Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

cholesterol Related Abstracts

29 Relation between Copper, Lipid Profile, and Cognition in Elderly Jordanians

Authors: Eman Al-khateeba, Ebaa Al-Zayadneha, Osama Al-Dalahmahb, Zeinab Alawadib, Faisal Khatiba, Randa Naffaa, Yanal Shafagoj

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of plasma copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups; 52 subjects with dementia, and 50 controls. All individuals were screened with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock drawing test (CDT).Serum copper and lipid profile were assessed in all subjects, and the results were statistically evaluated at P < 0.05 level of significance. Dementia group had 10.1 % higher copper levels than controls however the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicate that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p=0.026) and 6.29 fold (p=0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. While coffee intake showed a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

Keywords: Dementia, alzheimer's disease, Copper, lipid profile, cholesterol, coffee

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28 Performance, Yolk and Serum Cholesterol of Shaver-Brown Layers Fed Moringa Leaf Meal and Sun Dried Garlic Powder

Authors: Anselm ONYIMONYI, A. Abaponitus

Abstract:

One hundred and ninety two Shaver-Brown layers aged 40 weeks were used in a 10 weeks feeding trial to investigate the effect of supplementary moringa leaf meal and sun-dried garlic powder (MOGA) on the performance, egg yolk and serum cholesterol profiles of the birds. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial in a Completely Randomized Design with 48 birds per treatment. Each treatment had 24 replicates with 2 birds, each separately housed in a cell in a battery cage. Birds on treatment 1 received a standard layers mash (16.5% CP and 3000 kcalME/kg) without any MOGA. Treatment 2 birds received the control diet with 5 g moringa leaf meal/kg of feed, treatment 3 received the control diet with 5 g sun-dried garlic powder/kg of feed, treatment 4 had a combination of 5 g each of moringa leaf meal and sun dried garlic powder/kg of feed. Data were kept on daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake. 10 eggs were collected per treatment at the end of the study for yolk cholesterol determination. Blood samples from four birds per treatment were collected and used for the serum cholesterol and triglycerides determination. Results showed that bird on treatment 3 (5% moringa leaf meal/kg of feed) had significantly higher (P < 0.05) Hen Day Egg Production record of 83.3% as against 78.75%, 65.05% and 66.67% recorded for the control, T2 and T4 birds, respectively. Egg weight of 56.39 g recorded for the same birds on treatment 3 was significantly (P< 0.05) lower than the values of 62.61 g, 60.99 g and 59.33 g recorded for birds on T4, T1 and T2, respectively. Yolk and serum cholesterol profiles of the moringa leaf meal fed birds were significantly (P<0.05) lowered when compared to those of the other treatments. Comparatively, the birds on the MOGA diets had significantly reduced yolk and serum cholesterol than the control. It is concluded that supplementation of moringa leaf meal and sun dried garlic powder at the levels used in this study will result in the production of nutritionally healthier eggs with less yolk and serum cholesterol.

Keywords: Performance, cholesterol, moringa, garlic

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27 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki

Abstract:

30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: Protein, rat, cholesterol, crack, amylase, HDL, LDL, albumin, lipase, triglycerides, VLDL

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26 Blood Profile, Organs, and Carcass Analysis and Performance of Broilers Fed Cowpea Testa Based Diet

Authors: O. J. Osunkeye, P. O. Fakolade, B. E. Olorede

Abstract:

Broilers productions depend on the provision of adequate and goo quality feed containing all the nutrients, including proteins, carbohydrate, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. All these nutrients have to be provided at a required amount to support maximum productivity and normal physiological functions and demands. Among these nutrients proteins are particularly important, since they are essential for meat and muscle production, optimum growth and health status. Poultry production industry in the developing countries is been threatened because of the over dependency on Soybean meal as one of the key/major conventional protein stuff for feeding livestock. Even the competition between man and livestock for Soybean and other protein sources made the price of this feed stuff to be on the increase. Hence the needs to seek for an alternative feed stuff which is cheap and less competitive. This study showed the blood profile, organ and carcass characteristics and performance of broilers fed with Cowpea Testa Meal (CTM) based diets. Four diets were formulated with Cowpea Testa replacing Soybean at 0%, 15%, 30%, and 50% graded levels. One hundred and twenty day-old unsexed broiler birds were allotted to these four treatments with 3 replicates of 10 birds per replicate. The results showed no significant differences in all the haematological parameters measured (P>0.05), the serum metabolites analysis revealed significant different in Cholesterol (99.8 mg/dl, 112.84 mg/dl, 131.07 mg/dl and 97.66 mg/dl respectively) (P<0.05) among others. There were significant differences within the diets for average daily weight gain, average feed intake and feed to gain ratio. The birds on control (0%) and CTM gained more weight than those fed with 30% and 50% CTM diets. The organs and carcass primal cuts of the broilers expressed significant different for the spleen (0.12 g, 0.09 g, 0.11 g and 0.14 g respectively), lungs (0.97 g, 0.72 g, 0.77 g and 1.01g respectively) and proventriculus (0.96 g, 0.99 g, 0.81 g and 0.85 g respectively) (P<0.05). For the carcass, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) in the breast, thigh, drumstick, wing and neck except for the Back (21.27 g, 21.04 g, 17.71 g, and 17.89 g respectively). In conclusion, CTM inclusion in broiler’s diet could be used as an alternative feed stuff in replacement of Soybean meal up to 15% without any adverse effects as revealed by the blood profile and to increase the growth performance of the birds.

