Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Chronic kidney disease Related Abstracts

10 The Importance of the Fluctuation in Blood Sugar and Blood Pressure of Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Hitoshi Minakuchi, Izumi Takei, Shu Wakino, Koichi Hayashi, Hiroshi Itoh

Abstract:

Objectives: Among type 2 diabetics, patients with CKD(chronic kidney disease), insulin resistance, impaired glyconeogenesis in kidney and reduced degradation of insulin are recognized, and we observed different fluctuational patterns of blood sugar between CKD patients and non-CKD patients. On the other hand, non-dipper type blood pressure change is the risk of organ damage and mortality. We performed cross-sectional study to elucidate the characteristic of the fluctuation of blood glucose and blood pressure at insulin-treated diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: From March 2011 to April 2013, at the Ichikawa General Hospital of Tokyo Dental College, we recruited 20 outpatients. All participants are insulin-treated type 2 diabetes with CKD. We collected serum samples, urine samples for several hormone measurements, and performed CGMS(Continuous glucose measurement system), ABPM (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring), brain computed tomography, carotid artery thickness, ankle brachial index, PWV, CVR-R, and analyzed these data statistically. Results: Among all 20 participants, hypoglycemia was decided blood glucose 70mg/dl by CGMS of 9 participants (45.0%). The event of hypoglycemia was recognized lower eGFR (29.8±6.2ml/min:41.3±8.5ml/min, P<0.05), lower HbA1c (6.44±0.57%:7.53±0.49%), higher PWV (1858±97.3cm/s:1665±109.2cm/s), higher serum glucagon (194.2±34.8pg/ml:117.0±37.1pg/ml), higher free cortisol of urine (53.8±12.8μg/day:34.8±7.1μg/day), and higher metanephrin of urine (0.162±0.031mg/day:0.076±0.029mg/day). Non-dipper type blood pressure change in ABPM was detected 8 among 9 participants with hypoglycemia (88.9%), 4 among 11 participants (36.4%) without hypoglycemia. Multiplex logistic-regression analysis revealed that the event of hypoglycemia is the independent factor of non-dipper type blood pressure change. Conclusions: Among insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with CKD, the events of hypoglycemia were frequently detected, and can associate with the organ derangements through the medium of non-dipper type blood pressure change.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, hypoglycemia, non-dipper type blood pressure change, diabetic patients

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9 Is Obesity Associated with CKD-(unknown) in Sri Lanka? A Protocol for a Cross Sectional Survey

Authors: Thaminda Liyanage, Anuga Liyanage, Chamila Kurukulasuriya and Sidath Bandara

Abstract:

Background: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world, particularly in Asia. Over the last two decades Sri Lanka has experienced an epidemic of CKD with ever growing number of patients pursuing medical care due to CKD and its complications, specially in the “Mahaweli” river basin in north central region of the island nation. This was apparently a new form of CKD which was not attributable to conventional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension or infection and widely termed as “CKD-unknown” or “CKDu”. In the past decade a number of small scale studies were conducted to determine the aetiology, prevalence and complications of CKDu in North Central region. These hospital-based studies did not provide an accurate estimate of the problem as merely 10% or less of the people with CKD are aware of their diagnosis even in developed countries with better access to medical care. Interestingly, similar observations were made on the changing epidemiology of obesity in the region but no formal study was conducted to date to determine the magnitude of obesity burden. Moreover, if increasing obesity in the region is associated with CKD epidemic is yet to be explored. Methods: We will conduct an area wide cross sectional survey among all adult residents of the “Mahaweli” development project area 5, in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. We will collect relevant medical history, anthropometric measurements, blood and urine for hematological and biochemical analysis. We expect a participation rate of 75%-85% of all eligible participants. Participation in the study is voluntary, there will be no incentives provided for participation. Every analysis will be conducted in a central laboratory and data will be stored securely. We will calculate the prevalence of obesity and chronic kidney disease, overall and by stage using total number of participants as the denominator and report per 1000 population. The association of obesity and CKD will be assessed with regression models and will be adjusted for potential confounding factors and stratified by potential effect modifiers where appropriate. Results: This study will provide accurate information on the prevalence of obesity and CKD in the region. Furthermore, this will explore the association between obesity and CKD, although causation may not be confirmed. Conclusion: Obesity and CKD are increasingly recognized as major public health problems in Sri Lanka. Clearly, documenting the magnitude of the problem is the essential first step. Our study will provide this vital information enabling the government to plan a coordinated response to tackle both obesity and CKD in the region.

