Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 187

Children Related Abstracts

37 Eating Habits of Children Aged 10-15 Years in Reference to Nutrition Status

Authors: M. Hetmańczyk, R. Polaniak, K. Brukało, E. Grochowska-Niedworok

Abstract:

Eating behaviours of people are determined by knowledge gained at different stages of life. Children’s diet is especially important. They have to eat meals regularly. Meals should consist of protein, carbohydrates and fat, and drinking the right amount of water. Mistakes in children’s diets affect their health and may lead to health issues such as diabetes, overweight, obesity or malnutrition. The aim of the study was to assess the eating habits among 10-15-year-old children. To achieve this aim, the study included children aged 10-15 years living in Silesia Province, Poland; the participants consisted of 52.08% girls and 47.92% boys. Authorial questionnaire contains 28 questions about eating habits. The results of 192 students were subjected to analysis. The results show that half of the surveyed students participated in physical activity every day. Most children ate 4-5 meals every day, but the breaks between them were too long (four and more hours). Children generally ate cooked meals. Most children ate first breakfast every day, but only one third of studied children ate a second breakfast daily, while 93.75% ate vegetables at least once a day, 94.79% ate fruit at least once a day, and 79.17% drink a daily glass of milk or more. The study found that the eating behaviours of the surveyed children were unsatisfying. While the children did not participate in physical activity often enough, girls took part slightly more often. Children eat second breakfast not often enough. Younger children (10-12 years old) are doing it more often than the older children (13-15 years old). Gender is not a determinant of the frequency of second breakfast consumption.

Keywords: diet, Children, nutrition status, eating habits

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36 Nutrition of Preschool Children in the Aspect of Nutritional Status

Authors: Klaudia Tomala, Elzbieta Grochowska-Niedworok, Katarzyna Brukalo, Marek Kardas, Beata Calyniuk, Renata Polaniak

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Background. Nutrition plays an important role in the psychophysical growth of children and has effects on their health. Providing children with the appropriate supply of macro- and micro-nutrients requires dietary diversity across every food group. Meals in kindergartens should provide 70-75% of their daily food requirement. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the vitamin content in the food rations of children attending kindergarten in the wider aspect of nutritional status. Material and Methods. Kindergarten menus from the spring and autumn seasons of 2015 were analyzed. In these meals, fat content and levels of water-soluble vitamins were estimated. The vitamin content was evaluated using the diet calculator “Aliant”. Statistical analysis was done in MS Office Excel 2007. Results. Vitamin content in the analyzed menus in many cases is too high with reference to dietary intake, with only vitamin D intake being insufficient. Vitamin E intake was closest to the dietary reference intake. Conclusion. The results show that vitamin intake is usually too high, and menus should, therefore, be modified. Also, nutrition education among kindergarten staff is needed. The identified errors in the composition of meals will affect the nutritional status of children and their proper composition in the body.

Keywords: Children, Vitamins, nutrition status, preschool

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35 Assessment of Designed Outdoor Playspaces as Learning Environments and Its Impact on Child’s Wellbeing: A Case of Bhopal, India

Authors: Richa Raje, Anumol Antony

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Playing is the foremost stepping stone for childhood development. Play is an essential aspect of a child’s development and learning because it creates meaningful enduring environmental connections and increases children’s performance. The children’s proficiencies are ever varying in their course of growth. There is innovation in the activities, as it kindles the senses, surges the love for exploration, overcomes linguistic barriers and physiological development, which in turn allows them to find their own caliber, spontaneity, curiosity, cognitive skills, and creativity while learning during play. This paper aims to comprehend the learning in play which is the most essential underpinning aspect of the outdoor play area. It also assesses the trend of playgrounds design that is merely hammered with equipment's. It attempts to derive a relation between the natural environment and children’s activities and the emotions/senses that can be evoked in the process. One of the major concerns with our outdoor play is that it is limited to an area with a similar kind of equipment, thus making the play highly regimented and monotonous. This problem is often lead by the strict timetables of our education system that hardly accommodates play. Due to these reasons, the play areas remain neglected both in terms of design that allows learning and wellbeing. Poorly designed spaces fail to inspire the physical, emotional, social and psychological development of the young ones. Currently, the play space has been condensed to an enclosed playground, driveway or backyard which confines the children’s capability to leap the boundaries set for him. The paper emphasizes on study related to kids ranging from 5 to 11 years where the behaviors during their interactions in a playground are mapped and analyzed. The theory of affordance is applied to various outdoor play areas, in order to study and understand the children’s environment and how variedly they perceive and use them. A higher degree of affordance shall form the basis for designing the activities suitable in play spaces. It was observed during their play that, they choose certain spaces of interest majority being natural over other artificial equipment. The activities like rolling on the ground, jumping from a height, molding earth, hiding behind tree, etc. suggest that despite equipment they have an affinity towards nature. Therefore, we as designers need to take a cue from their behavior and practices to be able to design meaningful spaces for them, so the child gets the freedom to test their precincts.

Keywords: Children, Learning Environment, Landscape design, nature and play, outdoor play

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34 Changes in Serum Hepcidin Levels in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

Authors: Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Michaela Spenerova, Dagmar Pospisilova

Abstract:

Background: Hepcidin is the central regulator of iron metabolism. Its production is mainly affected by an iron deficiency and the presence of inflammatory activity in the body. The aim of this study was to compare serum hepcidin levels in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and hepcidin levels during maintenance therapy, correlate changes of serum hepcidin levels with selected markers of iron metabolism and inflammation and type of provided treatment. Methods: Children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in this prospective study. Blood and stool samples were collected before treatment (baseline). Serum hepcidin, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL 6), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptors, and fecal calprotectin were assessed. The same parameters were measured and compared with the baseline levels in the follow-up period, during maintenance therapy (average of 39 months after diagnosis). Results: Patients with CD (n=30) had higher serum hepcidin levels (expressed as a median and interquartile range) at diagnosis than subjects with UC (n=13). These levels significantly decreased during the follow-up (from 36.5 (11.5-79.6) ng/ml to 2.1 (0.9-6.7) ng/ml). Contrarily, no significant serum hepcidin level changes were observed in UC (from 5.4 (3.4-16.6) ng/ml to 4.8 (0.9-8.1) ng/ml). While in children with CD hepcidin level dynamics correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP), an only correlation with serum iron levels was observed in patients with UC. Conclusion: Children with CD had higher serum hepcidin levels at diagnosis compared to subjects with UC. Decrease of serum hepcidin in the CD group during anti-inflammatory therapy has been observed, whereas low hepcidin levels in children with UC have remained unchanged. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by grant MH CZ–DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: Children, ulcerative colitis, anaemia, Crohn's disease, hepcidin

