Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 101

chitosan Related Abstracts

101 Magnetic Biomaterials for Removing Organic Pollutants from Wastewater

Authors: L. Obeid, A. Bee, D. Talbot, S. Abramson, M. Welschbillig


The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate and chitosane are extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbents. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds. Chitosan is an amino-polysaccharide; this cationic polymer is obtained by deacetylation of chitin the major constituent of crustaceans. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate and chitosan beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads and magnetic chitosan beads (called magsorbents) for methyl orange (MO) (an anionic dye), methylene blue (MB) (a cationic dye) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) (a hydrophobic pollutant). The effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, pollutant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of pollutant on the magnetic beads was investigated. The adsorption of anionic and cationic pollutants is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. Consequently methyl orange is highly adsorbed by chitosan beads in acidic medium and methylene blue by alginate beads in basic medium. In the case of a hydrophobic pollutant, which is weakly adsorbed, we have shown that the adsorption is enhanced by adding a surfactant. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, was used to increase the adsorption of PNP by magnetic alginate beads. Adsorption of CPC by alginate beads occurs through two mechanisms: (i) electrostatic attractions between cationic head groups of CPC and negative carboxylate functions of alginate; (ii) interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC. The hydrophobic pollutant is adsolubilized within the surface aggregated structures of surfactant. Figure c shows that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in presence of CPC. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs due to the formation of micelles in the solution. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove ionic and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants.

Keywords: Magnetic, Adsorption, alginate, chitosan, magsorbent, organic pollutant

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100 Hollowfiber Poly Lactid Co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA)-Collagen Coated by Chitosan as a Candidate of Small Diameter Vascular Graft

Authors: Dita Mayasari, Zahrina Mardina, Riki Siswanto, Agresta Ifada, Ova Oktavina, Prihartini Widiyanti


Heart failure is a serious major health problem with high number of mortality per year. Bypass is one of the solutions that has often been taken. Natural vascular graft (xenograft) as the substitute in bypass is inconvenient due to ethic problems and the risk of infection transmission caused by the usage of another species transgenic vascular. Nowadays, synthetic materials have been fabricated from polymers. The aim of this research is to make a synthetic vascular graft with great physical strength, high biocompatibility, and good affordability. The method of this research was mixing PLGA and collagen by magnetic stirrer. This composite were shaped by spinneret with water as coagulant. Then it was coated by chitosan with 3 variations of weight (1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams) to increase hemo and cytocompatibility, proliferation, and cell attachment in order for the vascular graft candidates to be more biocompatible. Mechanical strength for each variation was 5,306 MPa (chitosan 1 gram), 3,433 MPa (chitosan 2 grams) and 3,745 MPa (chitosan 3 grams). All the tensile values were higher than human vascular tensile strength. Toxicity test showed that the living cells in all variations were more than 60% in number, thus the vascular graft is not toxic.

Keywords: chitosan, PLGA, collagen, spinneret

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99 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani


Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: chitosan, empty fruit bunches, filter media, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
98 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang


Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: chitosan, osteoblast, osteoclast, glycosaminoglycan

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97 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: Polymer Hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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96 Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Orodispersisble Tablets: Formulation and in vitro/in vivo Evaluation in Healthy Human Volunteers

Authors: Soad Ali Yehia, Mohamed Shafik El-Ridi, Mina Ibrahim Tadros, Nolwa Gamal El-Sherif


Fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD) is a slightly soluble, bitter-tasting, drug having an oral bioavailability of 35%. The maximum plasma concentration is reached 2.6 hours (Tmax) post-dose. The current work aimed to develop taste-masked FXD orodispersible tablets (ODTs) to increase extent of drug absorption and reduce Tmax. Taste masking was achieved via solid dispersion (SD) with chitosan (CS) or sodium alginate (ALG). FT-IR, DSC and XRD were performed to identify physicochemical interactions and FXD crystallinity. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs were developed via addition of superdisintegrants (crosscarmelose sodium or sodium starch glycolate, 5% and 10%, w/w) or sublimable agents (camphor, menthol or thymol; 10% and 20%, w/w) to FXD-SDs. ODTs were evaluated for weight variation, drug-content, friability, wetting time, disintegration time and drug release. Camphor-based (20%, w/w) FXD-ODT (F12) was optimized (F23) by incorporation of a more hydrophilic lubricant, sodium stearyl fumarate (Pruv®). The topography of the latter formula was examined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vivo estimation of FXD pharmacokinetics, relative to Allegra® tablets, was evaluated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the gustatory sensation test in healthy volunteers, FXD:CS (1:1) and FXD:ALG (1:0.5) SDs were selected. Taste-masked FXD-ODTs had appropriate physicochemical properties and showed short wetting and disintegration times. Drug release profiles of F23 and phenylalanine-containing Allegra® ODT were similar (f2 = 96) showing a complete release in two minutes. SEM micrographs revealed pores following camphor sublimation. Compared to Allegra® tablets, pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers proved F23 ability to increase extent of FXD absorption (14%) and reduce Tmax to 1.83 h.