Keywords: Obesity, Chronic kidney disease, BMI, Sri Lanka

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8 Osteoprotegerin and Osteoprotegerin/TRAIL Ratio are Associated with Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Mortality among Patients with Renal Failure

Authors: Marek Kuźniewski, Magdalena B. Kaziuk, Danuta Fedak, Paulina Dumnicka, Ewa Stępień, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Władysław Sułowicz

Abstract:

Background: The high prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed especially in those undergoing dialysis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been associated with cardiovascular complications. Our aim was to study their role as cardiovascular risk factors in stage 5 CKD patients. Methods: OPG, RANKL and TRAIL concentrations were measured in 69 hemodialyzed CKD patients and 35 healthy volunteers. In CKD patients, cardiovascular dysfunction was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (AoPWV), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcium score (CaSc) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum concentration. Cardiovascular and overall mortality data were collected during a 7-years follow-up. Results: OPG plasma concentrations were higher in CKD patients comparing to controls. Total soluble RANKL was lower and OPG/RANKL ratio higher in patients. Soluble TRAIL concentrations did not differ between the groups and OPG/TRAIL ratio was higher in CKD patients. OPG and OPG/TRAIL positively predicted long-term mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular) in CKD patients. OPG positively correlated with AoPWV, CCA-IMT and NT-proBNP whereas OPG/TRAIL with AoPWV and NT-proBNP. Described relationships were independent of classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors, with exception of age. Conclusions: Our study confirmed the role of OPG as a biomarker of cardiovascular dysfunction and a predictor of mortality in stage 5 CKD. OPG/TRAIL ratio can be proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, Chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand

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7 Evaluation of the Pain of Patients with Chronic Renal Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Fabiana Souza Orlandi, Izabel Cristina Chavez Gomes, Barbara Isabela De Paula Morais, Ana Carolina Ottaviani

Abstract:

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is considered a public health problem. Patients who present CKD in their more advanced stages usually present several biopsychosocial changes, which may include pain. Pain can be considered subjective and personal, and its perception is characterized as a multidimensional experience. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level and descriptors of pain of adults and elderly patients with chronic kidney disease, through the Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 100 subjects with CKD in hemodialysis treatment at a Renal Replacement Therapy Service in the interior of the state of São Paulo. Data were collected through an individual interview, using a Sociodemographic Characterization and Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale (EMADOR). All ethical precepts were respected. The majority of the respondents were men (61.0%), white (56.0%) and with a high school education (34.0%). Regarding the pain of the individuals, 89 patients reported pain, with Chronic Pain predominating (50.0%, n = 50), followed by Acute Pain (39.0%, n = 39). Of the subjects who presented acute pain most of the 89.0% described the pain felt as unbearable, and of those who presented chronic pain, 35.0% described the pain felt as painful, unbearable and uncomfortable. It was concluded that there was a significant presence of pain, being the chronic pain dominant in the studied population. Faced with such factors, the present study motivates researches in this population, in order to establish interventions with the objective of improving the quality of life of these individuals.

Keywords: Evaluation, Pain, Dialysis, Chronic kidney disease

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6 Lessons Learned in Implementing Programs to Delay Diabetic Nephropathy Management in Primary Health Care: Case Study in Sakon Nakhon Province

Authors: Sumattana Glangkarn, Sasiwan Tassana-iem

Abstract:

Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication in diabetic patients whom as the glomerular filtration rate falls. The affects their quality of life and results in loss of money for kidney replacement therapy costs. There is an existing intervention, but the prevalence remains high, thus this research aims to study lessons learned in implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care. Method: The target settings are, 24 sub-district health promoting hospital in Sakon Nakhon province. Participants included the health care professionals, head of the sub-district health promoting hospital and the person responsible for managing diabetic nephropathy in each hospital (n= 50). There are 400 patients with diabetes mellitus in an area. Data were collected using questionnaires, patient records data, interviews and focus groups and analyzed by statistics and content analysis. Result: Reflection of participants that the interventions to delay diabetic nephropathy management in each area, the Ministry of Public Health has a policy to screen and manage this disease. The implementing programs aimed to provide health education, innovative teaching media used in communication to educate. Patients and caregivers had misunderstanding about the actual causes and prevention of this disease and how to apply knowledge suitable for daily life. Conclusion: The obstacles to the success of the implementing programs to delay diabetic nephropathy management in primary health care were most importantly, the patient needs self-care and should be evaluated for health literacy. This is crucial to promote health literacy; to access and understand health information as well to decide their health-related choices based on health information which will promote and maintain a good health. This preliminary research confirms that situation of diabetic nephropathy still exists. The results of this study will lead to the development of delay in diabetic nephropathy implementation among patients in the province studied.