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33 Lessons Learned through a Bicultural Approach to Tsunami Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

Authors: Lucy H. Kaiser, Kate Boersen

Abstract:

Kura Kaupapa Māori (kura) and bilingual schools are primary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand which operate fully or partially under Māori custom and have curricula developed to include Te Reo Māori and Tikanga Māori (Māori language and cultural practices). These schools were established to support Māori children and their families through reinforcing cultural identity by enabling Māori language and culture to flourish in the field of education. Māori kaupapa (values), Mātauranga Māori (Māori knowledge) and Te Reo are crucial considerations for the development of educational resources developed for kura, bilingual and mainstream schools. The inclusion of hazard risk in education has become an important issue in New Zealand due to the vulnerability of communities to a plethora of different hazards. Māori have an extensive knowledge of their local area and the history of hazards which is often not appropriately recognised within mainstream hazard education resources. Researchers from the Joint Centre for Disaster Research, Massey University and East Coast LAB (Life at the Boundary) in Napier were funded to collaboratively develop a toolkit of tsunami risk reduction activities with schools located in Hawke’s Bay’s tsunami evacuation zones. A Māori-led bicultural approach to developing and running the education activities was taken, focusing on creating culturally and locally relevant materials for students and schools as well as giving students a proactive role in making their communities better prepared for a tsunami event. The community-based participatory research is Māori-centred, framed by qualitative and Kaupapa Maori research methodologies and utilizes a range of data collection methods including interviews, focus groups and surveys. Māori participants, stakeholders and the researchers collaborated through the duration of the project to ensure the programme would align with the wider school curricula and kaupapa values. The education programme applied a tuakana/teina, Māori teaching and learning approach in which high school aged students (tuakana) developed tsunami preparedness activities to run with primary school students (teina). At the end of the education programme, high school students were asked to reflect on their participation, what they had learned and what they had enjoyed during the activities. This paper draws on lessons learned throughout this research project. As an exemplar, retaining a bicultural and bilingual perspective resulted in a more inclusive project as there was variability across the students’ levels of confidence using Te Reo and Māori knowledge and cultural frameworks. Providing a range of different learning and experiential activities including waiata (Māori songs), pūrākau (traditional stories) and games was important to ensure students had the opportunity to participate and contribute using a range of different approaches that were appropriate to their individual learning needs. Inclusion of teachers in facilitation also proved beneficial in assisting classroom behavioral management. Lessons were framed by the tikanga and kawa (protocols) of the school to maintain cultural safety for the researchers and the students. Finally, the tuakana/teina component of the education activities became the crux of the programme, demonstrating a path for Rangatahi to support their whānau and communities through facilitating disaster preparedness, risk reduction and resilience.

Keywords: Education, Tsunami, Children, Indigenous, Disaster Preparedness, school safety

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32 Children in Opera: Sociological and Musicological Trends

Authors: Andrew Sutherland

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In many ways, opera is not a natural domain for children. It is hardly surprising that from the thousands of works, comparatively few include roles for children. There are several possibilities for this, the dramatic themes in opera are often about the human condition from the adult perspective; the need for developed voices to project in large, theatrical spaces underpinned by orchestral accompaniment does not naturally suit the child’s voice, and enabling children to cope with long runs of performances on top of their education requires vocal and physical stamina. In more recent times, the involvement of children contributes another layer of difficulty in terms of having access to young singers while adhering to laws that protect their working rights. Despite these points, children have been in opera since its inception in a variety of ways, but their contribution is often undervalued or ignored by musicologists and even the industry itself. In this paper, the phenomenon of children in opera from the late 16th century to the present day is explored through empirical, socio-musicological observations with reference to score analysis. Conclusions are drawn regarding the changing attitudes of composers when scoring for children’s voices in relation to societal developments. From the use of ‘kindertruppen’ in the pre-enlightenment period to Handel’s virtuosic writing for William Savage, to the darkness of the inter-war eras which saw a proliferation of operatic characters for children and the post-war era which saw children as the new frontier of building audiences for opera, the links between changes in society and the inclusion, portrayal and scoring for children in opera are largely congruent.

Keywords: Opera, Sociology, Children, musical analysis

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31 The Use of YouTube and Its Relation to Changing the Kuwaiti Children’s Social Values from Parents’ Perspectives: Field Study

Authors: Laila Alkhayat

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In this study, the researcher explored the positive and negative effects of children watching YouTube on changing social values from the perspective of parents in Kuwait. This study also explored whether any correlation exists between changed values from watching YouTube and the following variables: relationship with a child, social situation, school level, gender, and age. The researcher collected data from 286 questionnaires distributed randomly to parents in Kuwait. The results of the study show that parents face many disadvantages when dealing with children watching YouTube, such as children spending too much time in front of screens, inability to organize bedtime, and children’s social isolation. However, the researcher found some positives come from watching YouTube, such as learning new information, enabling children to search for new information, and introducing children to the culture of their society and other cultures around them. Moreover, this study found that boys are more likely to have negative viewing habits than girls. Given the results, this study shows that the biggest impact on social values from children watching YouTube is that they are preoccupied with watching YouTube and they waste time, which makes them feel disturbed, and this affects the value of time management and delays children’s sleeping times. This study concludes that watching YouTube simultaneously has negative and positive effects on changing social values, but it plays a negative role in changing social values of children from the parents’ perspective.

Keywords: Children, social value, YouTube, social media effects

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30 Developing Artistic Concepts for Kindergarten Children in Egypt Using Graphic Activities

Authors: Mona Yacoub, Ahmed Amin Mousa

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The current work presents a program for children in Egypt. This program involved a collection of artistic activities that purposes to improve some language, artistic skills of kindergarten children. The researchers have prepared a questionnaire for the link between the target group and the content. The questionnaire has been presented to experts for adjudicating. The program was applied to a group of 30 children. Another questionnaire has been prepared by the researchers for measuring the activities’ effect on the children. The second questionnaire was considered as the pre-test and post-test. Finally, after applying the activities and the questionnaire, the researchers detected a significant difference in favor of the post-test results.