Keywords: physiological functions, cholesterol, blood profiles, CTM and carcass analysis

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25 The Effects of Neurospora crassa-Fermented Palm Kernel Cake in the Diet on the Production Performance and Egg-Yolk Quality of Arab Laying-Hens

Authors: Yose Rizal, Maria Endo Mahata, Nuraini, Mirnawati, Rio Darman, Dendi Kurniawan

Abstract:

An experiment had been conducted to determine the effects of several levels of Neurospora crassa- fermented palm kernel cake in the diet on the production performance and egg-yolk quality of Arab laying-hens, and to obtain the appropriate level of this fermented palm kernel cake for reducing the utilization of concentrated feed in the diet. Three hundred Arab laying-hens of 72 weeks old were employed in this experiment, and randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 7.25, 10.15, and 13.05% fermented palm kernel cake in diets) in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Measured variables were production performance (feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production), and egg-yolk quality (ether extract and cholesterol contents, and egg-yolk color index). Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight, hen-day egg production and egg-yolk color index were not influenced (P>0.05) by diets. However, the ether extract and cholesterol contents of egg-yolk were very significantly reduced (P<0.01) by diets. In conclusion, Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake could be included up to 13.05% to effectively replace 45% concentrated feed in Arab laying-hens diet without adverse effect on the production performance.

Keywords: cholesterol, neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake, Arab laying-hens, production performance, ether extract, egg-yolk color index

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24 Estimation of Cholesterol Level in Different Brands of Vegetable Oils in Iraq

Authors: Mohammed Idaan Hassan Al-Majidi

Abstract:

An analysis of twenty one assorted brands of vegetable oils in Babylon Iraq, reveals varying levels of cholesterol content. Cholesterol was found to be present in most of the oil brands sampled using three standard methods. Cholesterol was detected in seventeen of the vegetable oil brands with concentration of less than 1 mg/ml while seven of the oil brands had cholesterol concentrations ranging between 1-4 mg/ml. Low iodine values were obtained in four of the vegetable oil brands and three of them had high acid values. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the presence of cholesterol at varying concentrations in all the oil brands and gave the lowest detectable cholesterol values in all the oil brands. The Laser brand made from rapeseed had the highest cholesterol concentration of 3.2 mg/ml while Grand brand made from groundnuts had the least concentration (0.12 mg/ml) of cholesterol using HPLC analysis. Leibermann-Burchard method showed that Gino brand from palm kernel had the least concentration of cholesterol (3.86 mg/ml ±0.032) and the highest concentration of 3.996 mg/ml ±0.0404 was obtained in Sesame seed oil brand. This report is important in view of health implications of cholesterol in our diets. Consequently, we have been able to show that there is no cholesterol free oil in the market as shown on the vegetable oil brand labels. Therefore, companies producing and marketing vegetable oils are enjoined to desist from misleading the public by labeling their products as “cholesterol free”. They should indicate the amount of cholesterol present in the vegetable oil, no matter how small the quantity may be.

Keywords: heart diseases, cholesterol, vegetable oils, leibermann-burchard

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23 Biochemical Characterization of Meat Goat in Algeria

Authors: Hafid Nadia, Meziane Toufik

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the characterization of the goat meat by the determination of quantity and the quality in Batna region. The first part was the evaluation of production and consumption. The investigations show that the goat meat third after mutton and beef, it’s especially consumed by the indigenous population located in the Mountain and steep area. The second part of this review treats nutritional quality of this meat by the quantification of the chemical composition, including fat profile, and establishes a link between animal age and the values of these parameters. Moisture, fat contents, and cholesterol levels varied with age. Because of the decreasing level of cholesterol in the Chevon meat, it is more recommended for consumption to prevent or reduce the incidence of coronary disease and heart attack.

Keywords: cholesterol, biochemical composition, heart attack, goat meat

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22 Fatty Acid Binding Protein 3 Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associations with Growth Traits and Blood Parameters in Two Iranian Sheep Breeds

Authors: Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak, Mostafa Sadeghi, Sahar Javadi-Novashnagh, Katarzyna Ropka-Molik, Hossein Moradi-Shahrbabak, Maria Consuelo Mura

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate two single nucleotide polymorphisms located in exon 2 (g.939A > G) and intron 3 (g.4349A > G) of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) gene in two Iranian sheep breeds, Lori-Bakhtiari and Zel, using polymerase chain reaction -restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The association of the polymorphisms with growth traits and blood parameters was also examined. Results revealed a g.939A > G SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in the exon 2 exhibiting three genotypes: AA, AG, and GG. Statistical analysis indicated that this polymorphism significantly influenced blood triglyceride (P < 0.05) and cholesterol (P < 0.08) levels as well as weaning weight (P < 0.05). Animals with AG genotype had the highest blood triglyceride level and weaning weight while the highest amount of blood cholesterol was observed in animals with GG genotype. On the other hand, no significant effect was observed on birth and fat-tail weight traits. The intron 3 (g.4349A > G) was monomorphic across the studied samples. Lori-Bakhtiari breed showed significantly higher blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as also birth and weaning weight compared to Zel breed (P < 0.01). Considering that the literature is bereft of any report on the association study between FABP3 SNPs and sheep growth traits and blood parameters, our findings suggest that the investigated polymorphism might be one of the main genetic factors affecting growth and physiological traits in sheep.

