Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 187

Children Related Abstracts

97 Association between Caries Status of First Permanent Molar with Oral Health Care Practice in Children Aged 9-12 Years in Lubuk Kilangan, Padang City

Authors: Cytha Nilam Chairani, Ditha Noviantika, Hidayati Amir, Nurul Khairiyah, Siti Rahmadita, Fadila Khairani

Abstract:

Background: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases with high prevalence in children. The first permanent molar (FPM) has an essential role in establishing the occlusion. Nevertheless, FPM is very prone to caries because of various factors, such as their anatomical structure and early emergence in oral cavity. It is due to the little knowledge from parents and children regarding the timing of emergence of FPM in oral cavity which is still considered as primary teeth. Furthermore, the lack of knowledge from parents and children may affect their oral hygiene practice resulting to carious process. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice in 9-12-year-old school children in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 50 school children (9-12 years old) using random sampling technique from two randomly selected schools in Lubuk Kilangan Community Health Centre, Padang City. A questionnaire was developed from other studies consisting of four closed ended questions regarding oral health practice. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney Test to assess the status of FPM caries and its association with children’s oral hygiene practice. Results: The results showed that 32% of children had FPMs sound and the remaining 68% had FPMs carious which were grouped into 1-2 FPMs carious (60%) and 3-4 FPMs carious (8%). The caries status of mandibular FPM (64%) was higher compared to maxillary FPM (10%). Conclusion: There was significant association in subject who did not visit dentist in the last 6 months which had more carious FPMs compared to subject who visited dentist (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between the status of FPM caries and knowledge of the timing eruption of FPM, oral hygiene instruction from parents and tooth brushing (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Children, Dental Caries, first permanent molar, oral hygiene practice

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96 Impact of Chess Intervention on Cognitive Functioning of Children

Authors: Ebenezer Joseph

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Chess is a useful tool to enhance general and specific cognitive functioning in children. The present study aims to assess the impact of chess on cognitive in children and to measure the differential impact of socio-demographic factors like age and gender of the child on the effectiveness of the chess intervention.This research study used an experimental design to study the impact of the Training in Chess on the intelligence of children. The Pre-test Post-test Control Group Design was utilized. The research design involved two groups of children: an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group consisted of children who participated in the one-year Chess Training Intervention, while the control group participated in extra-curricular activities in school. The main independent variable was training in chess. Other independent variables were gender and age of the child. The dependent variable was the cognitive functioning of the child (as measured by IQ, working memory index, processing speed index, perceptual reasoning index, verbal comprehension index, numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning, social intelligence, language, conceptual thinking, memory, visual motor and creativity). The sample consisted of 200 children studying in Government and Private schools. Random sampling was utilized. The sample included both boys and girls falling in the age range 6 to 16 years. The experimental group consisted of 100 children (50 from Government schools and 50 from Private schools) with an equal representation of boys and girls. The control group similarly consisted of 100 children. The dependent variables were assessed using Binet-Kamat Test of Intelligence, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV (India) and Wallach Kogan Creativity Test. The training methodology comprised Winning Moves Chess Learning Program - Episodes 1–22, lectures with the demonstration board, on-the-board playing and training, chess exercise through workbooks (Chess school 1A, Chess school 2, and tactics) and working with chess software. Further students games were mapped using chess software and the brain patterns of the child were understood. They were taught the ideas behind chess openings and exposure to classical games were also given. The children participated in mock as well as regular tournaments. Preliminary analysis carried out using independent t tests with 50 children indicates that chess training has led to significant increases in the intelligent quotient. Children in the experimental group have shown significant increases in composite scores like working memory and perceptual reasoning. Chess training has significantly enhanced the total creativity scores, line drawing and pattern meaning subscale scores. Systematically learning chess as part of school activities appears to have a broad spectrum of positive outcomes.

Keywords: Children, Creativity, Intelligence, chess

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
95 Understanding of the Impact of Technology in Collaborative Programming for Children

Authors: Nadia Selene Molina-Moreno, Maria Susana Avila-Garcia, Marco Bianchetti, Marcelina Pantoja-Flores

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Visual Programming Tools available are a great tool for introducing children to programming and to develop a skill set for algorithmic thinking. On the other hand, collaborative learning and pair programming within the context of programming activities, has demonstrated to have social and learning benefits. However, some of the online tools available for programming for children are not designed to allow simultaneous and equitable participation of the team members since they allow only for a single control point. In this paper, a report the work conducted with children playing a user role is presented. A preliminary study to cull ideas, insights, and design considerations for a formal programming course for children aged 8-10 using collaborative learning as a pedagogical approach was conducted. Three setups were provided: 1) lo-fi prototype, 2) PC, 3) a 46' multi-touch single display groupware limited by the application to a single touch entry. Children were interviewed at the end of the sessions in order to know their opinions about teamwork and the different setups defined. Results are mixed regarding the setup, but they agree to like teamwork.