Keywords: Children, Developing, Concepts, kindergarten, graphic activities

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29 Prevalence of Disability among Children Two to Fourteen Years at Selected Districts in Greater Accra Region of Ghana

Authors: Yvonne Nanaama Brew, Bismark Jampim Abrokwah

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Children with disabilities in Ghana are not routinely registered, and this can imply that they may be neglected in national policy planning since global estimates may not be near the exact numbers. Although there are some studies with reports on the prevalence of disability among children in Ghana, reliable information on the prevalence, types of disability in children, and children who die with disabilities in the Greater Accra region are lacking. The current study seeks to investigate the incidence of disability among children two to fourteen years at selected districts in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. A cross-sectional design is adapted with a quantitative method for this study. Parents with disabled children who access child welfare clinics at the Greater Accra regional hospital, Maamobi hospital, Ga west, and Ga south district hospitals will be selected through purposive sampling for the study. An adapted UNICEF structured Ten Questions will be used to collect relevant data about participants. The responses to the questions will be either 'Yes' or 'No'. Parents with children who answer 'Yes' to a disability and purposively sampled parents with children who answer 'No' to disability will be invited to Child Health Clinic at the Greater Accra regional hospital for a free clinical assessment. Data will be entered into Microsoft Office Excel 2013 and imported into STATA version 15 for analysis. The study is expected to provide reliable disaggregated data on less than fourteen years of children with disabilities in the Greater Accra region. The findings and recommendations of the study will demonstrate the importance of early detection of disability and facilitate more quality and holistic planning of appropriate programmes that best safeguard the rights of children with disabilities in Ghana. It will help in policy and decision-making on children less than fourteen years with disabilities in Ghana. Also, findings will be useful for health facilities in Ghana to plan services for disabled children. Finally, the study is expected to add to the guides for the National Council of Persons with Disabilities to fulfill its legal mandate for disabled persons in Ghana.

Keywords: Disability, Children, Prevalence, Ghana

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28 Associations between Surrogate Insulin Resistance Indices and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Children

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

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A well-defined insulin resistance (IR) is one of the requirements for the good understanding and evaluation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, underlying causes for the development of IR are not clear. Endothelial dysfunction also participates in the pathogenesis of this disease. IR indices are being determined in various obesity groups and also in diagnosing MetS. Components of MetS have been well established and used in adult studies. However, there are some ambiguities particularly in the field of pediatrics. The aims of this study were to compare the performance of fasting blood glucose (FBG), one of MetS components, with some other IR indices and check whether FBG may be replaced by some other parameter or ratio for a better evaluation of pediatric MetS. Five-hundred and forty-nine children were involved in the study. Five groups were constituted. Groups 109, 40, 100, 166, 110, 24 children were included in normal-body mass index (N-BMI), overweight (OW), obese (OB), morbid obese (MO), MetS with two components (MetS2) and MetS with three components (MetS3) groups, respectively. Age and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles tabulated by World Health Organization were used for the classification of obesity groups. MetS components were determined. Aside from one of the MetS components-FBG, eight measures of IR [homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-%β), alanine transaminase-to-aspartate transaminase ratio (ALT/AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), insulin (INS), insulin-to-FBG ratio (INS/FBG), the product of fasting triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index, McAuley index] were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed. A p value less than 0.05 was accepted as the statistically significance degree. Mean values for BMI of the groups were 15.7 kg/m2, 21.0 kg/m2, 24.7 kg/m2, 27.1 kg/m2, 28.7 kg/m2, 30.4 kg/m2 for N-BMI, OW, OB, MO, MetS2, MetS3, respectively. Differences between the groups were significant (p < 0.001). The only exception was MetS2-MetS3 couple, in spite of an increase detected in MetS3 group. Waist-to-hip circumference ratios significantly differed only for N-BMI vs, OB, MO, MetS2; OW vs MO; OB vs MO, MetS2 couples. ALT and ALT/AST did not differ significantly among MO-MetS2-MetS3. HOMA-%β differed only between MO and MetS2. INS/FBG, McAuley index and TyG were not significant between MetS2 and MetS3. HOMA-IR and FBG were not significant between MO and MetS2. INS was the only parameter, which showed statistically significant differences between MO-MetS2, MO-MetS3, and MetS2-MetS3. In conclusion, these findings have suggested that FBG presently considered as one of the five MetS components, may be replaced by INS during the evaluation of pediatric morbid obesity and MetS.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Children, insulin resistance indices

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27 An Exploration of Lighting Quality on Sleep Quality of Children in Elementary Schools

Authors: Mohamed Boubekri, Kristen Bub, Jaewook Lee, Kate Kurry

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In this study, we explored the impact of light, particularly daylight on sleep time and quality of elementary school children. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure objectively sleep time and sleep efficiency. Our data show a good correlation between light levels and sleep. In some cases, differences of up to 36 minutes were found between students in low light levels and those in high light level classrooms. We recommend, therefore, that classroom design need to pay attention to the daily daylight exposures elementary school children are receiving.

Keywords: Sustainable Architecture, Children, Light, Sleep, Circadian Rhythm, Elementary school, daylight, actigraphy

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26 Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Brain Tumors

Authors: J. R. Ashrapov, G. A. Alihodzhaeva, D. E. Abdullaev, N. R. Kadirbekov

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Diagnosis of brain tumors is one of the challenges, as several central nervous system diseases run the same symptoms. Modern diagnostic techniques such as CT, MRI helps to significantly improve the surgery in the operating period, after surgery, after allowing time to identify postoperative complications in neurosurgery. Purpose: To study the MRI characteristics and localization of brain tumors in children and to detect the postoperative complications in the postoperative period. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of treatment of 62 children with brain tumors in age from 2 to 5 years was performed. Results of the review: MRI scan of the brain of the 62 patients 52 (83.8%) case revealed a brain tumor. Distribution on MRI of brain tumors found in 15 (24.1%) - glioblastomas, 21 (33.8%) - astrocytomas, 7 (11.2%) - medulloblastomas, 9 (14.5%) - a tumor origin (craniopharyngiomas, chordoma of the skull base). MRI revealed the following characteristic features: an additional sign of the heterogeneous MRI signal of hyper and hypointensive T1 and T2 modes with a different perifocal swelling degree with involvement in the process of brain vessels. The main objectives of postoperative MRI study are the identification of early or late postoperative complications, evaluation of radical surgery, the identification of the extended-growing tumor that (in terms of 3-4 weeks). MRI performed in the following cases: 1. Suspicion of a hematoma (3 days or more) 2. Suspicion continued tumor growth (in terms of 3-4 weeks). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance tomography is a highly informative method of diagnostics of brain tumors in children. MRI also helps to determine the effectiveness and tactics of treatment and the follow up in the postoperative period.