Keywords: cholesterol, weaning weight, FABP3 gene, fatness, blood triglyceride, Zel, Lori-Bakhtiari

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21 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani

Abstract:

Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: cholesterol, pectin, guar gum, xanthan gum, laying hen

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20 Egg Yolk and Serum Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Garlic and Natural Cocoa Powder Using Laying Birds as Model

Authors: Onyimonyi Anselm Ego, Obi-Keguna Christy, Dim Emmanuel Chinonso, Ugwuanyi Evelyn, Uzochukwu Ifeanyi Emmanuel

Abstract:

A total of 144 Shaver Brown Layers in their sixteenth week of lay were used in a twelve weeks study to evaluate the egg yolk and serum cholesterol of the birds when fed varying dietary combinations of garlic and natural cocoa powder. The birds were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments with 16 birds per treatment. Each bird was housed separately in a cage measuring 45 cm x 35 cm in an open sided battery cage house typical of the tropics. A standard poultry mash diet with 16.5% CP and 2800 KcalME/kg was formulated as the basal ration which also served as the control diet. Garlic and natural cocoa powder were incorporated in varying combinations (50 g or 100 g/100 kg of feed) in the remaining eight treatments. Weekly data of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight and hen day egg production were kept. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol levels were determined using a Randox kit. Results showed that birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder had significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg and albumen weight as compared to control birds. Hen day production of the birds was also significantly higher than control birds. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol of birds receiving the garlic and natural cocoa powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Serum cholesterol levels showed decline in the birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder. The least yolk cholesterol level of 160 mg/dl was observed in birds receiving 50g garlic and 50 g natural cocoa powder (Treatment 5). Control birds had an egg cholesterol level of 245.45 mg/dl. It was concluded that incorporating garlic and natural cocoa powder in the diets of laying hens can result in a significant reduction in the egg and serum cholesterol levels.

Keywords: cholesterol, serum, garlic, egg

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19 Host Cell Membrane Lipid Rafts Are Required for Influenza A Virus Adsorption to Host Cell Surface

Authors: Dileep K. Verma, Sunil K. Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Previous studies suggest that influenza hemagglutinin is essential for viral attachment to host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Studies also reported selective nature of Influenza virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding. However, the detailed mechanism of Influenza A Virus (IAV) binding to host cell membrane and entry inside the host remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated if host membrane lipid rafts play any significant role in early life cycle events of influenza A virus. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin was used to remove membrane cholesterol. We observed co-localization of Influenza A Virus to lipid rafts by visualization of known lipid raft marker GM1 on host cell membrane. Co-localization suggest direct involvement of these micro-domain in initiation of IAV life cycle. We found significant reduction in influenza A virus adsorption in raft disrupted target host cells indicating poor binding and attachment in absence of coherent membrane rafts. Taken together, the results of present study provide evidence for critical involvement of host lipid rafts and its constituents in adsorption process of Influenza A Virus and suggests crucial involvement in other early events of IAV life cycle. The present study opens a new domain to study influenza virus-host interaction and to combat flu at the very early steps of viral life cycle.

Keywords: Adsorption, cholesterol, lipid raft, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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18 Distribution of Phospholipids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Two-Solvent System during Egg Yolk Oil Solvent Extraction

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks, Mara Duma

Abstract:

Egg yolk oil is a concentrated source of egg bioactive compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipids, cholesterol, carotenoids and others. To extract lipids and other fat-soluble nutrients from liquid egg yolk, a two-step extraction process involving polar (ethanol) and non-polar (hexane) solvents were used. This extraction technique was based on egg yolk bioactive compounds polarities, where non-polar compound was extracted into non-polar hexane, but polar in to polar alcohol/water phase. But many egg yolk bioactive compounds are not strongly polar or non-polar. Egg yolk phospholipids, cholesterol and pigments are amphipatic (have both polar and non-polar regions) and their behavior in ethanol/hexane solvent system is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of phospholipids, cholesterol and carotenoids during extraction of egg yolk oil with ethanol and hexane and determine the loss of these compounds in egg yolk oil. Egg yolks and egg yolk oil were analyzed for phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), cholesterol and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene) content using GC-FID and HPLC methods. PC and PE are polar lipids and were extracted into polar ethanol phase. Concentration of PC in ethanol was 97.89% and PE 99.81% from total egg yolk phospholipids. Due to cholesterol’s partial extraction into ethanol, cholesterol content in egg yolk oil was reduced in comparison to its total content presented in egg yolk lipids. The highest amount of lutein and zeaxanthin was concentrated in ethanol extract. The opposite situation was observed with canthaxanthin and β-carotene, which became the main pigments of egg yolk oil.

