Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 119

China Related Abstracts

119 The South Looking East: The New Geopolitics of Latin America

Authors: Heike Pintor Pirzkall

Abstract:

The positive economic evolution of many countries in the Latin American Continent, mainly in South America, has changed the geopolitical position of the region in the world. It is no longer the Hinterland or backyard of the United States, now it has become the Heartland for Europe and Asia. This position has favored the interest of countries like China or India, who are combining trade agreements with special assistance and aid agreements in many fields like agriculture, alternative energy resources, defense and mining. As many countries in the region are no longer low income countries, a more equal relationship in development aid has been created were the donor and the recipient have become partners and where new actors intervene in a triangular relationship that promotes new alternative aid structures. Triangular co-operation brings together the best of different actors who are providers of development co-operation, partners in SouthSouth co-operation and international organizations. The objective is to share knowledge and implement projects that support the common goal of reducing poverty and promoting development. The intention of this paper is to explain the reasons for Latin America´s “virage” to the east and to give examples of projects and agreements between Latin American countries, China and India which will help to understand the intensification of south-east relations in recent years.

Keywords: Natural Resources, China, Partnership, development cooperation, Latin America, triangular cooperation

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118 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui

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Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: Mechanism, China, internationalization of higher education, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities

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117 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Mechanisms in New Era: Between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Zhao Liu, Kang Cao

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Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds, western and Chinese, in a new way. The article can be divided into four parts. The first part outlines strategic planning transformations in the new era on three levels, generally analysing the internal and external environmental factors of today. The second part indicates the concepts of strategic planning theoretically, demonstrating briefly its development background and process in western and China, respectively. The third part takes Tianjin and Melbourne urban strategic spatial planning as examples to mainly carry on the contrast research from the aspects of strategic planning mode, competitive mechanism, contents, strategy implementation and management. It is expected to summarize the differences and similarities of the two plans, meanwhile, to explore the inherent factors or mechanisms probably spatial, material, political and etc., which affect cities in the course of urban planning. The final part is a summary of general mechanisms of planning from the perspective of strategic spatial planning.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, Australia, China, Differentiation, Melbourne, Tianjin

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116 Financial Reporting Quality and International Financial Reporting

Authors: Matthias Nnadi

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Using samples of 250 large listed firms by market capitalization in China and Hong Kong, we conducted empirical test to determine the impact of regulatory environment on reporting quality following IFRS convergence using three financial reporting measures; earning management, timely loss recognition and value relevance. Our results indicate that accounting data are more value relevant for Hong Kong listed firms than the Chinese A-share firms. The empirical results for timely loss recognition further reveal that there is a larger coefficient estimate on bad news earnings, which suggests that Chines A-share firms are more likely to report losses in a timely manner. The results support the evidence that substantial convergence of IFRS can improve financial reporting quality in a regulated environment such as China. This further supports the expectation that IFRS are relevant to China and has positive effect on its accounting practice and quality.

Keywords: Financial, Quality, China, Reporting, earning, loss, relevance, Hong Kong

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115 Zhou Enlai’s Impact to the Foreign Folicy of China

Authors: Nazira B. Boldurukova

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The main aim of this article is to give the information about life and social and diplomatic work of Zhou Enlai, to prove his identity in his impact to the history of the world; to show his place in the organization of internal and foreign policy and in the peaceful international relationships of China with other countries.

Keywords: Identity, diplomacy, China, foreign policy of China, politician, Zhou Enlai

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114 Capital Mobility in Savings and Investment across China and the ASEAN-5: Evidence from Recursive Cointegration

Authors: Chang Lee Shu-Jung, Mei-Se Chien, Chien-Chiang Lee, Hui-Ting Hu

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This paper applies recursive cointegration analysis to examine the dynamic changes in Feldstein-Horioka saving-investment (S-I) coefficients across China and the ASEAN-5 countries over time. To the extent that the S-I coefficients measure international capital mobility, the main empirical results are as follows. The recursive trace statistics show that the investment- savings nexus varies in these six countries. There is no cointegration between investment and savings in three countries (China, Malaysia, and Singapore), which means that the mobility of the capital markets in the three is high and that domestic investment in them will be financed by the global pool of capital. As to the other three countries (Indonesia, Thailand, and Philippines), there is cointegration between investment and savings for part of the sample period in the three, including before 2002 for Thailand, before 2001 for Indonesia, and before 2002 for Philippines. This shows these three countries achieved highly mobile and open capital markets later.