Keywords: chitosan, fexofenadine hydrochloride, taste masking, orodispersible

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95 Characterisation of Chitooligomers Prepared with the Aid of Cellulase, Xylanase and Chitosanase

Authors: Anna Zimoch-Korzycka, Dominika Kulig, Andrzej Jarmoluk


The aim of this study was to obtain chitooligosaccharides from chitosan with better functional properties using three different enzyme preparations and compare the products of enzymatic hydrolysis. Commercially available cellulase (CL), xylanase (X) and chitosanase (CS) preparations were used to investigate hydrolytic activity on chitosan (CH) with low molecular weight and DD of 75-85%. It has been reported that CL and X have side activities of other enzymes, such as β-glucanase or β-glucosidase. CS enzyme has a foreign activity of chitinase. Each preparation was used in 1000 U of activity and in the same reaction conditions. The degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan were specified using titration and viscometric methods, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of enzymes preparations on chitosan was monitored by dynamic viscosity measurement. After 4 h reaction with stirring, solutions were filtered and chitosan oligomers were isolated by methanol solution into two fractions: precipitate (A) and supernatant (B). A Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the structural changes of chitosan oligomers fractions and initial chitosan. Furthermore, the solubility of lyophilized hydrolytic mixture (C) and two chitooligomers fractions (A, B) of each enzyme hydrolysis was assayed. The antioxidant activity of chitosan oligomers was evaluated as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The dynamic viscosity measured after addition of enzymes preparation to the chitosan solution decreased dramatically over time in the sample with X in comparison to solution without the enzyme. For mixtures with CL and CS, lower viscosities were also recorded but not as low as the ones with X. A and B fractions were characterized by the most similar viscosity obtained by the xylanase hydrolysis and were 15 mPas and 9 mPas, respectively. Structural changes of chitosan oligomers A, B, C and their differences related with various enzyme preparations used were confirmed. Water solubility of A fractions was not possible to filter and the result was not recorded. Solubility of supernatants was approximately 95% and was higher than hydrolytic mixture. It was observed that the DPPH radical scavenging effect of A, B, C samples is the highest for X products and was approximately 13, 17, 19% respectively. In summary, a mixture of chitooligomers may be useful for the design of edible protective coatings due to the improved biophysical properties.

Keywords: chitosan, cellulase, xylanase, chitosanase, chitooligosaccharides

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94 Electrical Interactions and Patterning of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions

Authors: N. V. Klassen, A. A. Vasin, A. M. Likhter, K. A. Voronin, A. V. Mariasevskaya, I. M. Shmit’ko


Regular patterning in mixtures of bio-polymers (chitosan and collagen) and nanoparticles in water suspensions has been found by means of optical microscopy. The patterning was created either by external electrical field of moderate amplitude (200–1000 v/cm) or spontaneously. Simultaneously with the patterning pushing out of water drops mixed with nanoparticles to the external regions was observed. These phenomena are explained by interactions of charged bio-polymers and nanoparticles with external and internal electrical fields as well as with the regions of decreased dielectrical permittivity surrounding nano-objects in water which possesses anomalously high dielectrical permittivity. Electrical charges of opposite signs of the nano-objects induce their mutual attraction whereas dipole moments created around these nano-objects by the electrical fields are pushing these particles to the regions with lower fields. Due to this reason, non-homogeneities of dielectrical permittivity around nano-objects immersed into water suspension induces mutual repulsion of the objects. This spatial decrease of this repulsion with the inter-particle distances is more sharp than that of the Coulomb attraction. So, at longer distances, the attractions are stronger whereas at shorter distances the repulsion prevails. At a certain distance these two forces compensate each other creating the equilibrium state of the mixture of nano-objects with opposite charges. When the groups of positive and negative nano-objects consist from identical particles, quasi-periodical pattern of the suspension is observed like mesoscopic two-dimensional super-crystal. These results can clarify the mechanisms of healing of internal organs with direct or alternative electrical fields.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, chitosan, collagen, bio-polymers, Coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances

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93 Transformations of Spatial Distributions of Bio-Polymers and Nanoparticles in Water Suspensions Induced by Resonance-Like Low Frequency Electrical Fields

