Commenced in January 2007
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Chilo partellus Related Abstracts

2 Yield Loss in Maize Due to Stem Borers and Their Integrated Management

Authors: D. N. Kambrekar, U. K. Hulihalli, C. P. Mallapur

Abstract:

Maize (Zea mays L.) an important cereal crop in the world has diversified uses including human consumption, animal feed, and industrial uses. A major constraint in low productivity of maize in India is undoubtedly insect pests particularly two species of stem borers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Sesamia inferens (Walker). The stem borers cause varying level of yield losses in different agro-climate regions (25.7 to 80.4%) resulting in a huge economic loss to the farmers. Although these pests are rather difficult to manage, efforts have been made to combat the menace by using effective insecticides. However, efforts have been made in the present study to integrate various possible approaches for sustainable management of these borers. Two field experiments were conducted separately during 2016-17 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. In the first experiment, six treatments were randomized in RBD. The insect eggs at pinhead stage (@ 40 eggs/plant) were stapled to the under surface of leaves covering 15-20 % of plants in each plot after 15 days of sowing. The second experiment was planned with nine treatments replicated thrice. The border crop with NB -21 grass was planted all around the plots in the specific treatments while, cowpea intercrop (@6:1-row proportion) was sown along with the main crop and later, the insecticidal spray with chlorantraniliprole and nimbecidine was taken upon need basis in the specific treatments. The results indicated that the leaf injury and dead heart incidence were relatively more in the treatments T₂ and T₄ wherein, no insect control measures were made after the insect release (58.30 & 40.0 % leaf injury and 33.42 and 25.74% dead heart). On the contrary, these treatments recorded higher stem tunneling (32.4 and 24.8%) and resulted in lower grain yield (17.49 and 26.79 q/ha) compared to 29.04, 32.68, 40.93 and 46.38 q/ha recorded in T₁, T₃, T₅ and T₆ treatments, respectively. A maximum yield loss of 28.89 percent was noticed in T₂ followed by 19.59 percent in T₄ where no sprays were imposed. The data on integrated management trial revealed the lowest stem borer damage (19.28% leaf injury and 1.21% dead heart) in T₅ (seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70FS @ 8ml/kg seed + cow intercrop along with nimbecidine 0.03EC @ 5.0 ml/l and chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC spray @ 0.2 ml/l). The next best treatment was T₆ (ST+ NB-21 borer with nimbecidine and chlorantraniliprole spray) with 21.3 and 1.99 percent leaf injury and dead heart incidence, respectively. These treatments resulted in highest grain yield (77.71 and 75.53 q/ha in T₅ and T₆, respectively) compared to the standard check, T₁ (ST+ chlorantraniliprole spray) wherein, 27.63 percent leaf injury and 3.68 percent dead heart were noticed with 60.14 q/ha grain yield. The stem borers can cause yield loss up to 25-30 percent in maize which can be well tackled by seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70FS @ 8ml/kg seed and sowing the crop along with cowpea as intercrop (6:1 row proportion) or NB-21 grass as border crop followed by application of nimbecidine 0.03EC @ 5.0 ml/l and chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC @ 0.2 ml/l on need basis.

Keywords: Integrated Management, Maize stem borers, Chilo partellus, Sesamia inferens, crop loss

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1 Evaluation of Different Inoculation Methods of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Their Endophytism and Pathogenicity against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)

Authors: Mubashar Iqbal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Iqra Anjum

Abstract:

The present study was carried to screen out the effective entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) inoculation method in maize and to evaluate pathogenicity and oviposition-choice in C. partellus. Three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) formulations Pacer® (Metarhizium anisopliae), Racer® (Beauveria bassiana) and Meailkil® (Verticillium lecanii) were evaluated at three concentrations (5000, 10000 and 20000 ppm) for their endophytism in maize and pathogenicity in C. partellus. The stock solution of the highest concentration (20,000 ppm) was prepared and next lower from stock solution. In the first experiment, three EPF was inoculated in maize plant by four methods, i.e., leaf-inoculation (LI), whorl-inoculation (WI), shoot-inoculation (SI) and root-inoculation (RI). Leaf-discs and stem-cutting were sampled in all four inoculation methods and placed on fungus growth media in Petri dishes. In the second experiment, pathogenicity, pupal formation, adult emergence, sex ratio, oviposition-choice, and growth index of C. partellus were calculated. The leaves and stem of the inoculated plants were given to the counted number of larvae of C. Partellus. The mortality of larvae was recorded on daily basis till the pupation. The result shows that maximum percent mortality (86.67%) was recorded at high concentration (20000ppm) of Beauveria bassiana by leaf inoculation method. For oviposition choice bioassay, the newly emerged adults were fed on diet (water, honey and yeast in 9:1:1) for 48 hours. One pair of C. Partellus were aspirated from the rearing cages and were detained in large test tube plugged with diet soaked cotton. A set of four plants for each treatment were prepared and randomized inside the large oviposition chamber. The test tubes were opened and fitted in the hole made in the wall of oviposition chamber in front of each treatment. The oviposition chamber was placed in a completely dark laboratory to eliminate the effect of light on moth’s behavior. The plants were removed from the oviposition chamber after the death of adults. The number of eggs deposited on the plant was counted. The results of 2nd experiment revealed that in all EPF and inoculation methods, the fecundity, egg fertility and growth index of C. partellus decreased with the increase in concentration being significantly higher at low concentration (5000ppm) and lower at higher concentration (20000ppm). Application of B. bassiana demonstrated that minimum fecundity (126.83), egg fertility (119.52) and growth index (15%) in C. partellus followed by M. anisopliae with fecundity (135.93), egg fertility (132.29) and growth index (17.50%) while V. lecanii show higher values of fecundity (137.37), egg fertility (1135.42) and growth index (20%). Overall leaf inoculation method showed least fecundity (123.89) with egg fertility (115.36) and growth index (14%) followed by whorl, shoot inoculation method and root inoculation method show higher values of fecundity, egg fertility and growth index.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Chilo partellus, entomopathoganic, Verticillium lecanii

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