Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

chopper Related Abstracts

5 Engineering Study on the Handling of Date Palm Fronds to Reduce Waste and Used as Energy Environmentally Friendly Fuel

Authors: Ayman H. Amer Eissa, Abdul Rahman O. Alghannam


The agricultural crop residuals are considered one of the most important problems faced by the environmental life and farmers in the world. A study was carried out to evaluate the physical characteristics of chopped date palm stalks (fronds and leaflets). These properties are necessary to apply normal design procedures such as pneumatic conveying, fluidization, drying, and combustion. The mechanical treatment by cutting, crushing or chopping and briquetting processes are the primary step and the suitable solution for solving this problem and recycling these residuals to be transformed into useful products. So the aim of the present work to get a high quality for agriculture residues such as date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes. The results obtained from measuring the mechanical properties (average shear and compressive strength) for date palm stalks at different moisture content (12.63, 33.21 and 60.54%) was (6.4, 4.7 and 3.21MPa) and (3.8, 3.18 and 2.86MPa) respectively. The modulus of elasticity and toughness were evaluated as a function of moisture content. As the moisture content of the stalk regions increased the modulus of elasticity and toughness decreased indicating a reduction in the brittleness of the stalk regions. Chopped date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets having moisture content of 8, 10 and 12% and 8, 10 and 12.8% w.b. were dandified into briquettes without binder and with binder (urea-formaldehyde) using a screw press machine. Quality properties for briquettes were durability, compression ratio hardness, bulk density, compression ratio, resiliency, water resistance and gases emission. The optimum quality properties found for briquettes at 8 % moisture content and without binder. Where the highest compression stress and durability were 8.95, 10.39 MPa and 97.06 %, 93.64 % for date palm stalks (palm fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes, respectively. The CO and CO2 emissions for date palm stalks (fronds), date palm leaflets briquettes were less than these for loose residuals.

Keywords: residues, date palm stalks, chopper, briquetting, quality properties

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4 Study of a Photovoltaic System Using MPPT Buck-Boost Converter

Authors: A. Borni, A. Bouchakour, L. Zaghba, M. Brahami


The work presented in this paper present the design and the simulation of a centrifugal pump coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) generator via a MPPT controller. The PV system operating is just done in sunny period by using water storage instead of electric energy storage. The process concerns the modelling, identification and simulation of a photovoltaic pumping system, the centrifugal pump is driven by an asynchronous three-phase voltage inverter sine triangle PWM motor through. Two configurations were simulated. For the first, it is about the alimentation of the motor pump group from electrical power supply. For the second, the pump unit is connected directly to the photovoltaic panels by integration of a MPPT control. A code of simulation of the solar pumping system was initiated under the Matlab-Simulink environment. Very convivial and flexible graphic interfaces allow an easy use of the code and knowledge of the effects of change of the sunning and temperature on the pumping system.

Keywords: chopper, photovoltaic generator, electrical motor, centrifugal pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
3 Providing Additional Advantages for STATCOM in Power Systems by Integration of Energy Storage Device

Authors: Reza Sedaghati


The use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices in a power system can potentially overcome limitations of the present mechanically controlled transmission system. Also, the advance of technology makes possible to include new energy storage devices in the electrical power system. The integration of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) into Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) can lead to increase their flexibility in improvement of power system dynamic behaviour by exchanging both active and reactive powers with power grids. This paper describes structure and behaviour of SMES, specifications and performance principles of the STATCOM/SMES compensator. Moreover, the benefits and effectiveness of integrated SMES with STATCOM in power systems is presented. Also, the performance of the STATCOM/SMES compensator is evaluated using an IEEE 3-bus system through the dynamic simulation by PSCAD/EMTDC software.

Keywords: Power Systems, Energy Storage System, chopper, converter, STATCOM/SMES compensator

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2 Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture

Authors: N. Hadjigeorgiou, A. C. Tsalikidou, E. Hristoforou, P. P. Sotiriadis


During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.

Keywords: chopper, closed loop, AMR sensor, memory effects, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise

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1 Flux-Gate vs. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance Magnetic Sensors Characteristics in Closed-Loop Operation

Authors: Neoclis Hadjigeorgiou, Spyridon Angelopoulos, Evangelos V. Hristoforou, Paul P. Sotiriadis


The increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements over the past decades has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as of more advanced measurement techniques. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance (AMR) sensors have emerged as a promising solution for applications requiring high resolution, providing an ideal balance between performance and cost. However, certain issues of AMR sensors such as non-linear response and measurement noise are rarely discussed in the relevant literature. In this work, an analog closed loop compensation system is proposed, developed and tested as a means to eliminate the non-linearity of AMR response, reduce the 1/f noise and enhance the sensitivity of magnetic sensor. Additional performance aspects, such as cross-axis and hysteresis effects are also examined. This system was analyzed using an analytical model and a P-Spice model, considering both the sensor itself as well as the accompanying electronic circuitry. In addition, a commercial closed loop architecture Flux-Gate sensor (calibrated and certified), has been used for comparison purposes. Three different experimental setups have been constructed for the purposes of this work, each one utilized for DC magnetic field measurements, AC magnetic field measurements and Noise density measurements respectively. The DC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to calibrate and characterize the system under consideration. A high-accuracy DC power supply has been used for providing the operating current to the Helmholtz coils. The results were recorded by a multichannel voltmeter The AC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to examine the effective bandwidth not only of the proposed system but also for the Flux-Gate sensor. A voltage controlled current source driven by a function generator has been utilized for the Helmholtz coil excitation. The result was observed by the oscilloscope. The third experimental apparatus incorporated an AC magnetic shielding construction composed of several layers of electric steel that had been demagnetized prior to the experimental process. Each sensor was placed alone and the response was captured by the oscilloscope. The preliminary experimental results indicate that closed loop AMR response presented a maximum deviation of 0.36% with respect to the ideal linear response, while the corresponding values for the open loop AMR system and the Fluxgate sensor reached 2% and 0.01% respectively. Moreover, the noise density of the proposed close loop AMR sensor system remained almost as low as the noise density of the AMR sensor itself, yet considerably higher than that of the Flux-Gate sensor. All relevant numerical data are presented in the paper.

Keywords: chopper, closed loop, AMR sensor, memory effects, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise, flux-gate sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 270