Authors: A. A. Vasin, N. V. Klassen, A. M. Likhter


Water suspensions of in-organic (metals and oxides) and organic nano-objects (chitozan and collagen) were subjected to the treatment of direct and alternative electrical fields. In addition to quasi-periodical spatial patterning resonance-like performance of spatial distributions of these suspensions has been found at low frequencies of alternating electrical field. These resonances are explained as the result of creation of equilibrium states of groups of charged nano-objects with opposite signs of charges at the interparticle distances where the forces of Coulomb attraction are compensated by the repulsion forces induced by relatively negative polarization of hydrated regions surrounding the nanoparticles with respect to pure water. The low frequencies of these resonances are explained by comparatively big distances between the particles and their big masses with t\respect to masses of atoms constituting molecules with high resonance frequencies. These new resonances open a new approach to detailed modeling and understanding of mechanisms of the influence of electrical fields on the functioning of internal organs of living organisms at the level of cells and neurons.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Transformations, chitosan, collagen, bio-polymers, Coulomb attraction, polarization repulsion, periodical patterning, electrical low frequency resonances

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92 Dry Modifications of PCL/Chitosan/PCL Tissue Scaffolds

Authors: Ozan Ozkan, Hilal Turkoglu Sasmazel


Natural polymers are widely used in tissue engineering applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability and solubility in the physiological medium. On the other hand, synthetic polymers are also widely utilized in tissue engineering applications, because they carry no risk of infectious diseases and do not cause immune system reaction. However, the disadvantages of both polymer types block their individual usages as tissue scaffolds efficiently. Therefore, the idea of usage of natural and synthetic polymers together as a single 3D hybrid scaffold which has the advantages of both and the disadvantages of none has been entered to the literature. On the other hand, even though these hybrid structures support the cell adhesion and/or proliferation, various surface modification techniques applied to the surfaces of them to create topographical changes on the surfaces and to obtain reactive functional groups required for the immobilization of biomolecules, especially on the surfaces of synthetic polymers in order to improve cell adhesion and proliferation. In a study presented here, to improve the surface functionality and topography of the layer by layer electrospun 3D poly-epsilon-caprolactone/chitosan/poly-epsilon-caprolactone hybrid tissue scaffolds by using atmospheric pressure plasma method, thus to improve cell adhesion and proliferation of these tissue scaffolds were aimed. The formation/creation of the functional hydroxyl and amine groups and topographical changes on the surfaces of scaffolds were realized by using two different atmospheric pressure plasma systems (nozzle type and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) type) carried out under different gas medium (air, Ar+O2, Ar+N2). The plasma modification time and distance for the nozzle type plasma system as well as the plasma modification time and the gas flow rate for DBD type plasma system were optimized with monitoring the changes in surface hydrophilicity by using contact angle measurements. The topographical and chemical characterizations of these modified biomaterials’ surfaces were carried out with SEM and ESCA, respectively. The results showed that the atmospheric pressure plasma modifications carried out with both nozzle type plasma and DBD plasma caused topographical and functionality changes on the surfaces of the layer by layer electrospun tissue scaffolds. However, the shelf life studies indicated that the hydrophilicity introduced to the surfaces was mainly because of the functionality changes. Therefore, according to the optimized results, samples treated with nozzle type air plasma modification applied for 9 minutes from a distance of 17 cm and Ar+O2 DBD plasma modification applied for 1 minute under 70 cm3/min O2 flow rate were found to have the highest hydrophilicity compared to pristine samples.

Keywords: plasma, Hybrid, Biomaterial, chitosan

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91 Chitosan-Aluminum Monostearate Dispersion as Fabricating Liquid for Constructing Controlled Drug Release Matrix

