often known as volunteered geographic information, has provided an interesting alternative to traditional mapping practices which are becoming expensive, resource-intensive and unable to capture the dynamic nature of urban environments. In order to address a gap in research literature, this paper deals with a survey conducted to assess the current state of geo-crowdsourcing, a recent phenomenon popular with people who collect geographic information using their smartphones. This article points out that there is an increasing body of knowledge of geo-crowdsourcing mobile applications in the Visegrad countries marked by the ubiquitous Internet connection and the current massive proliferation of smartphones. This article shows how geo-crowdsourcing can be used as a complement, or in some cases a replacement, to traditionally generated sources of spatial data and information in public management. It discusses the new spaces of citizen participation constructed by these geo-crowdsourcing practices.

Keywords: e-Government, Mobile Applications, citizen participation, Participatory Mapping, geo-crowdsourcing

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9 Effective Citizen Participation in Local Government Decision-Making and Democracy

Authors: Ali Zaimi


Citizen participation in local government is an opportunity given to citizens and government to increase communication between them, create public support for local government plans and most important grow public trust in government. Also, the citizens’ involvement in the political process is an important part of democracy. This study aims to define the strategies for increasing citizen participation in local governance and concentrated in two important mechanisms such as participatory budget and public policy councils. Three strategies that promote more effective citizen involvement in local governance are understanding and using formal institutions of power, collaboration of citizens’ groups and governments officials to jointly formulate programs plans, electing and appointing local officials. A unique aspect of citizen participation to operate effectively is the transparency of government and the inclusion of actors into decision-making. The citizen engagement in local governance enhances accountability and problem solving, promote more inclusive and cohesive communities and enlarge the quality and quantity of initiatives made by communities.

Keywords: Democracy, Government, Accountability, citizen participation

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8 Gender and Citizen Participation at the Local Governments: A Case of Vietnam

Authors: Trinh Hoang Hong Hue


Citizen Participation has been largely considered as an important objective of improving democracy and government decision-making in Vietnam recently. The Public Administration Performance Index Survey data (PAPI) indicated that citizens in provinces that have a higher proportion of male often less participate in local governance than those in provinces that have lower proportion of male. That means Vietnamese women more actively participate at the local governance rather than men. Thus this study will explore factors involving gender differences that impact on citizen participation at the local level. Applying qualitative approach, mainly in-depth interview, this study explores four diverse perspectives on enhancing citizen participation for both women and men at the local governance including civic knowledge; the trust of citizens; suitable policies of local government; and the role of NGOs. Furthermore, this study also points out two crucial reasons that are leading to the gender differences of citizen participation at the local level. Firstly, because Vietnamese women play the main role in family financial management; then they are willing to highly contribute to ‘voluntary contributions’; one of the four sub-dimensions of the concept ‘citizen participation’ of PAPI. Secondly, in Vietnam, women are deeply prone to be interested in the small issues at the local governance; whereas men are much keen on the bigger issues at national and international governance.

Keywords: Gender, Women, citizen participation, Vietnam, local governance, PAPI

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7 Collaborative Governance to Foster Public Good: The Case of the Etorkizuna Eraikiz Initiative

Authors: Igone Guerra, Xabier Barandiaran


The deep crisis (economic, social and cultural) in which Europe and Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Country (Spain), have been immersed in since 2008 forces governments to face a necessary transformation. These challenges demand different solutions and answers to meet the needs of the citizens. Adapting to continuous and sometimes abrupt changes in the social and political landscape requires an undeniable will to reinvent the way in which governments practice politics. This reinvention of government should help us build different organizations that, first, develop challenging public services, second, respond effectively to the needs of the citizens, and third, manage scarce resources, ultimately offering a contemporary concept of public value. In this context, the Etorkizuna Eraikiz initiative was designed to face the future challenges of the territory in a collaborative way. The aim of the initiative is to promote an alternative form of governance to generate common good and greater public value. In Etorkizuna Eraikiz democratic values, such as collaboration, participation, and accountability are prominent. This government approach is based on several features such as the creation of relational spaces to design and deliberate about the public politics or the promotion of a team-working approach, breaking down the silos between and within organizations, as an exercise in defining a shared vision regarding the Future of the Territory. A future in which the citizens are becoming actors in the problem-solving process and in the construction of a culture of participation and collective learning. In this paper, the Etorkizuna Eraikiz initiative will be presented (vision and methodology) as a model of a local approach to public policy innovation resulting in a way of governance that is more open and collaborative. Based on this case study, this paper explores the way in which collaborative governance leads to better decisions, better leadership, and better citizenry. Finally, the paper also describes some preliminary findings of this local approach, such as the level of knowledge of the citizenry about the projects promoted within Etorkizuna Eraikiz as well as the link between the challenges of the territory, as identified by the citizenry, and the political agenda promoted by the provincial government. Regarding the former, the Survey on the socio-political situation of Gipuzkoa showed that 27.9% of the respondents confirmed that they knew about the projects promoted within the initiative and gave it a mark of 5.71. In connection with the latter, over the last three years, 65 millions of euros have been allocated for a total of 73 projects that have covered socio-economic and political challenges such as aging, climate change, mobility, participation in democratic life, and so on. This governance approach of Etorkizuna Eraikiz has allowed the local government to match the needs of citizens to the political agenda fostering in this way a shared vision about the public value.