Keywords: Children, Visual programming, collaborative programming, multi-touch tabletop, lo-fi prototype

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
94 Lines for a Different Approach in Music Education: A Review of the Concept of Musicality

Authors: Emmanuel Carlos De Mata Castrejón

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Music education has shown to be connected to many areas of sciences and arts, it has also been associated with several facets of human life. The many aspects around the study of music and education, make very difficult for the music educator to find a way through, even though there are lots of methods of teaching music to young children, they are different between one another and so are the students. For the music to help improve children’s development, it is necessary for the children to explore their musicality as they explore their creativity; it must be a challenging, playful, and enjoyable activity. The purpose of this investigation is to focus the music education not in the music, nor the teaching, but the children to be guided through their own musicality. The first approach to this kind of music education comes from the Active learning methods during the nineteenth century, most of which are still used around the world, sometimes with modifications to fit a certain place or type of students. This approach on children’s musicality requires some knowledge of music, pedagogy, and developmental psychology at least, but more important than the theory or the method used for music education, the focus should be on developing the student’s musicality, considering the complexity of this concept. To get this, it is needed, indeed, far more research in the topic, so this is a call for collaborative research and for interdisciplinary teams to emerge. This is a review of authors and methods in music education trying to trace a line pointing to transdisciplinary work and pursuing the development of children’s musicality.

Keywords: Music Education, Children, Methods, Musicality

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93 Disaster Education and Children with Visual Impairment

Authors: Vassilis Argyropoulos, Magda Nikolaraizi, Maria Papazafiri

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This study describes a series of learning workshops, which took place within CUIDAR project. The workshops aimed to empower children to share their experiences and views in relation to natural hazards and disasters. The participants in the workshops were ten primary school students who had severe visual impairments or multiple disabilities and visual impairments (MDVI). The main objectives of the workshops were: a) to promote access of the children through the use of appropriate educational material such as texts in braille, enlarged text, tactile maps and the implementation of differentiated instruction, b) to make children aware regarding their rights to have access to information and to participate in planning and decision-making especially in relation to disaster education programs, and c) to encourage children to have an active role during the workshops through child-led and experiential learning activities. The children expressed their views regarding the meaning of hazards and disasters. Following, they discussed their experiences and emotions regarding natural hazards and disasters, and they chose to place the emphasis on a hazard, which was more pertinent to them, their community and their region, namely fires. Therefore, they recalled fires that have caused major disasters, and they discussed about the impact that these fires had on their community or on their country. Furthermore, they were encouraged to become aware regarding their own role and responsibility to prevent a fire or get prepared and know how to behave if a fire occurs. They realized that prevention and preparation are a matter of personal responsibility. They also felt the responsibility to inform their own families. Finally, they met important people involved in fire protection such as rescuers and firefighters and had the opportunity to carry dialogues. In conclusion, through child led workshops, experiential and accessible activities, the students had the opportunity to share their own experiences, to express their views and their questions, to broaden their knowledge and to realize their personal responsibility in disaster risk reduction, specifically in relation to fires.

Keywords: Accessibility, Children, disasters, Visual Impairment

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92 The Need for Sustaining Hope during Communication of Unfavourable News in the Care of Children with Palliative Care Needs: The Experience of Mothers and Health Professionals in Jordan