Keywords: Investment, China, ASEAN, savings, recursive cointegration test

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113 A Theory and Empirical Analysis on the Efficency of Chinese Electricity Pricing

Authors: Jianlin Wang, Jiajia Zhao

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This paper applies the theory and empirical method to examine the relationship between electricity price and coal price, as well as electricity and industry output, for China during Jan 1999-Dec 2012. Our results indicate that there is no any causality between coal price and electricity price under other factors are controlled. However, we found a bi-directional causality between electricity consumption and industry output. Overall, the electricity price set by China’s NDRC is inefficient, which lead to the electricity supply shortage after 2004. It is time to reform electricity price system for China’s reformers.

Keywords: Power supply, China, electricity price, coal price

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112 Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-Based Sample

Authors: Cao Yuping, Li Longfei, Zhao Xingfu, Zhang Yalin

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Purpose: This study examined the effects of exposure to domestic physical violence (DPV) on children’s behavior in a community sample. Method: Ninety-three 12-16 year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were matched with 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV based on age, gender, family composition and parental age and education level. Participation included assessment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by the adolescents and their parents respectively. Results: CBCL total score and anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing scores were significantly higher in adolescents exposed to DPV than those in controls (all ps<0.05).The CBCL total score and scores of anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing behaviors of boys were significantly higher in the research group than in the controls (all ps<0.05). Delinquency scores in abused adolescents were significantly higher than in DPV witnessed (p<0.05), but no other scores of CBCL were significant different. Different subtypes of behavioral problems were associated with different types of abuse. Conclusions: DPV exposure is associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witness DPV alone have similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors.

Keywords: Behavior, Community, Child, Domestic Violence, China

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111 Industry Openness, Human Capital and Wage Inequality: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Qiong Huang, Satish Chand

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This paper uses a primary data from 670 Chinese manufacturing firms, together with the newly introduced regressionbased inequality decomposition method, to study the effect of openness on wage inequality. We find that openness leads to a positive industry wage premium, but its contribution to firm-level wage inequality is relatively small, only 4.69%. The major contributor to wage inequality is human capital, which could explain 14.3% of wage inequality across sample firms.  

Keywords: Human Capital, Openness, China, Decomposition, Wage Inequality

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110 Energy Consumption in China’s Urban Water Supply System

Authors: Kate Smith, Shuming Liu, Yi Liu, Dragan Savic, Gustaf Olsson, Tian Chang, Xue Wu

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In a water supply system, a great deal of care goes into sourcing, treating and delivering water to consumers, but less thought is given to the energy consumed during these processes. This study uses 2011 data to quantify energy use for urban water supply in China and investigates population density as a possible influencing factor. The objective is to provide information that can be used to develop energy-conscious water infrastructure policy, calculate the energy co-benefits of water conservation and compare energy use between China and other countries. The average electrical energy intensity and per capita electrical energy consumption for urban water supply in China in 2011 were 0.29 kWh/m3 and 33.2 kWh/cap•yr, respectively. Comparison between provinces revealed a direct correlation between energy intensity of urban water supply and population served per unit length of pipe. This could imply energy intensity is lower when more densely populated areas are supplied by relatively dense networks of pipes. This study also found that whereas the percentage of energy used for urban water supply tends to increase with the percentage of population served this increase is slower where water supply is more energy efficient and where a larger percentage of population is already supplied.