Keywords: treatment, Children, MRI, Brain Tumors

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25 The Potential Involvement of Platelet Indices in Insulin Resistance in Morbid Obese Children

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

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Association between insulin resistance (IR) and hematological parameters has long been a matter of interest. Within this context, body mass index (BMI), red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets were involved in this discussion. Parameters related to platelets associated with IR may be useful indicators for the identification of IR. Platelet indices such as mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and plateletcrit (PCT) are being questioned for their possible association with IR. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between platelet (PLT) count as well as PLT indices and the surrogate indices used to determine IR in morbid obese (MO) children. A total of 167 children participated in the study. Three groups were constituted. The number of cases was 34, 97 and 36 children in the normal BMI, MO and metabolic syndrome (MetS) groups, respectively. Sex- and age-dependent BMI-based percentile tables prepared by World Health Organization were used for the definition of morbid obesity. MetS criteria were determined. BMI values, homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR), alanine transaminase-to-aspartate transaminase ratio (ALT/AST) and diagnostic obesity notation model assessment laboratory (DONMA-lab) index values were computed. PLT count and indices were analyzed using automated hematology analyzer. Data were collected for statistical analysis using SPSS for Windows. Arithmetic mean and standard deviation were calculated. Mean values of PLT-related parameters in both control and study groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc tests to determine whether a significant difference exists among the groups. The correlation analyses between PLT as well as IR indices were performed. Statistically significant difference was accepted as p-value < 0.05. Increased values were detected for PLT (p < 0.01) and PCT (p > 0.05) in MO group compared to those observed in children with N-BMI. Significant increases for PLT (p < 0.01) and PCT (p < 0.05) were observed in MetS group in comparison with the values obtained in children with N-BMI (p < 0.01). Significantly lower MPV and PDW values were obtained in MO group compared to the control group (p < 0.01). HOMA-IR (p < 0.05), DONMA-lab index (p < 0.001) and ALT/AST (p < 0.001) values in MO and MetS groups were significantly increased compared to the N-BMI group. On the other hand, DONMA-lab index values also differed between MO and MetS groups (p < 0.001). In the MO group, PLT was negatively correlated with MPV and PDW values. These correlations were not observed in the N-BMI group. None of the IR indices exhibited a correlation with PLT and PLT indices in the N-BMI group. HOMA-IR showed significant correlations both with PLT and PCT in the MO group. All of the three IR indices were well-correlated with each other in all groups. These findings point out the missing link between IR and PLT activation. In conclusion, PLT and PCT may be related to IR in addition to their identities as hemostasis markers during morbid obesity. Our findings have suggested that DONMA-lab index appears as the best surrogate marker for IR due to its discriminative feature between morbid obesity and MetS.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, insulin resistance, plateletcrit, platelet indices

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24 The Evaluation of Complete Blood Cell Count-Based Inflammatory Markers in Pediatric Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

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Obesity is defined as a severe chronic disease characterized by a low-grade inflammatory state. Therefore, inflammatory markers gained utmost importance during the evaluation of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS), a disease characterized by central obesity, elevated blood pressure, increased fasting blood glucose and elevated triglycerides or reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values. Some inflammatory markers based upon complete blood cell count (CBC) are available. In this study, it was questioned which inflammatory marker was the best to evaluate the differences between various obesity groups. 514 pediatric individuals were recruited. 132 children with MetS, 155 morbid obese (MO), 90 obese (OB), 38 overweight (OW) and 99 children with normal BMI (N-BMI) were included into the scope of this study. Obesity groups were constituted using age- and sex-dependent body mass index (BMI) percentiles tabulated by World Health Organization. MetS components were determined to be able to specify children with MetS. CBC were determined using automated hematology analyzer. HDL-C analysis was performed. Using CBC parameters and HDL-C values, ratio markers of inflammation, which cover neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), monocyte-to-HDL-C ratio (MHR) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed. The statistical significance degree was considered as p < 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of platelet count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and NLR. PLR differed significantly between OW and N-BMI as well as MetS. Monocyte-to HDL-C value exhibited statistical significance between MetS and N-BMI, OB, and MO groups. HDL-C value differed between MetS and N-BMI, OW, OB, MO groups. MHR was the ratio, which exhibits the best performance among the other CBC-based inflammatory markers. On the other hand, when MHR was compared to HDL-C only, it was suggested that HDL-C has given much more valuable information. Therefore, this parameter still keeps its value from the diagnostic point of view. Our results suggest that MHR can be an inflammatory marker during the evaluation of pediatric MetS, but the predictive value of this parameter was not superior to HDL-C during the evaluation of obesity.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Children, complete blood cell count, high density lipoprotein cholesterol

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23 Factors Affecting the Caregiving Experience of Children with Parental Mental Illnesses: A Systematic Review

Authors: N. Anjana

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Worldwide, the prevalence of mental illnesses is increasing. The issues of persons with mental illness and their caregivers have been well documented in the literature. However, data regarding the factors affecting the caregiving experience of children with parental mental illnesses is sparse. This systematic review aimed to examine the existing literature of the factors affecting the caregiving experience of children of parents with mental illnesses. A comprehensive search of databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, JSTOR, ProQuest Central, Taylor and Francis Online, and Google Scholar were performed to identify peer-reviewed papers examining the factors associated with caregiving experiences of children with parental mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and major depression, for the 10-year period ending November 2019. Two researchers screened studies for eligibility. One researcher extracted data from eligible studies while a second performed verification of results for accuracy and completeness. Quality appraisal was conducted by both reviewers. Data describing major factors associated with caregiving experiences of children with parental mental illnesses were synthesized and reported in narrative form. Five studies were considered eligible and included in this review. Findings are organized under major themes such as the impact of parental mental illness on children’s daily life, how children provide care to their mentally ill parents as primary carers, social and relationship factors associated with their caregiving, positive and negative experiences in caregiving and how children cope with their experiences with parental mental illnesses. Literature relating to the caregiving experiences of children with parental mental illnesses is sparse. More research is required to better understand the children’s caregiving experiences related to parental mental illnesses so as to better inform management for enhancing their mental health, wellbeing, and caregiving practice.