Keywords: Implementation, Chronic kidney disease, Diabetic Nephropathy, primary health care

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5 Unpleasant Symptom Clusters Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Anucha Taiwong, Nirobol Kanogsunthornrat

Abstract:

This predictive research aimed to investigate the symptom clusters that influence the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease, as indicated in the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. The purposive sample consisted of 150 patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease who received care at an outpatient chronic kidney disease clinic of a tertiary hospital in Roi-Et province. Data were collected from January to March 2016 by using a patient general information form, unpleasant symptom form, and quality of life (SF-36) and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed six core symptom clusters including symptom cluster of the mental and emotional conditions, peripheral nerves abnormality, fatigue, gastro-intestinal tract, pain and, waste congestion. Significant predictors for quality of life were the two symptom clusters of pain (Beta = -.220; p < .05) and the mental and emotional conditions (Beta=-.204; p<.05) which had predictive value of 19.10% (R2=.191, p<.05). This study indicated that the symptom cluster of pain and the mental and emotional conditions would worsen the patients’ quality of life. Nurses should be attentive in managing the two symptom clusters to facilitate the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, symptom clusters, predictors of quality of life, pre-dialysis

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4 Examining the Relationship between Family Functioning and Perceived Self-Efficacy

Authors: Fenni Sim

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between family functioning and level of self-efficacy: how family functioning can potentially affect self-efficacy which will eventually lead to better clinical outcomes. The hypothesis was ‘Patients on haemodialysis with perceived higher family functioning are more likely to have higher perceived level of self-efficacy’. Methods: The study was conducted with a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative data collection of survey and semi-structured interview respectively. The General Self-Efficacy scale and SCORE-15 were self-administered by participants. The data will be analysed with correlation analysis method using Microsoft Excel. 79 patients were recruited for the study through random sampling. 6 participants whose results did not reflect the hypothesis were then recruited for the qualitative study. Interpretive phemenological analysis was then used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings: The hypothesis was accepted that higher family functioning leads to higher perceived self-efficacy. The correlation coefficient of -0.21 suggested a mild correlation between the two variables. However, only 4.6% of the variation in perceived self-efficacy is accounted by the variation in family functioning. The qualitative study extrapolated three themes that might explain the variations in the outliers: (1) level of physical functioning affects perceived self-efficacy, (2) instrumental support from family influenced perceived level of family functioning, and self-efficacy, (3) acceptance of illness reflects higher level of self-efficacy. Conclusion: While family functioning does have an impact on perceived self-efficacy, there are many intrapersonal and physical factors that may affect self-efficacy. The concepts of family functioning and self-efficacy are more appropriately seen as complementing each other to help a patient in managing his illness. Healthcare social workers can look at how family functioning is supporting the individual needs of patients with different trajectory of ESRD and the support we can provide to improve one’s self-efficacy.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, Self Efficacy, coping of illness, family functioning

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3 Investigation of the Level of Physical and Mental Health of Patients Undergoing in Chronic or Transient Hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit

Authors: Styliani Kotrotsiou, Evagelia Kotrotsiou, Fani Mokia, Theodosis Paralikas, Konstantinos Tsaras