Keywords: citizen participation, public good, collaborative governance, social listening, public innovation

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6 Recovering Trust in Institutions through Networked Governance: An Analytical Approach via the Study of the Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa

Authors: Xabier Barandiaran, Igone Guerra


The economic and financial crisis that hit European countries in 2008 revealed the inability of governments to respond unilaterally to the so-called “wicked” problems that affect our societies. Closely linked to this, the increasing disaffection of citizens towards politics has resulted in growing distrust of the citizenry not only in the institutions in general but also in the political system, in particular. Precisely, these two factors provoked the action of the local government of Gipuzkoa (Basque Country) to move from old ways of “doing politics” to a new way of “thinking politics” based on a collaborative approach, in which innovative modes of public decision making are prominent. In this context, in 2015, the initiative Etorkizuna Eraikiz (Building the Future), a contemporary form of networked governance, was launched by the Provincial Government. The paper focuses on the Etorkizuna Eraikiz initiative, a sound commitment from a local government to build jointly with the citizens the future of the territory. This paper will present preliminary results obtained from three different experiences of co-creation developed within Etorkizuna Eraikiz in which the formulation of networked governance is a mandatory pre-requisite. These experiences show how the network building approach among the different agents of the territory as well as the co-creation of public policies is the cornerstone of this challenging mission. Through the analysis of the information and documentation gathered during the four years of Etorkizuna-Eraikiz, and, specifically by delving into the strategy promoted by the initiative, some emerging analytical conclusions resulting from the promotion of this collaborative culture will be presented. For example, some preliminary results have shown a significant positive relationship between shared leadership and the formulation of the public good. In the period 2016-2018, a total of 73 projects were launched and funding by the Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa within the Etorkizuna Eraikiz initiative, that indicates greater engagement of the citizenry in the process of policy-making and therefore improving, somehow, the quality of the public policies. These statements have been supported by the last survey about the perspectives of the citizens toward politics and policies. Some of the more prominent results show us that there is still a high level of distrust in Politics (78,9% of respondents) but a greater trust in institutions such the Political Government of Gipuzkoa (40,8% of respondents declared as “good” the performance of this provincial institution). Regarding the Etorkizuna Eraikiz Initiative, it is being more readily recognized by citizens over this period of time (25,4% of the respondents in June 2018 agreed to know about the initiative giving it a mark of 5,89 ) and thus build trust and a sense of ownership. Although, there is a clear requirement for further research on the linkages between collaborative governance and level of trust, the paper, based on these findings, will provide some managerial and theoretical implications for collaborative governance in the territory.

Keywords: Trust, citizen participation, collaborative governance, public sector innovation, network governance

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5 The Practices of Citizen Participation and Political Accountability in Malaysia Local Government

Authors: Halimah Abdul Manaf, Ahmad Martadha Mohamed, Zainal M. Zan, Nur Rusydina Khadzali


Strengthening accountability among civil servants has been at the centre of government transformation ever since the country is striving to become a developed nation by the year 2020. One critical area that has become the loci of attention is increasing the accountability of local government by delivering services that are preferred by the communities. This article explores the practices of citizen participation and political accountability in local government in Malaysia. The existing literature has identified a mismatch between the demands of the community and the actual services delivered by the local government. Based upon this framework, this research attempts to examine the linkages between citizen participation and political accountability in selected local governments in Malaysia. This study employs quantitative method involving 1155 respondents who were randomly selected from local government personnel as well as local citizens. The instruments in the questionnaires were adopted from Wang and Wart (2007) who have also studied local government accountability. The findings reveal that respondents are satisfied with the services provided to the community. However, three areas of concerned are the inadequacy of citizens’ participation in programs, immediate actions on complaints as well as the slow response to repair dilapidated basic infrastructures such as roads, park, and recreations. It is recommended that local governments in Malaysia continue to engage the citizens in the decision making process so that the needs and demands of the citizens can be adequately fulfilled.

Keywords: Local Government, citizen participation, Malaysia, political accountability

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4 Citizen Participation in Smart Cities: Singapore and Tokyo

Authors: Thomas Benson


Smart cities have been heralded as multi-faceted entities which utilise information and communication technologies to enhance citizen participation. The purpose of this paper is to outline authoritative definitions of smart cities and citizen participation and investigate smart city citizen-centrism rhetoric by examining urban governance and citizen participation processes. Drawing on extant literature and official city government documents and websites, Singapore (Singapore) and Tokyo (Japan) are chosen as comparable smart city case studies. For the smart city to be truly realised, this paper concludes that smart cities must do more to incorporate genuine citizen participation mechanisms.