Keywords: cholesterol, solvent extraction, egg yolk oil, lutein, phospholipids

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17 Critical Role of Lipid Rafts in Influenza a Virus Binding to Host Cell

Authors: Dileep Kumar Verma, Sunil Kumar Lal

Abstract:

Influenza still remains one of the most challenging diseases posing significant threat to public health causing seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Influenza A Virus (IAV) surface protein hemagglutinin is known to play an important role in viral attachment to the host sialic acid receptors and concentrate in lipid rafts for efficient viral fusion. Selective nature of Influenza A virus to utilize rafts micro-domain for efficient virus assembly and budding has been explored in depth. However, the detailed mechanism of IAV binding to host cell membrane and entry into the host remains elusive. In the present study we investigated the role of lipid rafts in early life cycle events of IAV. Role of host lipid rafts was studied using raft disruption method by extraction of cholesterol by Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin. Using GM1, a well-known lipid raft marker, we were able to observe co-localization of IAV on lipid rafts on the host cell membrane. This experiment suggests a direct involvement of lipid rafts in the initiation of the IAV life cycle. Upon disruption of lipid rafts by Methyl-b-cyclodextrin, we observed a significant reduction in IAV binding on the host cell surface indicating a significant decrease in virus attachment to coherent membrane rafts. Our results provide proof that host lipid rafts and their constituents play an important role in the adsorption of IAV. This study opens a new avenues in IAV virus-host interactions to combat infection at a very early steps of the viral lifecycle.

Keywords: Adsorption, cholesterol, lipid raft, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, GM1

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16 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Coconut Oil and Fabrication of a Non Enzymatic Cholesterol Biosensor

Authors: Mitali Saha, Soma Das

Abstract:

The fabrication of nanoscale materials for use in chemical sensing, biosensing and biological analyses has proven a promising avenue in the last few years. Cholesterol has aroused considerable interest in recent years on account of its being an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. There is a strong positive correlation between high serum cholesterol level and arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors have shown high selectivity and excellent sensitivity, but the enzyme is easily denatured during its immobilization procedure and its activity is also affected by temperature, pH, and toxic chemicals. Besides, the reproducibility of enzyme-based sensors is not very good which further restrict the application of cholesterol biosensor. It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes could promote electron transfer with various redox active proteins, ranging from cytochrome c to glucose oxidase with a deeply embedded redox center. In continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and applications of carbon and metal based nanoparticles, we have reported here the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CCNT) by burning coconut oil under insufficient flow of air using an oil lamp. The soot was collected from the top portion of the flame, where the temperature was around 6500C which was purified, functionalized and then characterized by SEM, p-XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM micrographs showed the formation of tubular structure of CCNT having diameter below 100 nm. The XRD pattern indicated the presence of two predominant peaks at 25.20 and 43.80, which corresponded to (002) and (100) planes of CCNT respectively. The Raman spectrum (514 nm excitation) showed the presence of 1600 cm-1 (G-band) related to the vibration of sp2-bonded carbon and at 1350 cm-1 (D-band) responsible for the vibrations of sp3-bonded carbon. A nonenzymatic cholesterol biosensor was then fabricated on an insulating Teflon material containing three silver wires at the surface, covered by CCNT, obtained from coconut oil. Here, CCNTs worked as working as well as counter electrodes whereas reference electrode and electric contacts were made of silver. The dimensions of the electrode was 3.5 cm×1.0 cm×0.5 cm (length× width × height) and it is ideal for working with 50 µL volume like the standard screen printed electrodes. The voltammetric behavior of cholesterol at CCNT electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammeter and differential pulse voltammeter using 0.001 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. The influence of the experimental parameters on the peak currents of cholesterol like pH, accumulation time, and scan rates were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current was found to be linear in the cholesterol concentration range from 1 µM to 50 µM with a sensitivity of ~15.31 μAμM−1cm−2 with lower detection limit of 0.017 µM and response time of about 6s. The long-term storage stability of the sensor was tested for 30 days and the current response was found to be ~85% of its initial response after 30 days.

Keywords: Biosensor, cholesterol, coconut oil, CCNT

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15 Calcitriol Improves Plasma Lipoprotein Profile by Decreasing Plasma Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian Hamsters

Authors: Zhen-Yu Chen, Xiaobo Wang

Abstract:

Higher plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is protective. Vitamin D is well-known for its regulatory role in calcium homeostasis. Its potential important role in cardiovascular disease has recently attracted much attention. This study was conducted to investigate effects of different dosage of calcitriol on plasma lipoprotein profile and the underlying mechanism. Sixty male Syrian Golden hamsters were randomly divided into 6 groups: no-cholesterol control (NCD), high-cholesterol control (HCD), groups with calcitriol supplementation at 10/20/40/80ng/kg body weight (CA, CB, CC, CD), respectively. Calcitriol in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil was delivered to four experimental groups via oral gavage every other day, while NCD and HCD received MCT oil in the equivalent amount. NCD hamsters were fed with non-cholesterol diet while other five groups were maintained on diet containing 0.2% cholesterol to induce a hypercholesterolemic condition. The treatment lasts for 6 weeks followed by sample collection after hamsters sacrificed. Four experimental groups experienced a reduction in average food intake around 11% compared to HCD with slight decrease in body weight (not exceeding 10%). This reduction reflects on the deceased relative weights of testis, epididymal and perirenal adipose tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma calcitriol levels were measured and was corresponding to oral gavage. At the end of week 6, lipoprotein profiles were improved with calcitriol supplementation with TC, non-HDL-C and plasma triglyceride (TG) decreased in a dose-dependent manner (TC: r=0.373, p=0.009, non-HDL-C: r=0.479, p=0.001, TG: r=0.405, p=0.004). Since HDL-C of four experiment groups showed no significant difference compared to HCD, the ratio of nHDL-C to HDL-C and HDL-C to TC had been restored in a dose-dependent manner. For hamsters receiving the highest level of calcitriol (80ng/kg) showed a reduction of TC by 11.5%, nHDL-C by 24.1% and TG by 31.25%. Little difference was found among six groups on the acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation or contraction of thoracic aorta. To summarize, calcitriol supplementation in hamster at maximum 80ng/kg body weight for 6 weeks lead to an overall improvement in plasma lipoprotein profile with decreased TC and TG level. The molecular mechanism of its effects is under investigation.