Keywords: Children, Wellbeing, caregiving experience, parental mental illnesses

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22 Children's Media Skepticism and the Prospective Moral Self: A Pilot Study

Authors: A. Maftei, A. C. Holman

Abstract:

The emergence of self-knowledge and personal representations of self in children has been subject to a variety of studies. The complex process of developing the moral self in childhood is one of the most interesting interplays of biological tendencies and socialization contexts. We were interested in exploring the potential interaction between children’s media skepticism, altruism, self and others' moral representations in a series of tasks related to potential prospective moral licensing mechanisms. In our pilot study, the answers of 67 children aged 8 to 10 years (50 % females) to a series of moral perspectives and altruism tasks were subject to mixed analysis (both qualitative and quantitative). Results suggested no significant association between the moral valence of media information and children’s altruism, self and others’ moral future perspective. Results are discussed within the Construal Level, Assimilation and Contrast theories, and moral licensing mechanisms.

Keywords: Children, Altruism, moral licensing, moral valence, media skepticism

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21 The Effectiveness of an Artistic Program Using Paper Mash for Acquiring Some Artistic Skills to Children with Learning Difficulties in Egypt

Authors: Ayat Mohammed, Ahmed Mousa

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The study aims to identify the extent of the effectiveness of the artistic formation program using some types of pastes to reduce the hyperactivity of the kindergarten child. The research sample included 120 children. The researchers depended on applying a group of artistic formation program using pulp melding skills for kindergarten children with learning disabilities. The tools of the study, designed by the researcher, included: recording card used for recording the effective program using pulp molding skills for kindergarten children. The results proved the effectiveness of the program using pulp molding skills for kindergarten children with learning disabilities.

Keywords: Children, Learning Disabilities, kindergarten, artistic program, developing skills

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20 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China

Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang

Abstract:

Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.

Keywords: Children, Respiratory Diseases, Air Temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference

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19 First 1000 Days: Mothers’ Understanding of an Attachment Bond and the Role That It Plays in Early Childhood

Authors: Athena Pedro, Carushca de Beer, Erin Cupido, Tarryn Johnson, Tawana Keneilwe, Crystal Stoffels, Carinne Annfred Lorraine Petersen, Kuan Michael Truskey

Abstract:

The early experiences of children during their first 1000 days of life are the main determining factor of their development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore mothers' understanding of an attachment bond and the role that it plays in early childhood. A qualitative exploratory research design guided this study. Ethics approval was granted by appropriate ethics committees. Data were gathered through the use of semi-structured interviews with 15 participants within the Cape Town area, South Africa. Participants completed informed consents and were informed of confidentiality, anonymity, their rights, and voluntary participation. Thematically analysed data revealed that many participants were unaware of the term ‘the first 1000 days of a child’s life’; however, they were aware of the methods to be used for forming an attachment bond with their children. There is a need for more awareness on the subject matter within South Africa.

Keywords: Children, understanding, awareness, South Africa, first 1000 days, milestones

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18 The Technique of Mobilization of the Colon for Pull-Through Procedure in Hirschsprung's Disease

Authors: Medet K. Khamitov, Marat M. Ospanov, Vasiliy M. Lozovoy, Zhenis N. Sakuov, Dastan Z. Rustemov

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With a high rectosigmoid transitional zone in children with Hirschsprung’s disease, the upper rectal, sigmoid, left colon arteries are ligated during the pull-through of the descending part of the colon. As a result, the inferior mesenteric artery ceases to participate in the blood supply to the descending part of the colon. As a result, the reduced colon is supplied with blood only by the middle colon artery, which originates from the superior mesenteric artery. Insufficiency of blood supply to the reduced colon is the cause of the development of chronic hypoxia of the intestinal wall or necrosis of the reduced descending colon. Some surgeons prefer to preserve the left colon artery. However, it is possible to stretch the mesentery, which can lead to bowel retraction to anastomotic leaks and stenosis. Chronic hypoxia of the reduced colon, in turn, is the cause of acquired (secondary) aganglionosis. The highest frequency of anastomotic leaks is observed in children older than five years. The purpose is to reduce the risk of complications in the pull-through procedure of the descending part of the colon in patients with Hirschsprung’s disease by ensuring its sufficient mobility and maintaining blood supply to the lower mesenteric artery. Methodology and events. Two children aged 5 and 7 years with Hirschsprung’s disease were operated under the conditions of the hospital in Nur-Sultan. The diagnosis was made using x-ray contrast enema and histological examination. Operational technique. After revision of the left part of the colon and assessment of the architectonics of its blood vessels, parietal mobilization of the affected sigmoid and rectum was performed on laparotomy access, while maintaining the arterial and venous terminal arcades of the sigmoid vessels. Then, the descending branch of the left colon artery was crossed (if there is an insufficient length of the reduced intestine, the left colonic artery itself may also be crossed). This manipulation provides additional mobility of the pull-through descending part of the colon. The resulting "windows" in the mesentery of the reduced intestine were sutured to prevent the development of an internal hernia. Formed a full-blooded, sufficiently long transplant from the transverse loops of the splenic angle and the descending parts of the colon with blood supply from the upper and lower mesenteric artery, freely, without tension, is reduced to the rectal zone with the coloanal anastomosis 1.5 cm above the dentate line. Results. The postoperative period was uneventful. Patients were discharged on the 7th day. The observation was carried out for six months. In no case, there was a bowel retraction, anastomotic leak, anastomotic stenosis, or other complications. Conclusion. The presented technique of mobilization of the colon for the pull-through procedure in a high transitional rectosigmoid zone of Hirschsprung’s disease allows to maintain normal blood supply to the distal part of the colon and to avoid the tension of the colon. The technique allows reducing the risk of anastomotic leak, bowel necrosis, chronic ischemia, to exclude colon retraction and anastomotic stenosis.