Keywords: Water supply, China, electrical energy use, water-energy nexus

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109 Revolutions and Cyclic Patterns in Chinese Town Planning: The Case-Study of Shenzhen

Authors: Domenica Bona

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Colin Chant and David Goodman argue that historians of Chinese pre-industrial cities tend to underestimate revolutions and overestimate cyclic patterns: periods of peace and prosperity in the earl part of each d nast , followed b peasants’ rebellions and upheavals. Boyd described these cyclic patterns as part of the background of Chinese town planning and architecture. Thus old ideals of city planning-square plan, southward orientation and a palace along the central axis - are revived again and again in the ascendant phases of several d nastic c cles (e.g. Chang’an, Kaifen, and Beijing). Along this line of thought, m paper questions the relationship between the “magic square rule” and modern Chinese urban- planning. As a matter of fact, the classical theme of “cosmic Taoist urbanism” is still a reference for planning cities and new urban developments, whenever there is the intention to express nationalist ideals and “cultural straightforwardness.” Besides, some case studies can be related to “modern d nasties”: the first Republic under the Kuo Min Tang, the red People’s Republic and the post-Maoist open country of Deng Xiao Ping. Considering the project for the new capital of Nanjing in the Thirties, Beijing’s Tianan Men area in the ifties, and Shenzhen’s utian CBD in late 20th century, I argue that cyclic patterns are still in place, though with deformations related to westernization, private interests and lack of spirituality. How far new Chinese cities are - or simply seem to be - westernized? Symbolism, invisible frameworks, repeating features and behavioural patterns make urban China just “superficiall” western. This can be well noticed in cities previousl occupied b foreigners, like Hong Kong, or in newly founded ones, like Shenzhen, where both Asians and non-Asian people can feel the gender-shift from New-York-like landscapes to something else. Current planning in main metropolitan areas shows a blurred relationship between public policies and private investments: two levels of decisions and actions, one addressing the larger scale and infrastructures, the other concerning the micro scale and development of single plots. While zoning is instrumental in this process, master plans are often laid out over a very poor cartography, so much that any relation between the formal characters of new cities and the centuries-old structure of the related territory gets lost.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Cultural Heritage, China, contemporary cities, shenzhen

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108 Planning Method Study on the Ecological Restrained Construction Area from the Perspective of Governance: A Case from Yangzijin, Yangzhou, China

Authors: Rushi Tan, Yilun Xu, Xiaohui Wang

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The restrained construction zoning, an important part in the urban master plan, is a necessary planning tool to control the city sprawl, to guarantee the reservation implementation of the various types of protective elements, and to realize the storage of the essential urban spatial resources. Simultaneously, owing to the diverse constitutes of restrained construction area and the various stakeholders involved in, its planning requires an overall consideration of all elements from the perspective of coordination, balance and practicability to deal with the problems and conflicts in this process. Taking Yangzijin Ecological Restrained Construction Area in Yangzhou as an example, this study analyzes all the potential actors, agencies and stakeholders in this restrained construction area, as well as the relevant conflicts between each other. Besides, this study tries to build up a planning procedure based on the framework of governance theory, and proposes a possible planning method that combines "rigidity" and "flexibility" to protect the ecological limitation boundary, to take every interest into account, and to promote economic development in a harmonious society.

Keywords: Governance, China, stakeholder, restrained construction area, flexible stratagem

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107 Juvenile Justice in China: A Historical Approach

Authors: Xianlu Zeng

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China has undergone rapid economic growth over the last three decades. During this time, China-focused study has become one of the most popular areas of research. However, even though China has one of the oldest legal traditions in the world, there is limited research available regarding the development and operation of China’s juvenile justice system. This article will provide general information about China’s juvenile justice tradition along with a review of its reformation in 2013. A discussion is presented that provides some thoughts about how successful these reforms have been and where China may need to head.