Keywords: cholesterol, vitamin D, calcitriol, hamster

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14 Proximate Analysis of Muscle of Helix aspersa Living in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of variations in the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn (November) in 2015. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and cholesterol analysis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The protein contents of snail muscle were determined with Kjeldahl distillation units. Statistical comparisons were made by using SPSS Software (version 16.0). Thirty different fatty acids of different saturation levels were detected. As the predominant fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), palmitic acid (C16:0), arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) were found in Helix aspersa. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was identified as the major SFA in autumn. Linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4ω6) have the highest levels among the PUFAs. In the present study, ω3 were found 5.48% in autumn. Linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acid amounts in the autumn decreased significantly but cholesterol content was not affected in Helix aspersa in autumn (November) in 2015.

Keywords: cholesterol, helix aspersa, fatty acid, SFA, PUFA

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13 The Effectiveness of Herbal Capsules Ethanol Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) and Bulb of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in Lowering Total Cholesterol Levels in Patients with Hypercholesterolemia

Authors: Anton Bahtiar, Lukas Tjandra Leksana, Fransiscus D. Suyatna

Abstract:

Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors that can trigger the development of cardiovascular disease, especially coronary heart disease. One of the traditional drugs used for hypercholesterolemia is a combination of herbs celery (Apium graveolens) and garlic (Allium sativum). This study aimed to investigate the effects of the extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Subjects consisted of patients with traditional medicine clinic in Jakarta. Each subject received treatment capsules containing herbal extract and placebo capsules. On the 44 subjects, the lipid profile was examined blood levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Paired two-tailed t-test was used for the difference between lipid profile of the therapy group and the placebo group. The changes in the lipid profile between the treatment groups and the placebo group for total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides was 14,82 ± 6,946;1.45 ± 2,945;6,98 ± 8,105;2,48 ± 6,504 mg/dL. The herbal extract decrease blood cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (P <0.05).

Keywords: cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Allium sativum, Apium graveolens, hypercholesterolemia

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12 Total Plaque Area in Chronic Renal Failure

Authors: Hernán A. Perez, Luis J. Armando, Néstor H. García

Abstract:

Background and aims Cardiovascular disease rates are very high in patients with renal failure (CRF), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not explain the increased risk, and observational studies have observed paradoxical or absent associations between classical risk factors and mortality in dialysis patients. A large randomized controlled trial, the 4D Study, the AURORA and the ALERT study found that statin therapy in CRF do not reduce cardiovascular events. These results may be the results of ‘accelerated atherosclerosis’ observed on these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate if carotid total plaque area (TPA), a measure of carotid plaque burden growth is increased at progressively lower creatinine clearance in patients with CRF. We studied a cohort of patients with CRF not on dialysis, reasoning that risk factor associations might be more easily discerned before end stage renal disease. Methods: The Blossom DMO Argentina ethics committee approved the study and informed consent from each participant was obtained. We performed a cohort study in 412 patients with Stage 1, 2 and 3 CRF. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained. TPA was determined using bilateral carotid ultrasonography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimation formula was used to determine renal function. ANOVA was used when appropriate. Results: Stage 1 CRF group (n= 16, 43±2yo) had a blood pressure of 123±2/78±2 mmHg, BMI 30±1, LDL col 145±10 mg/dl, HbA1c 5.8±0.4% and had the lowest TPA 25.8±6.9 mm2. Stage 2 CRF (n=231, 50±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 132±1/81±1 mmHg, LDL col 125±2 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 48±10mm2 ( p< 0.05 vs CRF stage 1) while Stage 3 CRF (n=165, 59±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 134±1/81±1, LDL col 125±3 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 71±6mm2 (p < 0.05 vs CRF stage 1 and 2). Conclusion: Our data indicate that TPA increases along the renal function deterioration, and it is not related with the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels. We suggest that mechanisms other than the classics are responsible for the observed excess of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients and finally, determination of total plaque area should be used to measure effects of antiatherosclerotic therapy.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, cholesterol, chronic renal failure

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11 Resveratrol Incorporated Liposomes Prepared from Pegylated Phospholipids and Cholesterol

Authors: Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Khaled Abdallah

Abstract:

Liposomes and pegylated liposomes were widely used as drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field since a long time. However, in the former time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was connected into phospholipid after the liposomes were already prepared. In this paper, we intend to study the possibility of applying phospholipids which already connected with PEG and then they were used to prepare liposomes. The model drug resveratrol was used because it can be applied against different diseases. Cholesterol was applied to stabilize the membrane of liposomes. The thin film technique in a laboratory scale was a preparation method. The liposomes were then characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and light microscopic techniques. The stable liposomes can be produced and the particle sizes after filtration were in nanometers. The 2- and 3-chains-PEG-phospholipid (PL) caused in smaller particle size than the 4-chains-PEG-PL. Liposomes from PL 90G and cholesterol were stable during storage at 8 °C of 56 days because the particle sizes measured by PCS were almost not changed. There was almost no leakage of resveratrol from liposomes PL 90G with cholesterol after diffusion test in dialysis tube for 28 days. All liposomes showed the sustained release during measuring time of 270 min. The maximum release amount of 16-20% was detected with liposomes from 2- and 3-chains-PEG-PL. The other liposomes gave max. release amount of resveratrol only of 10%. The release kinetic can be explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. 