Keywords: Children, blood supply, colon mobilization, Hirschsprung's disease, pull-through

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17 Contribution of Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support in reducing vulnerability among children affected by HIV in Kapchorwa District

Authors: Vicent Lwanga

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Background: Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support, a Community Based Organization operating in Kapchorwa with the main focus of reducing economic and social vulnerability among children affected by HIV/AIDS. The survey on reducing vulnerability targeted HIV/AIDS affected households, which included 111 adults and 185 children. The broad objective of the study was to determine how the needs of the children affected by HIV/AIDS could be appropriately met by specifically examining the situation of children affected by HIV/AIDS and establishing their needs. Methodology: The survey applied a structured questionnaire. Parents whose consent for the interview of the children had been obtained then communicated to the selected child/children. If the child consented, an arrangement for the interview was made as regards the time and place of the interview. Lessons: Adult respondents included 22.2% males and 77.8% females. Child respondents were males, 49.5%, and females 50.5%. The majority of the households are from lower economic strata. 74.1% and 63.0% of males and females, respectively, indicated that their illness had affected their income-earning activities; some of the adults have lost their jobs due to AIDS. A fair number of the children are engaged in economic activity: some of those still in school worked after school for wages and looked after their siblings. The income earned was spent mostly on household needs and school fees — one-fifth of children linked parents` inability to do more of what they desired to their ill-health. Elderly Widows Orphans Family Support secured sponsors to educate 22 girls and 16 boys in the community. Income-generating projects like piggery and skill training are given to orphans. The specific vulnerability of HIV/AIDS orphan's needs is responded to now more than ever. Community organisations interventions such as financial support to orphans introduced to moderate the impact of the disease on orphans and families.

Keywords: AIDS, Children, Vulnerability, Needs

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16 Nursing-Related Barriers to Children’s Pain Management at Selected Hospitals in Ghana: A Descriptive Qualitative Study

Authors: Abigail Kusi Amponsah, Evans Frimpong Kyei, John Bright Agyemang, Hanson Boakye, Joana Kyei-Dompim, Collins Kwadwo Ahoto, Evans Oduro

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Staff shortages, deficient knowledge, inappropriate attitudes, demanding workloads, analgesic shortages, and low prioritization of pain management have been identified in earlier studies as the nursing-related barriers to optimal children’s pain management. These studies have mainly been undertaken in developed countries, which have different healthcare dynamics than those in developing countries. The current study, therefore, sought to identify and understand the nursing-related barriers to children’s pain management in the Ghanaian context. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted among 28 purposively sampled nurses working in the pediatric units of five hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Over the course of three months, participants were interviewed on the barriers which prevented them from optimally managing children’s pain in practice. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and deductively analysed based on a conceptual interest in pain assessment and management-related barriers. NVivo 12 plus software guided data management and analyses. The mean age of participating nurses was 30 years, with majority being females (n =24). Participants had worked in the nursing profession for an average of five years and in the pediatric care settings for an average of two years. The nursing-related barriers identified in the present study included communication difficulties in assessing and evaluating pain management interventions with children who have nonfunctional speech, insufficient training, misconceptions on the experience of pain in children, lack of assessment tools, and insufficient number of nurses to manage the workload and nurses’ inability to prescribe analgesics. The present study revealed some barriers which prevented Ghanaian nurses from optimally managing children’s pain. Nurses should be educated, empowered, and supported with the requisite material resources to effectively manage children’s pain and improve outcomes for families, healthcare systems, and the nation. Future studies should explore the facilitators and barriers from other stakeholders involved in pediatric pain management

Keywords: Children, Pain Management, Ghana, Nursing-Related Barriers

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15 Barriers and Facilitators to Inclusive Programming for Children with Mental and/or Developmental Challenges: A Participatory Action Research of Perspectives from Families and Professionals

Authors: Minnie Y. Teng, Kathy Xie, Jarus Tal

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Rationale: The traditional approach to community programs for children with mental and/or developmental challenges often involves segregation from typically-developing peers. However, studies show that inclusive education improves children’s quality of life, self-concept, and long term health outcomes. Investigating factors that influence inclusion can thus have important implications in the design and facilitation of community programs such that all children - across a spectrum of needs and abilities - may benefit. Objectives: This study explores barriers and facilitators to inclusive community programming for children aged 0 to 12 with developmental/mental challenges. Methods: Using a participatory-action research methodology, semi-structured focus groups and interviews will be used to explore perspectives of sighted students, instructors, and staff. Data will be transcribed and coded thematically. Practice Implications or Results: By having a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators to inclusive programming in the community, researchers can work with the broader community to facilitate inclusion in children’s community programs. Conclusions: Expanding inclusive practices may improve the health and wellbeing of the pediatric populations with disabilities, which consistently reports lower levels of participation. These findings may help to identify gaps in existing practices and ways to approach them.

Keywords: Inclusion, Disabilities, Children, aquatic programs, community programs

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14 Impact Evaluation of Vaccination against Eight-Child-Killer Diseases on under-Five Children Mortality at Mbale District, Uganda

Authors: Lukman Abiodun Nafiu

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This study examines the impact evaluation of vaccination against eight-child-killer diseases on under-five children mortality at Mbale District. It was driven by three specific objectives which are to determine the proportion of under-five children mortality due to the eight-child-killer diseases to the total under-five children mortality; establish the cause-effect relationship between the eight-child-killer diseases and under-five children mortality; as well as establish the dependence of under-five children mortality in the location at Mbale District. A community based cross-sectional and longitudinal (panel) study design involving both quantitative and qualitative (focus group discussion and in-depth interview) approaches was employed over a period of 36 months. Multi-stage cluster design involving Health Sub-District (HSD), Forms of Ownership (FOO) and Health Facilities Centres (HFC) as the first, second and third stages respectively was used. Data was collected regarding the eight-child-killer diseases namely: measles, pneumonia, pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, poliomyelitis (polio), tetanus, haemophilus influenza, rotavirus gastroenteritis and mortality regarding immunized and non-immunized children aged 0-59 months. We monitored the children over a period of 24 months. The study used a sample of 384 children out of all the registered children for each year at Mbale Referral Hospital and other Primary Health Care Centres (HCIV, HCIII and HCII) at Mbale District between 2015 and 2019. These children were followed from birth to their current state (living or dead). The data collected in this study was analysed using cross tabulation and the chi-square test. The study concluded that majority of mothers at Mbale district took their children for immunization and thus reducing the occurrence of under-five children mortality. Overall, 2.3%, 4.6%, 3.1%, 5.4%, 1.5%, 3.8%, 0.0% and 0.0% of under-five children had polio, tetanus, diphtheria, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, haemophilus influenzae and rotavirus gastroenteritis respectively across all the sub counties at Mbale district during the period considered. Also, different locations (sub counties) do not have significant influence on the occurrence of these eight-child-killer diseases among the under-five children at Mbale district. Therefore, the study recommended that government and agencies should continue to work together to implement measures of vaccination programs and increasing access to basic health care with a continuous improvement on the social interventions to progress child survival.