Keywords: Smart Cities, citizen participation, Urban Governance, Tokyo, Singapore

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3 Historic Urban Landscape Approach, a Methodology to Elaborate Sustainable Development Plans through Culture and Heritage: The Case Study of Valverde de Burguillos (Spain)

Authors: Julia Rey Perez, Victoria Dominguez Ruiz


The phenomenon of depopulation puts the authorities at risk of abandoning a number of rural-urban areas of significant cultural value, affecting their architecture and intangible cultural heritage. The purpose of this research is to present a methodology created according to the UNESCO Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL), which through the identification of cultural values and attributes, leads to ´Strategic Plans´ build upon the culture and heritage. This methodology is based on the analysis of the town from three perspectives: 1) from the public administration, 2) from the discipline of architecture, and 3) from citizen perception. In order to be able to work on the development of a diagnosis from three very different approaches, collaborative cartographies have been used as working tools. The methodology discussed was applied in Valverde de Burguillos, in Spain, leading to the construction of an inclusive ‘Strategic Plan’ that integrates the management of the town within the overall territorial development plan. The importance of incorporating culture and heritage as a conductor for sustainable urban development through the HUL approach has allowed the local authorities to assume these new tools for heritage conservation, acknowledging community participation as the main element for the ´Strategic Plan” elaboration.

Keywords: citizen participation, Urban Governance, UNESCO, Inclusiveness, rural heritage

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2 Spotting of Trends and Communication Dynamics in Citizen Participation Processes: A Literature Review and Case Study in Vienna

Authors: Marlene Wuerfl, Miriam Gutleder, Stefan Gaebler, Michaela Kaineder, Beate Bartlmae


This paper aims to investigate trends that have emerged in the field of innovative citizen participation, which have been enabled by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and furthermore have the potential to influence the communication dynamics between stakeholders within a citizen participation process. In order to put more emphasis on the general dynamics of communication and decision-making within a participatory process, we suggest extending the ladder of citizen participation according to Arnstein (1969) with a relevant model that helps to display the communication dynamics of stakeholders within a participatory process. Moreover, this paper sets out to provide an overview for smart city initiators regarding prevailing technologies used in citizen participation processes concerning sustainable urban planning. For this purpose, the focus of this paper lies on three dimensions: (1) Proposition of an extension of the ladder of participation by the aspect of communication dynamics, (2) identification of key trends that foster innovation in citizen participation processes, and (3) building a bridge between the communication dynamics and stakeholders in participatory processes, in line with the identified trends. The three dimensions have been analyzed by conducting a literature review of recent academic and grey literature, followed by a case study approach by analyzing an exemplary urban planning project in the city of Vienna, which was carried out in 2020. This paper suggests that there is no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to designing and conducting citizen participation processes. Finally, this paper concludes that digital tools positively contribute to the involvement of diverse stakeholders in participation processes. Nevertheless, digital tools should be regarded as an extension of offline participation methods rather than a substitute

Keywords: Urban Planning, Smart City, Social Sustainability, urban computing, citizen participation, Stakeholder Analysis, civic technology platforms

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1 Measuring Quality of Participation Processes: A Literature Review and Case Study to Determine Criteria for the Influence of Digital Tools

Authors: Michaela Kaineder, Beate Bartlmae, Stefan Gaebler, Miriam Gutleder, Marlene Wuerfl


Digital tools and e-participation processes have seen a steady increase in popularity in recent years. While online trends come with the premise of new opportunities and easier participatory possibilities, there are still manifold challenges that smart city initiators and developers need to face. In this paper, innovative quality criteria of citizen participation processes was suggested by defining meaningful and measurable evaluation categories. Considering various developments, including the global megatrend of connectivity, a need for a fundamental examination of the basic structure of citizen participation processes was identified. To this end, the application of methods and tools through different points in the policy cycle is required. In order to provide an overview of the current challenges and problems in the field of participation, this paper analyzes those issues by carrying out a literature review that also focuses on disparities in the civic sector that might hinder residents in their desire for engagement. Additionally, a case study was chosen to demonstrate the potential that e-participation tools offer to planning experts and public authorities when integrating citizen’s creativity and experience at a large scale. This online co-creation process finally leads to offline events – such as local co-design workshops - with professional planners. The findings of this paper subsequently suggest a combination of e-participation and analogue forms to merge the benefits of both worlds, resulting in a broader audience and higher quality for participation processes.

Keywords: Disparities, E-Participation, citizen participation, Sustainable Urban Development, Sustainable Development Goals, integrated urban development

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