Keywords: History, China, Juvenile Justice, legal traditions

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106 Sibling Relationship of Adults with Intellectual Disability in China

Authors: Luyin Liang

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Although sibling relationship has been viewed as one of the most important family relationships that significantly impacted on the quality of life of both adults with Intellectual Disability (AWID) and their brothers/sisters, very few research have been done to investigate this relationship in China. This study investigated Chinese siblings of AWID’s relational motivations in sibling relationship and their determining factors. Quantitative research method has been adopted and 284 samples were recruited in this study. Siblings of AWID’s two types of relational motivations, including obligatory motivations and discretionary motivations were examined. Their emotional closeness, senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and expectancy of self-reward in sibling relationship were measured by validated scales. Personal, and familial-social demographic characteristics were also investigated. Linear correlation test and standard multiple regression analysis were the major statistical methods that have been used to analyze the data. The findings of this study showed that all the measured factors, including siblings of AWID’s emotional closeness, their senses of responsibility, experiences of ID stigma, and self-reward expectations had significant relationships with their both types of motivations. However, when these factors were grouped together to measure each type of these motivations, the prediction results were varied. The order of factors that best predict siblings of AWID’s obligatory motivations was: their senses of responsibility, emotional closeness, experiences of ID stigma, and their expectancy of self-reward, whereas the order of these factors that best determine siblings of AWID’s discretionary motivations was: their self-reward expectations, experiences of ID stigma, senses of responsibility, and emotional closeness. Among different demographic characteristics, AWID’s disability condition, their siblings’ age, gender, marital status, number of children, both siblings’ living arrangements and family financial status were found to have significant impacts on siblings of AWID’s both types of motivations in sibling relationship. The results of this study could enhance social work practitioners’ understandings about the needs and challenges of siblings of AWID. Suggestions on advocacies for policy changes and services improvements for these siblings were discussed in this study.

Keywords: Intellectual Disability, China, sibling relationship, adults

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105 The Relationship between Metropolitan Space and Spatial Distribution of Main Innovative Actors: The Case of Yangtze Delta Metropolitan in China

Authors: Jun Zhou, Xingping Wang, Paul Milbourne

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Evidences in the world shows that the industry and population have being greatly concentrated in metropolitan regions which is getting to be the most important area for the economic power and people living standard in the future. In the meanwhile, the relevant innovation theories of Agglomeration, New Industrial Geography and Modern Evolutionary innovation prove that the reason why the agglomeration in world-class city and metropolitan areas and also verify innovation is the key point for the development of metropolis. The primary purpose of this paper is to analyze the geographical spatial characteristics of innovative subjects which contain firm, university, research institution, government and intermediary organ in metropolis throughout the amount data analysis in Yangtze River Metropolis in China. The results show three main conclusions. The first is different subjects in different regions have different spatial characteristics. The second one is different structure and pattern between the subjects also can produce different innovative effect. The last but not the least is agglomeration of innovative subjects’ is not only influenced by the innovative network or local policies but also affected by the localized industry characteristics and culture which are getting to be the most important crucial factors.

Keywords: Spatial, China, metropolitan development, innovative subject, Yangtze River Metropolis

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104 Managing HR Knowledge in a Large Privately Owned Enterprise: An Empirical Case Analysis

Authors: Cindy Wang-Cowham, Judy Ningyu Tang

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The paper contributes towards the development of scarce literature on HR knowledge management. Drawing literature from knowledge management, the authors define the meaning of HR knowledge and propose that there are social mechanisms in organizations that facilitate the management and sharing of HR knowledge. Instead of investigating the subject in large multinational corporations, the present paper examines it in a large Chinese privately owned enterprise, which has an international standing. The main finding of the case analysis is that communication and feedback plays a pivotal role when managing HR knowledge. Social mechanisms can stimulate the communication and feedback between employees, thus facilitate knowledge exchange.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, China, HR knowledge, large privately owned enterprises

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103 Forecasting of Grape Juice Flavor by Using Support Vector Regression

Authors: Ren-Jieh Kuo, Chun-Shou Huang

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The research of juice flavor forecasting has become more important in China. Due to the fast economic growth in China, many different kinds of juices have been introduced to the market. If a beverage company can understand their customers’ preference well, the juice can be served more attractively. Thus, this study intends to introduce the basic theory and computing process of grapes juice flavor forecasting based on support vector regression (SVR). Applying SVR, BPN and LR to forecast the flavor of grapes juice in real data, the result shows that SVR is more suitable and effective at predicting performance.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, China, support vector regression, flavor forecasting

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102 The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database: Introducing a Quantified Library of China's Energy Policies