Authors: Kotchamon Yodkhum, Thawatchai Phaechamud


Hydrophobic chitosan-based materials have been developed as controlled drug delivery system. This study was aimed to prepare and evaluate chitosan-aluminum monostearate composite dispersion (CLA) as fabricating liquid for construct a hydrophobic, controlled-release solid drug delivery matrix. This work was attempted to blend hydrophobic substance, aluminum monostearate (AMS), with chitosan in acidic aqueous medium without using any surfactants or grafting reaction, and high temperature during mixing that are normally performed when preparing hydrophobic chitosan system. Lactic acid solution (2%w/v) was employed as chitosan solvent. CLA dispersion was prepared by dispersing different amounts of AMS (1-20% w/w) in chitosan solution (4% w/w) with continuous agitation using magnetic stirrer for 24 h. Effect of AMS amount on physicochemical properties of the dispersion such as viscosity, rheology and particle size was evaluated. Morphology of chitosan-AMS complex (dispersant) was observed under inverted microscope and atomic force microscope. Stability of CLA dispersions was evaluated after preparation within 48 h. CLA dispersions containing AMS less than 5 % w/w exhibited rheological behavior as Newtonian while that containing higher AMS amount exhibited as pseudoplastic. Particle size of the dispersant was significantly smaller when AMS amount was increased up to 5% w/w and was not different between the higher AMS amount system. Morphology of the dispersant under inverted microscope displayed irregular shape and their size exhibited the same trend with particle size measurement. Observation of the dispersion stability revealed that phase separation occurred faster in the system containing higher AMS amount which indicated lower stability of the system. However, the dispersions were homogeneous and stable more than 12 hours after preparation that enough for fabrication process. The prepared dispersions had ability to be fabricated as a porous matrix via lyophilization technique.

Keywords: Dispersion, controlled-release, chitosan, aluminum monostearate

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90 Preparation and in vitro Characterisation of Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite Injectable Microspheres as Hard Tissue Substitution

Authors: H. Maachou, A. Chagnes, G. Cote


The present work reports the properties of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (Cs/HA: 100/00, 70/30 and 30/70) composite microspheres obtained by emulsification processing route. The morphology of chitosane microspheres was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which shows an aggregate of spherical microspheres with a particle size, determined by optical microscope, ranged from 4 to 10 µm. Thereafter, a biomimetic approach was used to study the in vitro biomineralization of these composites. It concerns the composites immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different times. The deposited calcium phosphate was studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and ICP analysis of phosphorus. In fact, the mineral formed on Cs/HA microspheres was a mixture of carbonated HA and β-TCP as showed by FTIR peaks at 1419,5 and 871,8 cm-1 and XRD peak at 29,5°. This formation was induced by the presence of HA in chitosan microspheres. These results are confirmed by SEM micrographs which chow the Ca-P crystals growth in form of cauliflowers. So, these materials are of great interest for bone regeneration applications due to their ability to nucleate calcium phosphates in presence of simulated body fluid (SBF).

Keywords: Composite, Bone Regeneration, hydroxyapatite, chitosan, microsphere

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89 Crystallinity, Antimicrobial Activity and Dyeing Properties of Chitosan-G-Poly(N-Acryloyl Morpholine) Copolymer

Authors: Fakhreia A. Al Sagheer, Enas I. Ibrahim, Khaled D. Khalil


N-Acryloyl morpholine, NAM, was grafted onto chitosan utilizing homogeneous conditions with 1% acetic acid as the solvent, and potassium persulfate and sodium sulfite as the redox initiator. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as time, temperature, and monomer and initiator concentrations, on the percentage of grafting (G%) and the grafting efficiency (E%) were determined. The graft copolymer showed a remarkably improved crystallinity, as compared to the unmodified chitosan, based on the FESEM, XRD, and DSC results. Chitosan-g-poly(N-acryloyl morpholine) (Cs-PNAM), the copolymer obtained by using this procedure, was characterized by utilizing FTIR, FESEM, TGA, and XRD analysis. As expected, the results of an evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities show that the grafted chitosan copolymers exhibit stronger inhibitory effects against both types of microbes than does chitosan. Moreover, the size of the inhibition zone created by the graft copolymer was observed to be proportional to its G% corresponding to its morpholine content. Fortunately, the graft copolymer showed a marked growth inhibition against candidiasis (C.Albicans and C.Kefyr). We conclude that the graft copolymer may be highly effective in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis. In addition, the extent and pH dependence of uptake of different types of dyes (acidic: EBT, and MV; and basic: MB) by grafted chitosan in pH 6.5 aqueous solutions was determined. The results show that, the grafted copolymer exhibited a greater affinity to absorb the acid dyes more than the basic ones especially at relatively low temperature. Thus the modified chitosan can be used, in wastewater treatment, as efficient economic absorbent especially for anionic dyes from the industrial processing effluents.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, chitosan, N-Acryloyl morpholine, homogeneous grafting, dye uptake

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88 A Novel Photocrosslinkable and Cytocompatible Chitosan Coating for TI6AL4V Surfaces

Authors: D. Zujur, J. Moret, D. Rodriguez, L. Cruz, J. Lira, L. Gil, E. Dominguez, J. F. Alvarez-Barreto