Keywords: Diseases, Children, Vaccination, Mortality

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13 Surgical Treatment Tumors and Cysts of the Pancreas in Children

Authors: Trunov V.O., Ryabov A. B., Poddubny I.V

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Introduction: cystic and solid pancreatic tumors have a relevant and disruptive position in many positions. The results of the treatment of children with tumors and pancreatic cysts aged 3 to 17 years for the period from 2008 to 2019 on the basis of the Morozov State Children's Clinical Hospital in Moscow were analyzed. The total number of children with solid tumors was 17, and 31 with cysts. In all children, the diagnosis was made on the basis of ultrasound, followed by CT and MRI. In most patients with solid tumors, they were located in the area of the pancreas tail - 58%, in the body area - 14%, in the area of the pancreatic head - 28%. In patients with pancreatic cysts, the distribution of patients by topography was as follows: head of the pancreas - 10%, body of the pancreas - 16%, tail of the pancreas - 68%, total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct - 6%. In pancreatic cysts, the method of surgical treatment was based on the results of MRCP, the level of amylase in the contents of the cyst, and the localization of the cyst. Thus, pathogenetically substantiated treatment included: excision of cysts, internal drainage on an isolated loop according to Ru, the formation of pancreatojejunoanastomosis in a child with the total cystic transformation of the Wirsung duct. In patients with solid pancreatic lesions, pancretoduodenalresection, central resection of the pancreas, and distal resection from laparotomy and laparoscopic access were performed. In the postoperative period, in order to prevent pancreatitis, all children underwent antisecretory therapy, parenteral nutrition, and drainage of the omental bursa. Results: hospital stay ranged from 7 to 12 days. The duration of postoperative fermentemia in patients with solid formations lasted from 3 to 6 days. In all cases, according to the histological examination, a pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas was revealed. In the group of children with pancreatic cysts, fermentemia was observed from 2 to 4 days, recurrence of cysts in the long term was detected in 3 children (10%). Conclusions: the treatment of cystic and solid pancreatic neoplasms is a difficult task in connection with the anatomical and functional features of the organ.

Keywords: Children, Pancreas, Laparoscopy, Tumors, resection, cysts

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12 Creating Moments and Memories: An Evaluation of the Starlight 'Moments' Program for Palliative Children, Adolescents and Their Families

Authors: C. Treadgold, S. Sivaraman

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The Starlight Children's Foundation (Starlight) is an Australian non-profit organisation that delivers programs, in partnership with health professionals, to support children, adolescents, and their families who are living with a serious illness. While supporting children and adolescents with life-limiting conditions has always been a feature of Starlight's work, providing a dedicated program, specifically targeting and meeting the needs of the paediatric palliative population, is a recent area of focus. Recognising the challenges in providing children’s palliative services, Starlight initiated a research and development project to better understand and meet the needs of this group. The aim was to create a program which enhances the wellbeing of children, adolescents, and their families receiving paediatric palliative care in their community through the provision of on-going, tailored, positive experiences or 'moments'. This paper will present the results of the formative evaluation of this unique program, highlighting the development processes and outcomes of the pilot. The pilot was designed using an innovation methodology, which included a number of research components. There was a strong belief that it needed to be delivered in partnership with a dedicated palliative care team, helping to ensure the best interests of the family were always represented. This resulted in Starlight collaborating with both the Victorian Paediatric Palliative Care Program (VPPCP) at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, and the Sydney Children's Hospital Network (SCHN) to pilot the 'Moments' program. As experts in 'positive disruption', with a long history of collaborating with health professionals, Starlight was well placed to deliver a program which helps children, adolescents, and their families to experience moments of joy, connection and achieve their own sense of accomplishment. Building on Starlight’s evidence-based approach and experience in creative service delivery, the program aims to use the power of 'positive disruption' to brighten the lives of this group and create important memories. The clinical and Starlight team members collaborate to ensure that the child and family are at the centre of the program. The design of each experience is specific to their needs and ensures the creation of positive memories and family connection. It aims for each moment to enhance quality of life. The partnership with the VPPCP and SCHN has allowed the program to reach families across metropolitan and regional locations. In late 2019 a formative evaluation of the pilot was conducted utilising both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to document both the delivery and outcomes of the program. Central to the evaluation was the interviews conducted with both clinical teams and families in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the impact of and satisfaction with the program. The findings, which will be shared in this presentation, provide practical insight into the delivery of the program, the key elements for its success with families, and areas which could benefit from additional research and focus. It will use stories and case studies from the pilot to highlight the impact of the program and discuss what opportunities, challenges, and learnings emerged.