Authors: Philipp Galkin

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Government policy is a critical factor in the understanding of energy markets. Regardless, it is rarely approached systematically from a research perspective. Gaining a precise understanding of what policies exist, their intended outcomes, geographical extent, duration, evolution, etc. would enable the research community to answer a variety of questions that, for now, are either oversimplified or ignored. Policy, on its surface, also seems a rather unstructured and qualitative undertaking. There may be quantitative components, but incorporating the concept of policy analysis into quantitative analysis remains a challenge. The KAPSARC Energy Policy Database (KEPD) is intended to address these two energy policy research limitations. Our approach is to represent policies within a quantitative library of the specific policy measures contained within a set of legal documents. Each of these measures is recorded into the database as a single entry characterized by a set of qualitative and quantitative attributes. Initially, we have focused on the major laws at the national level that regulate coal in China. However, KAPSARC is engaged in various efforts to apply this methodology to other energy policy domains. To ensure scalability and sustainability of our project, we are exploring semantic processing using automated computer algorithms. Automated coding can provide a more convenient input data for human coders and serve as a quality control option. Our initial findings suggest that the methodology utilized in KEPD could be applied to any set of energy policies. It also provides a convenient tool to facilitate understanding in the energy policy realm enabling the researcher to quickly identify, summarize, and digest policy documents and specific policy measures. The KEPD captures a wide range of information about each individual policy contained within a single policy document. This enables a variety of analyses, such as structural comparison of policy documents, tracing policy evolution, stakeholder analysis, and exploring interdependencies of policies and their attributes with exogenous datasets using statistical tools. The usability and broad range of research implications suggest a need for the continued expansion of the KEPD to encompass a larger scope of policy documents across geographies and energy sectors.

Keywords: Energy policy, Policy Analysis, China, policy database

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101 The Effects of Cultural Distance and Institutions on Foreign Direct Investment Choices: Evidence from Turkey and China

Authors: Nihal Kartaltepe Behram, Göksel Ataman, Dila Okçu

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With the development of foreign direct investments, the social, cultural, political and economic interactions between countries and institutions have become visible and they have become determining factors for the strategic structuring and market goals. In this context the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultural distance and institutions on foreign direct investment choices in terms of location and investment model. For international establishments, the concept of culture, as well as the concept of cultural distance, is taken specifically into consideration, especially in the selection of methods for entering the market. In the researches and empirical studies conducted, a direct relationship between cultural distance and foreign direct investments is set and institutions and effective variable factors are examined at the level of defining the investment types. When the detailed calculation strategies and empirical researches and studies are taken into consideration, the most common methods for determining the direct investment model, considering the cultural distances, are full-ownership enterprises and joint ventures. Also, when all of the factors affecting the investments are taken into consideration, it was seen that the effect of institutions such as Government Intervention, Intellectual Property Rights, Corruption and Contract Enforcements is very important. Furthermore agglomeration is more intense and effective on the investment, compared to other factors. China has been selected as the target country, due to its effectiveness in world economy and its contributions to developing countries, which has commercial relationships with. Qualitative research methods are used for this study conducted, to measure the effects of determinative variable factors in the hypotheses of study, on the direct foreign investors and to evaluate the findings. In this study in-depth interview is used as a data collection method and the data analysis is made through descriptive analysis. Foreign Direct Investments are so reactive to institutions and cultural distance is identified by all interviews and analysis. On the other hand, agglomeration is the most strong determiner factor on foreign direct investors in Chinese Market. The reason of this factors, which comprise the sectorial aggregate, are not the strongest factors as agglomeration that the most important finding. We expect that this study became a beneficial guideline for developed and developing countries and local and national institutions’ strategic plans.