In this work, chitosan (CH) has been used to produce a novel coating for Ti6Al4V, the most widely used alloy in orthopedic implants, so as to improve the biological tissue response at the metallic surface. The Ti6Al4V surface was sandblasted with alumina particles and observed by SEM. Chitosan was chemically modified, via crodiimide chemistry, with lactobionic and 4-azidebenzoic acid to make it soluble at physiological pH and photo-crosslinkable, respectively. The reaction was verified by FTIR, NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy. Ti6Al4V surfaces were coated with solutions of the modified CH and exposed to UV light, causing the polymer crosslinking, and formation of a hydrogel on the surface. The crosslinking reaction was monitored by FTIR at different exposure times. Coating morphology was observed by SEM. The coating´s cytocompatibility was determined in vitro through the culture of rat bone marrow´s mesenchymal stem cells, using an MTT assay. The results show that the developed coating is cytocompatible, easy to apply and could be used for further studies in the encapsulation of bioactive molecules to improve osteogenic potential at the tissue-implant interface.

Keywords: Hydrogel, chitosan, photo-crosslinking, Ti6Al4V, bioactive coating

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87 Production, Extraction and Purification of Fungal Chitosan and Its Modification for Medical Applications

Authors: Debajyoti Bose


Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Chitosan is a positively charged natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It is a linear polysaccharide consisting of β-1,4 linked monomers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Chitosan can be mainly obtained from fungal sources during large fermentation process. In this study,three different fungal strains Aspergillus niger NCIM 1045, Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 645 and Mucor indicus MTCC 3318 were used for the production of chitosan. The growth mediums were optimized for maximum fungal production. The produced chitosan was characterized by determining degree of deacetylation. Chitosan possesses one reactive amino at the C-2 position of the glucosamine residue, and these amines confer important functional properties to chitosan which can be exploited for biofabrication to generate various chemically modified derivatives and explore their potential for pharmaceutical field. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The major effect on encapsulation and release of protein (e.g. enzyme diastase) in chitosan-TPP nanoparticles was investigated in order to control the loading and release efficiency. It was noted that the chitosan loading and releasing efficiency as a nanocapsule, obtained from different fungal sources was almost near to initial enzyme activity(12026 U/ml) with a negligible loss. This signify, chitosan can be used as a polymeric drug as well as active component or protein carrier material in dosage by design due to its appealing properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and relatively low production cost from abundant natural sources. Based upon these initial experiments, studies were also carried out on modification of chitosan based nanocapsules incorporated with physiologically important enzymes and nutraceuticals for target delivery.

Keywords: enzyme, Fungi, chitosan, nanocapsule

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86 Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff Bases with Different Benzaldehyde Derivatives

Authors: Nadia A. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa, Ahmed H. H. El-Ghandour, Marwa M. Abdel-Aziz, Omayma F. Abdel-Gawad


Eighteen carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) schiff bases and their reduced derivatives have been synthesized. They were characterized by spectral analyses (FT-IR and H1-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy observation. Their antibacterial activities against Streptococcus pneumoniae (RCMB 010010), Bacillis subtilis (RCMB 010067), as Gram positive bacteria and Escherichia coli (RCMB 010052) as Gram negative bacteria and the antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 02568), Geotricum candidum (RCMB 05097), and Candida albicans (RCMB 05031) were examined using agar disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate how the antibacterial and the antifungal activity are clearly affected by both the nature and position of the substituent groups in the aryl ring of the prepared derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base and its reduced form show higher antimicrobial activity comparing with other para substituted derivatives. CMCh-4-nitroBenz Schiff base: 18.3, 17, and 15.6 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 16.2, 17.3, and 16.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. CMCh-4-nitroBenz reduced form: 19.5, 18.7, and 16.2 mm against Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 17.5, 19.5, and 17.4 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively. Also CMCh-3-bromoBenz show good results; CMCh-3-bromoBenz schiff base: 19.2, 16.9, and 14.6 mm Bacillis subtilis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Escherichia coli respectively and 18.4, 17.6, and 15.9 mm against Aspergillus fumigates, Geotricum candidum, and Candida albicans respectively.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, schiff base, chitosan, minimum inhibition concentration

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85 Formulation and Evaluation of Colon-Specific Drug Delivery System of Zaltoprofen

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. P. Vadnere, G. Vidya Sagar


Compression coating is one of the strategies for delivering drug to the colon based on Gastrointestinal PH and transit time concept. The main aim of these formulations to develop rapidly disintegrating Zaltoprofen core tablets compression-coated with a mixture of time-dependent hydrophilic swellable polymer HPMC K 15 and PH responsive soluble polymer Chitosan and Guar gum in different ratios. The effect of the proportion of HPMC, Chitosan and Guar gum in the coat on premature drug release in upper part (Stomach and small intestine) of GIT and the amount of drug release in colon target area was studied. The formulations are carried out by using Direct Compression method. Sodium starch Glycolate used for rapid disintegration. FTIR used for Drug-Polymer Interaction studies. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, in-vitro disintegration, in-Vitro dissolution and in-vitro kinetic study.

