Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

chloride Related Abstracts

4 Chloride Transport in Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Radka Pernicova

Abstract:

Chloride resistance in Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is determined in this paper. This work deals with the one dimension chloride transport, which can be potentially dangerous particularly for the durability of concrete structures. Risk of reinforcement corrosion due to exposure to the concrete surface to direct the action of chloride ions (mainly in the form de-icing salts or groundwater) is dangerously increases. The measured data are investigated depending on the depth of penetration of chloride ions into the concrete structure. Comparative measurements with normal strength concrete are done as well. The experimental results showed that UHCP have improved resistance of chlorides penetration than NSC and also chloride diffusion depth is significantly lower in UHCP.

Keywords: Transport, Salinity, chloride, one dimensional diffusion, UHPC

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3 Prescription of Maintenance Fluids in the Emergency Department

Authors: Adrian Craig, Jonathan Easaw, Rose Jordan, Ben Hall

Abstract:

The prescription of intravenous fluids is a fundamental component of inpatient management, but it is one which usually lacks thought. Fluids are a drug, which like any other can cause harm when prescribed inappropriately or wrongly. However, it is well recognised that it is poorly done, especially in the acute portals. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 1mmol/kg of potassium, sodium, and chloride per day. With various options of fluids, clinicians tend to face difficulty in choosing the most appropriate maintenance fluid, and there is a reluctance to prescribe potassium as part of an intravenous maintenance fluid regime. The aim was to prospectively audit the prescription of the first bag of intravenous maintenance fluids, the use of urea and electrolytes results to guide the choice of fluid and the use of fluid prescription charts, in a busy emergency department of a major trauma centre in Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. This was undertaken over a week in early November 2016. Of those prescribed maintenance fluid only 8.9% were prescribed a fluid which was most appropriate for their daily electrolyte requirements. This audit has helped to highlight further the issues that are faced in busy Emergency Departments within hospitals that are stretched and lack capacity for prompt transfer to a ward. It has supported the findings of NICE, that emergency admission portals such as Emergency Departments poorly prescribed intravenous fluid therapy. The findings have enabled simple steps to be taken to educate clinicians about their fluid of choice. This has included: posters to remind clinicians to consider the urea and electrolyte values before prescription, suggesting the inclusion of a suggested intravenous fluid of choice in the prescription chart of the trust and the inclusion of a session within the introduction programme revising intravenous fluid therapy and daily electrolyte requirements. Moving forward, once the interventions have been implemented then, the data will be reaudited in six months to note any improvement in maintenance fluid choice. Alongside this, an audit of the rate of intravenous maintenance fluid therapy would be proposed to further increase patient safety by avoiding unintentional fluid overload which may cause unnecessary harm to patients within the hospital. In conclusion, prescription of maintenance fluid therapy was poor within the Emergency Department, and there is a great deal of opportunity for improvement. Therefore, the measures listed above will be implemented and the data reaudited.

Keywords: Trauma, Emergency Medicine, Electrolyte, Maintenance, Fluid, Emergency Department, Major trauma, intravenous, potassium, sodium, chloride, fluid therapy

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2 Regulation of PKA-Dependent Calcineurin as a Switch in Cell Secretion

Authors: Hani M. M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo

Abstract:

This study will investigate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent calcineurin (Cn), known as protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B) as well, regulation of chloride ion (Cl⁻) secretion and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules in immune cells such as cytokines. THP-1-derived monocytes, primary human monocytes and the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) were used in this study. The 16HBE14o- cells were chosen as positive control. Hence, to further confirm the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium binding protein (S100A10), annexin A2 (AnxA2) and calcineurin A subunit (CnA) in all three cell types, cell lysate was probed against corresponding primary antibodies by immunoblotting. Western blot analyses show the expression of CFTR, AnxA2, CnA and S100A10 in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes. In conclusion, CFTR, S100A10, CnA and AnxA2 are expressed in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes and regulate Cl⁻ secretion. Also, they may play a role in the pro-inflammatory molecules release. The ongoing work will confirm interaction between these proteins in the cell lines.

Keywords: monocytes, chloride, annexin A2, calcineurin, CFTR, pro-inflammatory molecules, S100A10

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1 Synthesis and Characterization of Iron Modified Geopolymer and Its Resistance against Chloride and Sulphate

Authors: Noor-ul-Amin, Lubna Nawab, Sabiha Sultana

Abstract:

Geopolymer with different silica to alumina ratio with iron have been synthesized using sodium silicate, aluminum, and iron salts as a source of silica, alumina and iron source, and sodium/potassium hydroxide as an alkaline medium. The iron source will be taken from iron (III) salts and laterite clay samples. Laterite has been used as a natural source of iron in modified geopolymer. The synthesized iron modified geopolymer was submitted to the different aggressive environment, including chloride and sulphate solutions in different concentration. Different experimental techniques, including XRF, XRD, and FTIR, were used to study the bonding nature and effect of aggressive environment on geopolymer. The major phases formed during geopolymerization are sodalite (Na₄Al₃Si₃O₁₂Cl), albite (NaAlSi₃O₈), hematite (Fe₂O₃), and chabazite as confirmed from the XRD results. The resulting geopolymer showed greater resistance to sulphate and chloride as compared to the normal geopolymer.

Keywords: laterite, chloride, sulphate, modified geopolymer

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