Keywords: Institutions, China, cultural distance, Foreign Direct Investments

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100 Economic and Environmental Benefits of the Indium Recycling from the Waste Liquid Crystal Displays in China

Authors: Wu Yufeng, Gu Yifan, Wang Hengguang, Gongyu, Zuo Tieyong

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Indium is one the scarce resources which can be only used less than 30 years, and more than 70% of the indium is used for the production of the LCD. The benefit of recycling Indium from waste LCD is large. Take the LCD-TV for example, the yield of which was close to 90 million units in 2010. If it was available to recycle the indium effectively, the yield of the secondary-indium could reach up to 110 metric ton, which accounted for one third of the primary indium production in China. And compared with the dispersion and long process extraction of the primary indium resources, secondary indium concentrates in the waste LCD, the exploitation has great economic and environmental benefits. However, the potential benefits were indefinite, resulting in China’s government did not pay enough attention to the indium recycling industry. In our study, an estimation model was constructed to analyze the potential of the indium in the waste LCD. The different types of LCD were detected to find out the content of indium. Then, the potential of the indium in the waste LCD was estimated in China. Furthermore, the pollution emissions of the product process of the primary and secondary indium was analyzed respectively to calculate the economic and environmental benefits of the indium recycling from the waste LCD in China.

Keywords: China, indium recycling, waste liquid crystal displays, benefits

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99 Climate Change and the Role of Foreign-Invested Enterprises

Authors: Xuemei Jiang, Kunfu Zhu, Shouyang Wang

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In this paper, we selected China as a case and employ a time-series of unique input-output tables distinguishing firm ownership and processing exports, to evaluate the role of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) in China’s rapid carbon dioxide emission growth. The results suggested that FIEs contributed to 11.55% of the economic outputs’ growth in China between 1992-2010, but accounted for only 9.65% of the growth of carbon dioxide emissions. In relative term, until 2010 FIEs still emitted much less than Chinese-owned enterprises (COEs) when producing the same amount of outputs, although COEs experienced much faster technology upgrades. In an ideal scenario where we assume the final demands remain unchanged and COEs completely mirror the advanced technologies of FIEs, more than 2000 Mt of carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced for China in 2010. From a policy perspective, the widespread FIEs are very effective and efficient channel to encourage technology transfer from developed to developing countries.

Keywords: Technology Transfer, China, carbon dioxide emissions, foreign-invested enterprises, input–output analysis

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98 The Role of Mass Sport Guidance in the Health Service Industry of China

Authors: Qiu Jian-Rong, Li Qing-Hui, Zhan Dong, Zhang Lei

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Facing the problem of the demand of economic restructuring and risk of social economy stagnation due to the ageing of population, the Health Service Industry will play a very important role in the structure of industry in the future. During the process, the orient of Chinese sports medicine as well as the joint with preventive medicine, and the integration with data bank and cloud computing will be involved.

Keywords: China, the health service industry, mass sport, data bank

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97 Analysis of the CO2 Emissions of Public Passenger Transport in Tianjin City of China

Authors: Tao Zhao, Xianshuo Xu

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Low-carbon public passenger transport is an important part of low carbon city. The CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin from 1995 to 2010 are estimated with IPCC CO2 counting method, which shows that the total CO2 emissions of Tianjin public passenger transport have gradually become stable at 1,425.1 thousand tons. And then the CO2 emissions of the buses, taxies, and rail transits are calculated respectively. A CO2 emission of 829.9 thousand tons makes taxies become the largest CO2 emissions source among the public passenger transport in Tianjin. Combining with passenger volume, this paper analyzes the CO2 emissions proportion of the buses, taxies, and rail transits compare the passenger transport rate with the proportion of CO2 emissions, as well as the CO2 emissions change of per 10,000 people. The passenger volume proportion of bus among the three public means of transport is 72.62% which is much higher than its CO2 emissions proportion of 36.01%, with the minimum number of CO2 emissions per 10,000 people of 4.90 tons. The countermeasures to reduce CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin are to develop rail transit, update vehicles and use alternative fuel vehicles.