Keywords: drug delivery, Formulation, chitosan, zaltoprofen

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84 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni


In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Stem cell differentiation, Gelatin, alginate, chitosan, pore morphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
83 Physical and Microbiological Evaluation of Chitosan Films: Effect of Essential Oils and Storage

Authors: N. Valderrama, W. Albarracín, N. Algecira


It was studied the effect of the inclusion of thyme and rosemary essential oils into chitosan films, as well as the microbiological and physical properties when storing chitosan film with and without the mentioned inclusion. The film forming solution was prepared by dissolving chitosan (2%, w/v), polysorbate 80 (4% w/w CH) and glycerol (16% w/w CH) in aqueous lactic acid solutions (control). The thyme (TEO) and rosemary (REO) essential oils (EOs) were included 1:1 w/w (EOs:CH) on their combination 50/50 (TEO:REO). The films were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and a relative humidity of 75% during four weeks. The films with essential oil inclusion did not show an antimicrobial activity against strains. This behavior could be explained because the chitosan only inhibits the growth of microorganisms in direct contact with the active sites. However, the inhibition capacity of TEO was higher than the REO and a synergic effect between TEO:REO was found for S. enteritidis strains in the chitosan solution. Some physical properties were modified by the inclusion of essential oils. The addition of essential oils does not affect the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation), the water solubility, the swelling index nor the DSC behavior. However, the essential oil inclusion can significantly decrease the thickness, the moisture content, and the L* value of films whereas the b* value increased due to molecular interactions between the polymeric matrix, the loosing of the structure, and the chemical modifications. On the other hand, the temperature and time of storage changed some physical properties on the chitosan films. This could have occurred because of chemical changes, such as swelling in the presence of high humidity air and the reacetylation of amino groups. In the majority of cases, properties such as moisture content, tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation, a*, b*, chrome, ΔE increased whereas water resistance, swelling index, L*, and hue angle decreased.

Keywords: Polymers, food additives, chitosan, modified films

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
82 Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives via the Freeze Concentration Technique

Authors: Senem Avaz, Alpay Taralp


Chitosan has been an attractive biopolymer for decades, but its processibility is lowered by its poor solubility, especially in physiological pH values. Freeze concentrated reactions of Chitosan with several organic acids including acrylic, citraconic, itaconic, and maleic acid revealed improved solubility and morphological properties. Solubility traits were assessed with a modified ninhydrin test. Chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and morphological characteristics were determined by SEM. This study is a unique approach to chemically modify Chitosan to enhance water solubility.

Keywords: chitosan, freeze concentration, frozen reactions, ninhydrin test, water soluble chitosan

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81 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation

Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin


The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.

Keywords: Pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separation

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80 Prussian Blue/Chitosan Mixed-Matrix Membranes with Improved Separation Performance of Ethanol/Water Mixtures

Authors: Ting-YuLiu, Yi-Feng Lin


Porous Prussian Blue (PB) nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form PB/CS mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) and the as-prepared PB/CS MMMs were used to dehydration of ethanol at 25 oC in the pervaporation process. The effect of PB loading in CS matrix on pervaporation performance was investigated. The FESEM, EDS, FTIR and XRD measurements were also used for the characterization of the PB/CS MMMs. The PB/CS membranes with 30 wt% PB loading show the best performance with the permeate flux of 614 g/m2h and the separation factor of 1472. The pervaporation using the PB/CS membranes exhibits outstanding performance as compared with the previously reported CS based membranes and MMMs. The present work demonstrates good pervaporation performance of the PB/CS MMMs for the separation of 90wt% ethanol aqueous solution, moreover, it has an opportunity for dehydration of bioethanol in this system of pervaporation.