Keywords: Resveratrol, cholesterol, liposome, NTA, pegylation

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10 Effects of Cellular Insulin Receptor Stimulators with Alkaline Water on Performance, some Blood Parameters and Hatchability in Breeding Japanese Quail

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Rabia Gocmen, Sinan Sefa Parlat

Abstract:

In this study, in the breeding Japanese quails (coturnix coturnix japonica), it was aimed to study the effects of cellular insulin receptor stimulation on the performance, some blood parameters, and hatchability features. In the study, a total of 84 breeding quails were used, which are in 6 weeks age, and whose 24 are male and 60 female. In the trial, rations which contain 2900 kcal/kg metabolic energy; crude protein of 20%, and water whose pH is calibrated to 7.45 were administered as ad-libitum, to the animals, as metformin source, metformin-HCl was used and as chrome resource, Chromium Picolinate. Trial groups were formed as control group (basal ration), metformin group (basal ration, added metformin at the level of fodder of 20 mg/kg), and chromium picolinate group (basal ration, added fodder of 1500 ppb Cr. When regarded to the results of performance at the end of trial, it is seen that live weight gain, fodder consumption, egg weight, fodder evaluation coefficient, and egg production were affected at the significant level (p < 0.05). When the results are evaluated in terms of incubation features at the end of trial, it was identified that incubation yield and hatchability are not affected by the treatments but in the groups, in which metformin and chromium picolinate are added to ration, that fertility rose at the significant level compared to control group (p < 0,05). According to the results of blood parameters and hormone at the end of the trial, while the level of plasma glucose level was not affected by treatments (p > 0.05), with the addition of metformin and chromium picolinate to ration, plasma, total control, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p<0,05). Hormone level of Plasma T3 and T4 were also affected at the significant level from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0,05).

Keywords: Performance, Hormone, cholesterol, metformin, quail, chromium picolinate

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9 Effects of Cellular Insulin Receptor Stimulators with Alkaline Water on Performance, Plasma Cholesterol, Glucose, Triglyceride Levels and Hatchability in Breeding Japanese Quail

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Rabia Gocmen, Sinan Sefa Parlat

Abstract:

Aim of this study is to determine the effects of cellular insulin receptor stimulators on performance, plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglyceride, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels, and incubation features in the breeding Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). In the study, a total of 84 breeding quails was used, 6 weeks’ age, 24 are male and 60, female. Rations used in experiment are 2900 kcal/kg metabolic energy and 20% crude protein. Water pH is calibrated to 7.45. Ration and water were administered ad-libitum to the animals. As metformin source, metformin-HCl was used and as chrome resource, chromium picolinate was used. Trial groups were formed as control group (basal ration), metformin group (basal ration, added metformin at the level of feed of 20 mg/kg), and chromium picolinate (basal ration, added feed of 1500 ppb Cr) group. When regarded to the results of performance at the end of experiment, it is seen that live weight gain, feed consumption, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (Feed consumption/ egg weight), and egg production were affected at the significant level (p < 0.05). When the results are evaluated in terms of incubation features, hatchability and hatchability of fertile egg ratio were not affected from the treatments. Fertility ratio was significantly affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments and fertility rose at the significant level compared to control group (p < 0.05). According to results of experiment, plasma glucose level was not affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments. Plasma, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05). Hormone level of Plasma T3 and T4 were also affected at the significant level from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05).

Keywords: Hormone, cholesterol, metformin, quail, chromium picolinate

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8 Comparative Therapeutic Effect of Acalypha indica Linn. Extract and Gemfibrozil on High Fructose and Cholesterol Diet Induced Pancreas Steatosis in Sprague-Dawley Mice

Authors: Adrian Reynaldo Sudirman, Siti Farida, Aisyah Aminy Maulidina, Caren Andika Surbakti

Abstract:

Sedentary lifestyle and imbalance consumption pattern has made metabolic syndrome as the global time bomb phenomenon in the world. The increasing tendency of people in consuming high amount of fructose and cholesterol food has worsened this issue in the society. Pancreas steatosis become one of the most comorbid when early diagnosis and prompt treatment has not been applied on hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic condition in metabolic syndrome patient. Gemfibrozil become the drug of choice to prevent this issue, yet the efficacy of this regiment was still questionable. Acalypha indica Linn. is the herb that has protective effect on hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic condition. This study was aimed to compare therapeutic effect of gemfibrozil (G) and Acalypha indica Linn. (AI) on high fructose and cholesterol diet-induced pancreas steatosis in Sprague-Dawley mice. The post induction mice were divided into four groups: control, gemfibrozil, AI extract, and G+AI combination regiment. Each group received four weeks intervention. The result of statistical analysis using the One-Way ANOVA test and Tukey Post Hoc test showed significant decrease in pancreatic steatosis between the control group and administered Acalypha indica group (p = 0.004, 95% CI: 0.170-0.959) and the group administered with a combination of Gemfibrozil-Acalypha indica (p = 0.023, 95% CI: 0.537-0.813). The protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. shows that this plant has the potential as therapeutic option in overcoming the condition of pancreas steatosis in metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: cholesterol, fructose, Acalypha Indica Linn, Gemfibrozil, Pancreas Steatosis