Keywords: Children, Families, Pediatric Palliative Care, support, memory making

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11 Trafficking of Women and Children and the Solutions to Combat It: The Case of Nigeria

Authors: Ola Tokunbo Yakeem

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Human trafficking is a crime against gross violations of human rights. Trafficking in persons is a severe socio-economic dilemma that affects the national and international dimensions. Human trafficking or modern-day-slavery emanated from slavery, and it has been in existence before the 6th century. Today, no country is exempted from dehumanizing human beings, and as a result, it has been an international issue. The United Nations (UN) presented the International Protocol to fight human trafficking worldwide, which brought about the international definition of human trafficking. The protocol is to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children. The trafficking protocol has a link with transnational organised crime rather than migration. Over a hundred and fifty countries nationwide have enacted their criminal and panel code trafficking legislation from the UN trafficking protocol. Sex trafficking is the most common type of exploitation of women and children. Other forms of this crime involve exploiting vulnerable victims through forced labour, child involvement in warfare, domestic servitude, debt bondage, and organ removal for transplantation. Trafficking of women and children into sexual exploitation represents the highest form of human trafficking than other types of exploitation. Trafficking of women and children can either happen internally or across the border. It affects all kinds of people, regardless of their race, social class, culture, religion, and education levels. However, it is more of a gender-based issue against females. Furthermore, human trafficking can lead to life-threatening infections, mental disorders, lifetime trauma, and even the victim's death. The study's significance is to explore why the root causes of women and children trafficking in Nigeria are based around poverty, entrusting children in the hands of relatives and friends, corruption, globalization, weak legislation, and ignorance. The importance of this study is to establish how the national, regional, and international organisations are using the 3P's (Protection, Prevention, and Prosecution) to tackle human trafficking. The methodology approach for this study will be a qualitative paradigm. The rationale behind this selection is that the qualitative method will identify the phenomenon and interpret the findings comprehensively. The data collection will take the form of semi-structured in-depth interviews through telephone and email. The researcher will use descriptive thematic analysis to analyse the data by using complete coding. In summary, this study aims to recommend to the Nigerian federal government to include human trafficking as a subject in their educational curriculum for early intervention to prevent children from been coerced by criminal gangs. And the research aims to find the root causes of women and children trafficking. Also, to look into the effectiveness of the strategies in place to eradicate human trafficking globally. In the same vein, the research objective is to investigate how the anti-trafficking bodies such as law enforcement and NGOs collaborate to tackle the upsurge in human trafficking.

Keywords: Women, trafficking, Children, Nigeria

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10 Factors Associated with Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Prospective Single Centre Study

Authors: Marko Jankovic, Aleksandra Knezevic, Maja Cupic, Dragana Vujic, Zeljko Zecevic, Borko Gobeljic, Marija Simic, Tanja Jovanovic

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The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a notorious pathogen in the pediatric transplant setting. Although studies on factors in complicity with CMV infection abound, the role of age, gender, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) modality, and underlying disease as regards CMV infection and viral load in children are poorly explored. We examined the significance of various factors related to the risk of CMV infection and viral load in Serbian children and adolescents undergoing alloHSCT. This was a prospective single centre study of thirty two pediatric patients in receipt of alloHSCT for various malignant and non-malignant disorders. Screening for active viral infection was performed by regular weekly monitoring. The Real-Time PCR method was used for CMV DNA detection and quantitation. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics v20 software. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical variables. Comparison between scalar and nominal data was done by Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Pearson correlation was applied for studying the association between patient age and viral load. CMV was detected in 23 (71.9%) patients. Infection occurred significantly more often (p=0.015) in patients with haploidentical donors. The opposite was noted for matched sibling grafts (p=0.006). The viral load was higher in females (p=0.041) and children in the aftermath of alloHSCT with malignant diseases (p=0.019). There was no significant relationship between the viral infection dynamics and overt medical consequences. This is the first study of risk factors for CMV infection in Serbian pediatric alloHSCT patients. Transplanted patients presented with a high incidence of CMV viremia. The HLA compatibility of donated graft is associated with the frequency of CMV positive events. Age, gender, underlying disease, and medically relevant events were not conducive to occurrences of viremia. Notably, substantial viral burdens were evidenced in females and patients with neoplastic diseases. Studies comprising larger populations are clearly needed to scrutinize current results.

Keywords: Children, Risk Factors, cytomegalovirus, viral load, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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9 Influences of Socioeconomic Status and Age on Child Creativity: An Exploratory Study Applied to School Children in Poland

Authors: Bernard Vaernes

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Creativity is thought to be of importance for educational success. Educational institutions vary greatly in regard to socioeconomic status (SES) and curricular emphasis on creativity. Research is needed to clarify the effects of age and SES on creativity. The objective of this study will be to compare the creative performance of children with different SES, low or high, and age. It is hypothesized that younger children will score higher than older children, independent of their SES. Children aged 15, 12, and 9 from four different junior and secondary schools in Warsaw, Poland, will participate in the study. The schools will differ in terms of socioeconomic, geographic localization. To assess creative performance, a Polish adaptation of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) will be used. In order to select low and high SES individuals for SES grouping, a Polish adaptation of the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status will be given to all participants. To control for individual differences in personality traits, a Polish adaptation of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) will be used. These measures will allow to compare the creative performance of children with different age and SES and eliminate confound variables. It is predicted that younger children, as well as high SES children, will score higher on the TTCT than older children, and low SES children. The findings of this study may provide useful insight into socioeconomic and age differences in creativity, as well as facilitating teacher’s adjustment of learning styles and emphasis on creativity in relation to the SES and age of their students.

Keywords: Children, Creativity, Socioeconomic Status, big five questionnaire for children, Torrance test of creative thinking, TTCT

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8 Potential and Development of Children with Atypical Rett Syndrome (CDKL5 Gene Mutation) and Augmentative and Alternative Communication

Authors: Anna Amato

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Every child needs communication. If spoken language is not or not fully available due to congenital or acquired limitations, those affected need appropriate ways. These can be found in many possibilities of Augmentative and Alternative Communications (AAC). In the communication promotion of severely impaired children, who can use their own body communication forms only to a limited extent for the differentiated understanding, computers with eye control play an essential role. It takes some time to understand the individual forms of communication of the child. Children who depend on the AAC need competent support to learn to communicate in a motivated way in their everyday life. The aim of the present parents' survey (n = 4), which was evaluated descriptively, is to demonstrate the development of communicative abilities as well as the motivation to use complex communication aids with eye control by patients with atypical Rett Syndrome. An increase in communication skills, well-being, self-reliance, and self-esteem, an improvement in social participation, as well as a reduction in anger and screaming events, were noted. The complex visual communication tools were available daily for 3 out of 4 patients with atypical Rett Syndrome. It raises research questions regarding speech understanding and the ability to drive eye control technology in a larger group of atypical Rett Syndrome patients.

Keywords: Development, Children, AAC, augmentative and alternative communications, atypical Rett-syndrome

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