Keywords: Pervaporation, chitosan, Prussian blue, mixed-matrix membrane

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79 Development of 90y-Chitosan Complex for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: A. Mirzaei, S. Zolghadri, M. Athari-Allaf, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian


Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common autoimmune disease, leading to the destruction of the joints. The aim of this study was the preparation of 90Y-chitosan complex as a novel agent for radiosynovectomy. The complex was prepared in the diluted acetic acid solution. At the optimized condition, the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% was obtained by ITLC method on Whatman No. 1 and by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (4:4:2) as the mobile phase. The complex was stable in acidic media (pH=3) and its radiochemical purity was above 98% even after 48 hours. The biodistribution data in rats showed that there was no significant leakage of the injected activity even after 48 h. Considering all of the excellent features of the complex, 90Y-chitosan can be used to manipulate synovial inflammation effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, biodistribution, Y-90, radiosynovectomy

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78 Rapid and Efficient Removal of Lead from Water Using Chitosan/Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Othman M. Hakami, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab


Occurrence of heavy metals in water resources increased in the recent years albeit at low concentrations. Lead (PbII) is among the most important inorganic pollutants in ground and surface water. However, removal of this toxic metal efficiently from water is of public and scientific concern. In this study, we developed a rapid and efficient removal method of lead from water using chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles. A simple and effective process has been used to prepare chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) (CS/Mag NPs) with effect on saturation magnetization value; the particles were strongly responsive to an external magnetic field making separation from solution possible in less than 2 minutes using a permanent magnet and the total Fe in solution was below the detection limit of ICP-OES (<0.19 mg L-1). The hydrodynamic particle size distribution increased from an average diameter of ~60 nm for Fe3O4 NPs to ~75 nm after chitosan coating. The feasibility of the prepared NPs for the adsorption and desorption of Pb(II) from water were evaluated using Chitosan/Magnetite NPs which showed a high removal efficiency for Pb(II) uptake, with 90% of Pb(II) removed during the first 5 minutes and equilibrium in less than 10 minutes. Maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) occurred at pH 6.0 and under room temperature were as high as 85.5 mg g-1, according to Langmuir isotherm model. Desorption of adsorbed Pb on CS/Mag NPs was evaluated using deionized water at different pH values ranged from 1 to 7 which was an effective eluent and did not result the destruction of NPs, then, they could subsequently be reused without any loss of their activity in further adsorption tests. Overall, our results showed the high efficiency of chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) in lead removal from water in controlled conditions, and further studies should be realized in real field conditions.

Keywords: Water, treatment, chitosan, magnetite

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77 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: K. Sever, Y. Seki, Z. Yenier, İ. Şen, M. Sarikanat


It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: Graphene, Electrical Conductivity, chitosan, viscoelastic properties

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76 Electromechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Based Electroactive Polymer

Authors: M. Sarikanat, E. Akar, I. Şen, Y. Seki, O. C. Yılmaz, B. O. Gürses, L. Cetin, O. Özdemir, K. Sever


Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, polyelectrolyte, cheap polymer. In this study, chitosan based electroactive polymer (CBEAP) was fabricated. Electroactive properties of this polymer were investigated at different voltages. It exhibited excellent tip displacement at low voltages (1, 3, 5, 7 V). Tip displacement was increased as the applied voltage increased. Best tip displacement was investigated as 28 mm at 5V. Characterization of CBEAP was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. CBEAP exhibited desired electroactive properties at low voltages. It is suitable for using in artificial muscle and various robotic applications.

Keywords: Electroactive Polymer, chitosan, electroactive properties

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75 Synthesis and Properties of Chitosan-Graft-Polyacrylamide/Gelatin Superabsorbent Composites for Wastewater Purification

Authors: Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Nacera Aiouaz, Nassima Dairi


Super absorbents polymers received much attention and are used in many fields because of their superior characters to traditional absorbents, e.g., sponge and cotton. So, it is very important but challenging to prepare highly and fast-swelling super absorbents. A reliable, efficient and low-cost technique for removing heavy metal ions from waste water is the adsorption using bio-adsorbents obtained from biological materials, such as polysaccharides-based hydrogels super absorbents. In this study, novel multi-functional super absorbent composites type semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPNs) were prepared via graft polymerization of acrylamide onto chitosan backbone in presence of gelatin, CTS-g-PAAm/Ge, using potassium persulfate and N,N’ -methylenebisacrylamide as initiator and cross linker, respectively. These hydrogels were also partially hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. The formation of the grafted network was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The porous structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From TGA analysis, it was concluded that the incorporation of the Ge in the CTS-g-PAAm network has marginally affected its thermal stability. The effect of gelatin content on the swelling capacities of these super absorbent composites was examined in various media (distilled water, saline and pH-solutions).The water absorbency was enhanced by adding Ge in the network, where the optimum value was reached at 2 wt. % of Ge. Their hydrolysis has not only greatly optimized their absorption capacity but also improved the swelling kinetic. These materials have also showed reswelling ability. We believe that these super-absorbing materials would be very effective for the adsorption of harmful metal ions from waste water.