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7 Effect of Addition Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) to Water Content, pH Value, Total Lactid Acid Bacteria Colonies, Antioxidant Activity and Cholesterol Levels of Goat Milk Yoghurt Isolates Dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus)

Authors: Endang Purwati, Ely Vebriyanti, R. Puji Hartini, Hendri Purwanto

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effect of addition cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum burmannii) in making goat milk yogurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) to antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The method of research was the experimental method by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of 5 treatments with 4 groups as replication. Treatment in this study was used of cinnamon extract as A (0%), B (1%), C (2%), D (3%), E (4%) in a goat’s milk yoghurt. This study was used 4200 ml of Peranakan Etawa goat’s milk and 80 ml of cinnamon extract. The variable analyzed were water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. The average water content ranged from 81.2-85.56%. Mean pH values rang between 4.74–4.30. Mean total lactic acid bacteria colonies ranged from 3.87 x 10⁸ - 7.95 x 10⁸ CFU/ml. The average of the antioxidant activity ranged between 10.98%-27.88%. Average of cholesterol levels ranged from 14.0 mg/ml–17.5 mg/ml. The results showed that the addition of cinnamon extract in making goat milk yoghurt product isolates dadih (Pediococcus pentosaceus) significantly different (P < 0.05) to water content, pH value, total lactic acid bacterial colonies, antioxidant activity and cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the study shows that using of cinnamon extract 4% is the best in making goat milk yoghurt.

Keywords: cholesterol, antioxidant, yoghurt, Pediococcus pentosaceus, cinnamon

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6 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Bharat Narasimhan, Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Kani Sheikh M., Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Venkateswaran A. R., Ratnakar Kini S., Prem Kumar K., Arun Murugan, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: lipid profile, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, VLDL, CLD

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5 Isolation and Identification of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria with Cholesterol Lowering Potential and Their Use in Fermented Milk Product

Authors: Malai Taweechotipatr, Preeyarach Whisetkhan, Ulisa Pachekrepapol

Abstract:

Elevated level of blood cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia may lead to atherosclerosis and poses a major risk for cardiovascular diseases. Probiotics play a crucial role in human health, and probiotic bacteria that possesses bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity can be used to lower cholesterol level of the host. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Thai fermented foods were able to exhibit bile salt hydrolase activity and their use in fermented milk. A total of 28 isolates were tested for BSH activity by plate method on MRS agar supplemented with 0.5% sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid and incubated at 37°C for 48 h under anaerobic condition. The results showed that FN1-1 and FN23-3 isolates possessed strong BSH activity. FN1-1 and FN23-3 isolates were then identified for phenotype, biochemical characteristics, and genotype (16S rRNA sequencing). FN1-1 isolate showed 99.92% similarity to Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 20314(T), while FN23-3 isolate showed 99.94% similarity to Enterococcus faecium CGMCC1.2136 (T). Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 and Enterococcus faecium FN23-3 were tolerant of pH 3-4 and 0.3 and 0.8% bile. Bacterial count and pH of milk fermented with Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 at 37°C and 43°C were investigated. The results revealed that Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 was able to grow in milk, which led to decrease in pH level. Fermentation at 37°C resulted in faster growth rate than at 43 °C. Lactobacillus pentosus FN1-1 was a candidate probiotic to be used in fermented milk products to reduce the risk of high-cholesterol diseases.

Keywords: Probiotics, Lactic Acid Bacteria, cholesterol, bile salt hydrolase

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4 Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Jyotismita Talukdar

Abstract:

In this paper, a study has been made on the possibility and accuracy of early prediction of several Heart Disease using Artificial Neural Network. (ANN). The study has been made in both noise free environment and noisy environment. The data collected for this analysis are from five Hospitals. Around 1500 heart patient’s data has been collected and studied. The data is analysed and the results have been compared with the Doctor’s diagnosis. It is found that, in noise free environment, the accuracy varies from 74% to 92%and in noisy environment (2dB), the results of accuracy varies from 62% to 82%. In the present study, four basic attributes considered are Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Thalach (THAL) and Cholesterol (CHOL.). It has been found that highest accuracy(93%), has been achieved in case of PPI( Post-Permanent-Pacemaker Implementation ), around 79% in case of CAD(Coronary Artery disease), 87% in DCM (Dilated Cardiomyopathy), 89% in case of RHD&MS(Rheumatic heart disease with Mitral Stenosis), 75 % in case of RBBB +LAFB (Right Bundle Branch Block + Left Anterior Fascicular Block), 72% for CHB(Complete Heart Block) etc. The lowest accuracy has been obtained in case of ICMP (Ischemic Cardiomyopathy), about 38% and AF( Atrial Fibrillation), about 60 to 62%.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, coronary heart disease, cholesterol, chronic stable angina, sick sinus syndrome, Thalach

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3 Prednisone and Its Active Metabolite Prednisolone Attenuate Lipid Accumulation in Macrophages

Authors: H. Jeries, N. Volkova, C. G. Iglesias, M. Najjar, M. Rosenblat, M. Aviram, T. Hayek

Abstract:

