Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

chrome Related Abstracts

3 The Study of the Absorption and Translocation of Chromium by Lygeum spartum in the Mining Region of Djebel Hamimat and Soil-Plant Interaction

Authors: H. Khomri, A. Bentellis


Since century of the Development Activities extraction and a dispersed mineral processing Toxic metals and much more contaminated vast areas occupied by what they natural outcrops. New types of metalliferous habitats are so appeared. A species that is Lygeum spartum attracted our curiosity because apart from its valuable role in desertification, it is apparently able to exclude antimony and other metals can be. This species, green leaf blades which are provided as cattle feed, would be a good subject for phytoremediation of mineral soils. The study of absorption and translocation of chromium by the Lygeum spartum in the mining region of Djebel Hamimat and the interaction soil-plant, revealed that soils of this species living in this region are alkaline, calcareous majority in their fine texture medium and saline in their minority. They have normal levels of organic matter. They are moderately rich in nitrogen. They contain total chromium content reaches a maximum of 66,80 mg Kg^(-1) and a total absence of soluble chromium. The results of the analysis of variance of the difference between bare soils and soils appear Lygeum spartum made a significant difference only for the silt and organic matter. But for the other variables analyzed this difference is not significant. Thus, this plant has only one action on the amendment, only the levels of silt and organic matter in soils. The results of the multiple regression of the chromium content of the roots according to all soil variables studied did appear that among the studied variables included in the model, only the electrical conductivity and clay occur in the explanation of contents chromium in roots. The chromium content of the aerial parts analyzed by regression based on all studied soil variables allows us to see only the variables: electrical conductivity and content of chromium in the root portion involved in the explanation of the content chromium in the aerial part.

Keywords: Absorption, Translocation, multiple regression, analysis of variance, chrome, Lygeum spartum, the soil variables

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2 In Vitro Assessment of the Genotoxicity of Composite Obtained by Mixture of Natural Rubber and Leather Residues for Textile Application

Authors: Dalita G. S. M. Cavalcante, Elton A. P. dos Reis, Andressa S. Gomes, Caroline S. Danna, Leandra Ernest Kerche-Silva, Eidi Yoshihara, Aldo E. Job


In order to minimize environmental impacts, a composite was developed from mixture of leather shavings (LE) with natural rubber (NR), which patent is already deposited. The new material created can be used in applications such as floors e heels for shoes. Besides these applications, the aim is to use this new material for the production of products for the textile industry, such as boots, gloves and bags. But the question arises, as to biocompatibility of this new material. This is justified because the structure of the leather shavings has chrome. The trivalent chromium is usually not toxic, but the hexavalent chromium can be highly toxic and genotoxic for living beings, causing damage to the DNA molecule and contributing to the formation of cancer. Based on this, the objective of this study is evaluate the possible genotoxic effects of the new composite, using as system - test two cell lines (MRC-5 and CHO-K1) by comet assay. For this, the production of the composite was performed in three proportions: for every 100 grams of NR was added 40 (E40), 50 (E50) or 60 (E60) grams of LE. The latex was collected from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). For vulcanization of the NR, activators and accelerators were used. The two cell lines were exposed to the new composite in its three proportions using elution method, that is, cells exposed to liquid extracts obtained from the composite for 24 hours. For obtaining the liquid extract, each sample of the composite was crushed into pieces and mixed with an extraction solution. The quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in the extracts were performed by Optical Emission Spectrometry by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES). The levels of DNA damage in cells exposed to both extracts were monitored by alkaline version of the comet assay. The results of the quantification of metals in ICP-OES indicated the presence of total chromium in different extracts, but were not detected presence of hexavalent chromium in any extract. Through the comet assay were not found DNA damage of the CHO-K1 cells exposed to both extracts. As for MRC-5, was found a significant increase in DNA damage in cells exposed to E50 and E60. Based on the above data, it can be asserted that the extracts obtained from the composite were highly genotoxic for MRC-5 cells. These biological responses do not appear to be related to chromium metal, since there was a predominance of trivalent chromium in the extracts, indicating that during the production process of the new composite, there was no formation of hexavalent chromium. In conclusion it can infer that the leather shavings containing chromium can be reused, thereby reducing the environmental impacts of this waste. Already on the composite indicates to its incorporation in applications that do not aim at direct contact with the human skin, and it is suggested the chain of composite production be studied, in an attempt to make it biocompatible so that it may be safely used by the textile industry.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, cell line, natural rubber, chrome, leather

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1 Toxicity Analysis of Metal Coating Industry Wastewaters by Phytotoxicity Method

Authors: Sukru Dursun, Zeynep Cansu Ayturan, Mostafa Maroof


Metal coating which is important method used for protecting metals against oxidation and corrosion, decreasing friction, protecting metals from chemicals, easing cleaning of the metals. There are several methods used for metal coating such as hot-dip galvanizing, thermal spraying, electroplating and sherardizing. Method which will be used for metal coating depends on the type of metal. The materials mostly used for coating are zinc, nickel, brass, chrome, gold, cadmium, copper, brass, and silver. Within these materials, chrome ion has significant negative impacts on human, other living organisms and environment. Moreover, especially on human chrome may cause lung cancer, stomach ulcer, kidney and liver function disorders and death. Therefore, wastewaters of metal coating industry including chrome should be treated very carefully. In this study, wastewater containing chrome produced by metal coating industry was analysed with phytotoxicity method that is based on measuring the reaction of some plant species against different concentrations of chrome solution. Main plants used for phytotoxicity tests are Lepidium sativum and Lemna minor. Owing to phytotoxicity test, assessing the negative effects of chrome which may harm plants and offering more accurate wastewater treatment techniques against chromium wastewater is possible. Furthermore, the results taken from phytotoxicity tests were analysed with respect to their variance and their importance against different concentrations of chrome solution were determined.

Keywords: phytotoxicity, Lepidium sativum, chrome, metal coating wastewater, Lemna minor

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