Keywords: Gelatin, chitosan, superabsorbent, water absorbency

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74 Fabrication and Analysis of Simplified Dragonfly Wing Structures Created Using Balsa Wood and Red Prepreg Fibre Glass for Use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles

Authors: Praveena Nair Sivasankaran, Thomas Arthur Ward, Rubentheren Viyapuri


Paper describes a methodology to fabricate a simplified dragonfly wing structure using balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. These simplified wing structures were created for use in Biomimetic Micro Air Vehicles (BMAV). Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated and possess complex vein structures. In order to mimic the wings function and retain its properties, a simplified version of the wing was designed. The simplified dragonfly wing structure was created using a method called spatial network analysis which utilizes Canny edge detection method. The vein structure of the wings were carved out in balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass. Balsa wood and red prepreg fibre glass was chosen due to its ultra- lightweight property and hence, highly suitable to be used in our application. The fabricated structure was then immersed in a nanocomposite solution containing chitosan as a film matrix, reinforced with chitin nanowhiskers and tannic acid as a crosslinking agent. These materials closely mimic the membrane of a dragonfly wing. Finally, the wings were subjected to a bending test and comparisons were made with previous research for verification. The results had a margin of difference of about 3% and thus the structure was validated.

Keywords: chitosan, chitin, canny edge detection, tannic acid, dragonfly wings, simplified, balsa wood, red prepreg

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73 Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan: Thermal Stability and Feasibility as an Antioxidant for Active Biodegradable Packaging Film

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan


Active packaging has been developed based on the incorporation of certain additives, in particular antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, into packaging systems to maintain or extend product quality and shelf-life. Ferulic acid is one of the most effective natural phenolic antioxidants, which has been used in food, pharmaceutical and active packaging film applications. However, most phenolic compounds are sensitive to oxygen, light and heat; its activities are thus lost during product formulation and processing. Grafting ferulic acid onto polymer is an alternative to reduce its loss under thermal processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present research were to study the thermal stability of ferulic acid after grafting onto chitosan, and to investigate the possibility of using ferulic acid-grafted chitosan (FA-g-CTS) as an antioxidant for active biodegradable packaging film. FA-g-CTS was incorporated into biodegradable film via a two-step process, i.e. compounding extrusion at temperature up to 150 °C followed by blown film extrusion at temperature up to 175 °C. Although incorporating FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.16% (w/w) caused decreased water vapor barrier property and reduced extensibility, the films showed improved oxygen barrier property and antioxidant activity. Radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the film containing FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.04% (w/w) were higher than that of the naked film about 254% and 94%, respectively. Tensile strength and rigidity of the films were not significantly affected by adding FA-g-CTS with a content of 0.02–0.08% (w/w). The results indicated that FA-g-CTS could be potentially used as an antioxidant for active packaging film.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, chitosan, ferulic acid, active packaging film

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72 Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan


Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, which is a second most naturally abundant polysaccharide found in crab shells, shrimp shells, and squid pens. The applications of chitosan in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and packaging industries have been reported owing to its general recognition as safe, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, as well as ability to form films, membranes, gels, beads, fibers and particles. Nevertheless, chitosan is an amino polysaccharide consisting of strong inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds which limit its solubility in neutral pH water resulting in restricted utilization. Chemical modification is an alternative way to impede hydrogen bond formation. The objective of the present research is to improve water solubility and antioxidant activity of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid was grafted onto chitosan at the C-2 position via a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. Different mole ratios of chitosan to ferulic acid (i.e. 1.0:0.0, 1.0:0.5, 1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5, 1.0:2.0, and 1.0:2.5) and various reaction temperatures (i.e. 40, 60, and 80 °C) were used. The reaction was performed at different times (i.e. 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 h). The obtained ferulic acid-grafted chitosan was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR technique. The influences of ferulic acid on crystallinity, solubility and radical scavenging activity of chitosan were also investigated. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan was successfully synthesized as confirmed from (i) the appearance of FTIR absorption band at 1517 cm-1 belonging to C=C aromatic ring of ferulic acid and the increased C–H stretching band intensity and (ii) the appearance of proton signals at δ = 6.31-7.67 ppm ascribing to methine protons of ferulic acid. The condition in which the reaction temperature of 60°C, reaction time of 3 h and the mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1 gave the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. The resulting ferulic acid grafted chitosan was soluble in water (1.3 mg/mL) due to its reduced crystallinity as compared with chitosan and also exhibited 90% greater radical scavenging activity than chitosan. The result suggested the utilization of ferulic acid grafted chitosan as an antioxidant material.

Keywords: chitosan, antioxidant property, ferulic acid, grafting

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