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this study was the investigation of the mental health of patients undergoing chronic or transient hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit, as well as its relationship to the demographic characteristic of patients. Material and Method: The study took place in Larisa during the month of December in 2016 and the sample was composed of 60 patients undergoing in chronic or transient hemodialysis at Artificial Kidney Unit of the University General Hospital of Larisa. For the investigation of the physical and mental health of patients who participated in the study, the tool measurement << General Health Questionnaire- 28 >> (GHQ-28) was used. The questionnaires were administered with the interview method during the hemodialysis. This survey is designed for the existence or not of a mental disorder. It examines four factors (physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression). Results: The hemodialysis patients gave the following scores: -to the physical symptoms, women showed a higher average value than men (1,16 ± 1,26 against 0,49 ± 0,93), -at the anxiety scale, it seems that women are superior to men (1,68 ± 1,20 against 0,90 ± 1,22), -at the social dysfunction scale, the elderly patients ( > 65 years old) were presented a with higher average (2,59), and -at the depression scale, patients with a higher average value were those who lived in non-urban areas. The appearance of mental disorder, in relation to patient characteristics, did not show significant statistical correlation. The sex, the age and the place of residence affect more the assessment of mental health, while education did not seem to have any significant effect on the other. Conclusions: The hemodialysis process can significantly affect the patient’s Quality of Life and it can bring adverse changes in lifestyle, affecting the physical, social and psychological state of the individual. For that reason, hemodialysis should be aimed not only at extending life but in upgrading the Quality of Life.

Keywords: Depression, Chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, social dysfunction, physical condition

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2 Liquid Chromatography Microfluidics for Detection and Quantification of Urine Albumin Using Linear Regression Method

Authors: Patricia B. Cruz, Catrina Jean G. Valenzuela, Analyn N. Yumang

Abstract:

Nearly a hundred per million of the Filipino population is diagnosed with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The early stage of CKD has no symptoms and can only be discovered once the patient undergoes urinalysis. Over the years, different methods were discovered and used for the quantification of the urinary albumin such as the immunochemical assays where most of these methods require large machinery that has a high cost in maintenance and resources, and a dipstick test which is yet to be proven and is still debated as a reliable method in detecting early stages of microalbuminuria. This research study involves the use of the liquid chromatography concept in microfluidic instruments with biosensor as a means of separation and detection respectively, and linear regression to quantify human urinary albumin. The researchers’ main objective was to create a miniature system that quantifies and detect patients’ urinary albumin while reducing the amount of volume used per five test samples. For this study, 30 urine samples of unknown albumin concentrations were tested using VITROS Analyzer and the microfluidic system for comparison. Based on the data shared by both methods, the actual vs. predicted regression were able to create a positive linear relationship with an R2 of 0.9995 and a linear equation of y = 1.09x + 0.07, indicating that the predicted values and actual values are approximately equal. Furthermore, the microfluidic instrument uses 75% less in total volume – sample and reagents combined, compared to the VITROS Analyzer per five test samples.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Chronic kidney disease, Linear Regression, Urinary Albumin

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1 Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Enhances Arterial Medial Calcification in a Uremic Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Maria Giovanna Lupo, Marina Camera, Marcello Rattazzi, Nicola Ferri

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A complex interplay among chronic kidney disease, lipid metabolism and aortic calcification has been recognized starting from results of many clinical and experimental studies. Here we investigated the influence of kidney function on PCSK9 levels, both in uremic rats and in clinical observation study, and its potential direct action on cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) calcification. In a cohort of 594 subjects enrolled in a single centre, observational, cross-sectional and longitudinal study, a negative association between GFR and plasma PCSK9 was found. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), as co-morbidity, further increased PCSK9 plasma levels. Diet-induced uremic condition in rats, induced aortic calcification and increased total cholesterol and PCSK9 levels in plasma, livers and kidneys. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed PCSK9 expression in aortic SMCs. SMCs overexpressing PCSK9 (SMCsPCSK9), cultured for 7-days in a pro-calcification environment (2.0mM or 2.4mM inorganic phosphate, Pi) showed a significantly higher extracellular calcium (Ca2+) deposition compared to mocked SMCs. Under the same experimental conditions, the addition of exogenous recombinant PCSK9 did not increase the extracellular calcification of SMCs. By flow cytometry analysis we showed that SMCsPCSK9, in response to 2.4mM Pi, released higher number of extracellular vesicles (EVs) positive for three tetraspanin molecules, such as CD63, CD9, and CD81. EVs derived from SMCsPCSK9 tended to be more enriched in calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), compared to EVs from mocks SMCs. In conclusion, our study reveals a direct role of PCSK9 on vascular calcification induced by higher inorganic phosphate levels associated to CKD condition. This effect appears to be mediated by a positive effect of endogenous PCSK9 on the release of EVs containing Ca2+ and ALP, which facilitate the deposition inorganic calcium phosphate crystals.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, calcification, PCSK9, extracellular vesicles

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