Background: Synthetic forms of glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone, prednisolone) are anti-inflammatory drugs which are widely used in clinical practice. The role of glucocorticoids (GCs) in cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation is still unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effects of prednisone or its active metabolite, prednisolone, on macrophage oxidative stress and lipid metabolism using in-vivo, ex-vivo and in-vitro systems. Methods: The in-vivo study included C57BL/6 mice which were intraperitoneally injected with prednisone or prednisolone (5mg/kg) for 4 weeks, followed by lipid metabolism analyses in the mice aorta, and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM). In the ex-vivo study, we analyzed the effect of serum samples obtained from 9 healthy volunteers before or after treatment with oral prednisone (20mg for 5 days), on J774A.1 macrophage atherogenicity. In-vitro studies were conducted using J774A.1 macrophages, human monocyte derived macrophages (HMDM) and fibroblasts. Cells were incubated with increasing concentrations (0-200 ng/ml) of prednisone or prednisolone, followed by determination of cellular oxidative status, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. Results: Prednisone or prednisolone treatment resulted in a significant reduction in triglycerides and mainly in cholesterol cellular accumulation in MPM or in J774A.1 macrophages incubated with human serum. Similar resulted were noted in HMDM or in J774A.1 macrophages which were directly incubated with the GCs. These effects were associated with GCs inhibitory effect on triglycerides and cholesterol biosynthesis rates, throughout downregulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) expression, and of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP2) and HMGCR expression, respectively. In parallel to prednisone or prednisolone induced reduction in macrophage triglyceride content, paraoxonase 2 (PON2) expression was significantly upregulated. GCs-induced reduction of cellular triglyceride and cholesterol mass was mediated by the GCs receptors on macrophages since the GCs receptor antagonist (RU 486) abolished these effects. In fibroblasts, unlike macrophages, prednisone or prednisolone showed no anti-atherogenic effects. Conclusions: Prednisone or prednisolone are anti-atherogenic since they protected macrophages from lipid accumulation and foam cell formation.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, macrophage, cholesterol, triglycerides, prednisolone, prednisone, foam cell

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2 The Effect of Probiotics Lactococcus plantarum and Prebiotic Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas sp.) on Performance and Cholesterol Meat of Local Ducks

Authors: Zulkarnain , Husmaini, Rijal Zein, Marlito Latifa, Syahrul E. Rambee

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotics–fermented purple sweet potato (PPSP) on performance and cholesterol meat of local ducks. One hundred two weeks old male local ducks placed in 4 treatment doses for ten weeks. The treatments were the dosage of PPSP, i.e., 0, 1, 2 and 3 grams of PPSP/bird/week. One gram PPSP contains 1.3 x 108 colony form unit. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS and DMRT. The results showed that PPSP administration in local ducks did not affect intestinal villi height and fed consumption (P > 0.05), but highly significant (P < 0.01) increasing duodenum thickness, body weight, carcass yield and reducing both feed conversion and cholesterol meat content. The difference in PPSP dosage (1.2 and 3 grams) had the same effect on body weight gain. However, it has a different impact on feed conversion and meat cholesterol levels. The higher the PPSP dose given, the lower the feed conversion and meat cholesterol level. This study has shown that administration of PPSP can improve performance and reduce cholesterol levels of local duck meat. Giving PPSP as much as 3 grams per bird every week has provided the best results.

Keywords: Performance, Probiotics, cholesterol, purple sweet potato, local duck

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1 Exploration of the Possible Link Between Emotional Problems and Cholesterol Levels Among Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Rosa S. Wong, Keith T.S. Tung, H.W. Tsang, Frederick K. Ho, Patrick Ip

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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. Evidence shows that ADHD and mood problems such as depression and anxiety often co-occur and yet not everyone with ADHD reported elevated emotional problems. Given that cholesterol is essential for healthy brain development including the regions governing emotion regulation, reports found lower cholesterol levels in patients with major depressive disorder and those with suicide attempt behavior compared to healthy subjects. This study explored whether ADHD adolescents experienced more emotional problems and whether emotional problems correlated with cholesterol levels in these adolescents. This study used a portion of data from the longitudinal cohort study which was designed to investigate the long-term impact of family socioeconomic status on child development. In 2018/19, parents of 300 adolescents (average age: 12.57+/-0.49 years) were asked to rate their children’s emotional problems and report whether their children had doctor-diagnosed psychiatric diseases. We further collected blood samples from 263 children to study their lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol). Regression analyses were performed to test the relationships between variables of interest. Among 300 children, 27 (9%) had ADHD diagnosis. Analysis based on overall sample found no association between ADHD and emotional problems, but when investigating the relationship by gender, there was a significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on emotional problems (p=0.037), with ADHD males displaying more emotional problems than ADHD females. Further analyses based on 263 children (21 with ADHD diagnosis) found significant interaction effect of ADHD and gender on total cholesterol (p=0.038) and low LDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.013) after adjusting for the child’s physical disease history. Specifically, ADHD males had significantly lower total cholesterol and low lipoprotein-cholesterol levels than ADHD females. In ADHD males, more emotional problems were associated with lower LDL-cholesterol levels (B = -4.26, 95%CI (-7.46, -1.07), p=0.013). We found preliminary support for the association between more emotional problems and lower cholesterol levels in ADHD children, especially among males. Although larger prospective studies are needed to substantiate these claims, the evidence highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle to keep cholesterol levels in normal range which can have positive effects on physical and mental health.

Keywords: Adolescents, cholesterol, emotional problems, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

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