Keywords: Countermeasures, China, Carbon Emissions, public passenger transport

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96 Study on the Effect of Sports Academic Journals in the Construction of Strong Sporting Nation in China

Authors: Qinghui Li, Lei Zhang

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In China, sport will play a more important role in the future development of the national economy, are facing greater challenges. Sports industry development in this background,innovative technology and cultural forces which will play an important role. Therefore, as a guide of sports culture, the development of science and technology, display the sports scientific and technological achievements, culture showed important - Sports Academic Journals sports technology platform of talent, but also innovation and value-added will through its value function,play an important role in the development of China's sports development and sports industry. At the same time, in the Chinese academic journals of social environment has undergone great changes,one aspect is the national news publishing system reform, change, development group of scientific publishing market has become the mainstream trend of development; on the other hand, digitalization, internationalization development speed of academic journal soon, in such a social background, how sports academic journal of development? How to serve for the development of sports? This research will be based on the sports academic journals in the past, the development status and characteristics and now plays in the history and context of modern academic value and social value, to explore the new era background, especially the development of the reform of the cultural system, marketization and the digital innovation situation of sports academic periodical show in sports, sports industry development and play a more important role in study.

Keywords: Innovation, China, sports academin journals, strong sporting nation

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95 The Development Practice and SystemConstruction of Low- Carbon City in China

Authors: Xu Xiao China, Xu Lei China

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After the 1990s, the concept of urban sustainable development has been increasing attention in urban planning and urban design. High carbon city, not a sustainable city construction model, has become an important problem which restricts the sustainable development of the city. Therefore, low-carbon city construction is the urgent need to solve the problem, and China is one of the core areas of low-carbon city construction in the world. The research work of low-carbon cities were participated by the Chinese government and academic institutes on theory and practice since 2007, and nowadays it comes to a practice stage with six low-carbon pilot provinces and 36 low-carbon pilot cities identified. To achieve the low-carbon target, developing low-carbon energy, adopting non-pollution technique, constructing green buildings and adopting ecolife-style are suggest by the government. Meanwhile, besides a new standard system and a new eco-environmental status evaluation method, the government also established the Chinese urban development institute including the Low-Carbon City Group. Finally, we want to transform the modern industrial civilization into an ecological civilization and realize sustainable urban development.

Keywords: Urban Sustainability, China, Low-Carbon City, development practice, system construction

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94 The City Ecological Corridor Construction Based on the Concept Of "Sponge City"(Case Study: Lishui)

Authors: Xu Mengyuan, Xu Lei

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Behind the rapid development of Chinese city, the contradiction of frequent urban waterlogging and the shortage of water resources is deepening. In order to solve this problem, introduce the low impact development "sponge city" construction mode in the process of the construction of new urbanization in China, make our city " resilience to adapt" environmental change and natural disaster. Firstly this paper analyses the basic reason of urban waterlogging, then introduces the basic connotation and realization approach of “sponge city”. Finally, study on the project in Lishui Guazhou, focuses on the analysis of the "urban ecological corridor" construction strategy and the positive impact on city in the construction of “sponge city”. Meanwhile, we put forward the ”local conditions” and ”sustainable” as the construction ideas, make use of ecological construction leading city development, explore the ecological balance through the city to enhance the regional value, and providing reference and reflection for the development and future of the “sponge city” in China.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, China, urban water logging, sponge city, urban ecological corridor

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93 Save Balance of Power: Can We?

Authors: Swati Arun

Abstract:

The present paper argues that Balance of Power (BOP) needs to conjugate with certain contingencies like geography. It is evident that sea powers (‘insular’ for better clarity) are not balanced (if at all) in the same way as land powers. Its apparent that artificial insularity that the US has achieved reduces the chances of balancing (constant) and helps it maintain preponderance (variable). But how precise is this approach in assessing the dynamics between China’s rise and reaction of other powers and US. The ‘evolved’ theory can be validated by putting China and US in the equation. Systemic Relation between the nations was explained through the Balance of Power theory much before the systems theory was propounded. The BOP is the crux of functionality of ‘power relation’ dynamics which has played its role in the most astounding ways leading to situations of war and peace. Whimsical; but true that, the BOP has remained a complicated and indefinable concepts since Hans. Morganthau to Kenneth Waltz. A challenge of the BOP, however remains; “ that it has too many meanings”. In the recent times it has become evident that the myriad of expectations generated by BOP has not met the practicality of the current world politics. It is for this reason; the BoP has been replaced by Preponderance Theory (PT) to explain prevailing power situation. PT does provide an empirical reasoning for the success of this theory but fails in a abstract logical reasoning required for making a theory universal. Unipolarity clarifies the current system as one where balance of power has become redundant. It seems to reach beyond the contours of BoP, where a superpower does what it must to remain one. The centrality of this arguments pivots around - an exception, every time BOP fails to operate, preponderance of power emerges. PT does not sit well with the primary logic of a theory because it works on an exception. The evolution of such a pattern and system where BOP fails and preponderance emerges is absent. The puzzle here is- if BOP really has become redundant or it needs polishing. The international power structure changed from multipolar to bipolar to unipolar. BOP was looked at to provide inevitable logic behind such changes and answer the dilemma we see today- why US is unchecked, unbalanced? But why was Britain unchecked in 19th century and why China was unbalanced in 13th century? It is the insularity of the state that makes BOP reproduce “imbalance of power”, going a level up from off-shore balancer. This luxury of a state to maintain imbalance in the region of competition or threat is the causal relation between BOP’s and geography. America has applied imbalancing- meaning disequilibrium (in its favor) to maintain the regional balance so that over time the weaker does not get stronger and pose a competition. It could do that due to the significant parity present between the US and the rest.

Keywords: China, balance of power, preponderance of power

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92 Accounting Quality and The Adoption of IFRS: Evidence from China

Authors: Khaldoon G. Albitar, Hassan Y. Kikhia, Jin P. Zhang

Abstract:

Since 2007, all companies listed on both Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange are required to prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This study investigates the impact of adopting IFRS on accounting quality for a sample of listed on Chinese companies during the period 2003-2013 with sample of 10846 observations over a four-year period before and a five-year period after the adoption of IFRS. This study tests whether the level of earnings management is significantly lower after the adoption of IFRS, and reported earnings is more value relevant during the IFRS period by using the Ohlson model and Jones model, as modified by Dechow. The empirical results show that accounting quality improved with lower earnings management and higher value relevant after the adoption of IFRS in China. The current study contributes to the literature on IFRS adoption and earning quality in two ways. First, As most of the existing studies on earnings quality and IFRS have been conducted on data from the U.S and European countries, this study fills a gap in the existing literature by studying the effect of adoption of IFRS on earnings quality in an emerging market. Second, the findings of our study have important implications for policymakers, auditors, multinational firms, and users of financial reports. As the rapid growth of China's economy gains global recognition, the Chinese stock market is capturing the attention of international investor.

Keywords: Earnings Management, China, value relevance, international financial reporting standards (ifrs), accounting quality

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91 Status Report of the Express Delivery Industry in China

Authors: Ying Bo Xie, Hisa Yuki Kurokawa

Abstract:

Due to the fast development, China's express delivery industry has involved in a dilemma that the service quality are keeping decreasing while the construction rate of delivery network cannot meet the customers’ demand. In order to get out of this dilemma and enjoy a succession development rate, it is necessary to understand the current situation of China's express delivery industry. Firstly, the evolution of China's express delivery industry was systematical presented. Secondly, according to the number of companies and the amount of parcels they has dealt each year, the merits and faults of tow kind of operating pattern was analyzed. Finally, based on the characteristics of these express companies, the problems of China's express delivery industry was divided into several types and the countermeasures were given out respectively.

Keywords: China, problem, status, express delivery industry

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90 Analysis and Design of Irregular Large Cantilever Structure of Statue

Authors: Pan Rui, Ma Jun, Zhao Caiqi, Wang Guangda

Abstract:

With the development of the tourism and religion,more and more large statue structures are adopted to build all over the world.For instance,the GuanYin statue with three plane reaches 108 meters high in HaiNan province in China.These statue structures belong to typical high-rise Building. However,the geometry sculpt of statues are complicated .The irregular shape makes these structures more complicated in force analysis than those normal standard tall buildings.In this paper,the Liu Bang Statue which is located at XuZhou in China.

Keywords: China, large statue structure, special-shaped steel, GuanYin statue

Procedia PDF Downloads 238