Authors: Maha Atout, Pippa Hemingway, Jane Seymour

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A preliminary systematic review shows that health professionals experience a tension when communicating with the parents and family members of children with life-threatening and life-limiting conditions. On the one hand, they want to promote open and honest communication, while on the other, they are apprehensive about fostering an unrealistic sense of hope. Defining the boundaries between information that might offer reasonable hope versus that which results in false reassurance is challenging. Some healthcare providers worry that instilling a false sense of hope could motivate parents to seek continued aggressive treatment for their child, which in turn might cause the patient further unnecessary suffering. To date, there has been a lack of research in the Middle East regarding how healthcare providers do or should communicate bad news; in particular, the issue of hope in the field of paediatric palliative care has not been researched thoroughly. This study aims to explore, from the perspective of patients’ mothers, physicians, and nurses, the experience of communicating and receiving bad news in the care of children with palliative care needs. Data were collected using a collective qualitative case study approach across three paediatric units in a Jordanian hospital. Two data collection methods were employed: participant observation and semi-structured interviews. The overall number of cases was 15, with a total of 56 interviews with mothers (n=24), physicians (n=12), and nurses (n=20) completed, as well as 197 observational hours logged. The findings demonstrate that mothers wanted their doctors to provide them with hopeful information about the future progression of their child’s illness. Although some mothers asked their doctors to provide them with honest information regarding the condition of their child, they still considered a sense of hope to be essential for coping with caring for their child. According to mothers, hope was critical to treatment as it helped them to stay committed to the treatment and protected them to some extent from the extreme emotional suffering that would occur if they lost hope. The health professionals agreed with the mothers on the importance of hope, so long as it was congruent with the stage and severity of each patient’s disease. The findings of this study conclude that while parents typically insist on knowing all relevant information when their child is diagnosed with a severe illness, they considered hope to be an essential part of life, and they found it very difficult to handle suffering without any glimmer of it. This study finds that using negative terms has extremely adverse effects on the parents’ emotions. Hence, although the mothers asked the doctors to be as honest as they could, they still wanted the physicians to provide them with a positive message by communicating this information in a sensitive manner including hope.

Keywords: Communication, Information, palliative care, Children, Mothers, hope, health professionals

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91 Relationship among the Air Pollution and Atopic Dermatitis Using Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chaebong Kim, Yongmin Cho, Minkyung Han, Mooyoung Kim, KooSang Kim

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Background: Air pollution from global warming has a considerable influence on respiratory disease and atopic dermatitis (AD). Present studies base on a hypothesis about correlation between air pollutant and AD, and the results are analyzed from various points of view. Objectives: This study aimed to integrate the relevant researches for air pollutant and AD, and to perform the systematic literature review and meta-analysis to provide the basis of air pollutant control. Methods: Research materials were collected from original articles published in English academic journals including medicine, nursing and health science from August 1 to 31, 2016. We collected the materials from Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central database with Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) based on the Cochrane Systematic Review Manual, and performed the evaluation and analysis for selected materials. We got the research results for risk of bias using Rev-Man ver. 5.2, and meta analyses using STATA. Results: The prevalence of infantile atopic dermatitis were 1.05 times higher than other groups who were exposed to air pollution, and exposure to NO2 (1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.14), O3 (1.09, 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.15), SO2 (1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.12) in subgroup air pollutant was considerably associated with infantile atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of infantile atopic dermatitis was 1.03 times higher than other groups who were exposed to PM2.5, but the results were not statistically similar. Conclusion: Health effect from environmental pollution risen people’s interest in environmental diseases. Air pollutant was associated with AD in this study, but selected literature was based on non-RCT (Randomized Controlled Trial) study. Therefore, there was a limit in study method including control, matching, and correction of confounding variables. For clear conclusion, it is necessary to develop the appropriate tool for object of study and clear standard to measure of air pollutant.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Atopic dermatitis, Children, Meta-analysis

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90 A Review on the Importance of Nursing Approaches in Nutrition of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ş. Çiftcioğlu, E. Efe

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In recent years, cancer has been at the top of diseases that cause death in children. Adequate and balanced nutrition plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. Cancer and cancer treatment is affecting food intake, absorption and metabolism, causing nutritional disorders. Appropriate nutrition is very important for the cancerous child to feel well before, during and after the treatment. There are various difficulties in feeding children with cancer. These are the cancer-related factors. Other factors are environmental and behavioral. As health professionals who spend more time with children in the hospital, nurses should be able to support the children on nutrition and help them to have balanced nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of nursing approaches in the nutrition of children with cancer. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature on this field. Anorexia may develop due to psychogenic causes or chemotherapeutic agents or accompanying infections and nutrient uptake may be reduced.  In addition, stomatitis, mucositis, taste and odor changes in the mouth, the feeling of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea can also reduce oral intake and result in significant losses in the energy deficit. In assessing the nutritional status of children with cancer, determining weight loss and good nutrition is essential anamnesis of a child.  Some anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests should be used to evaluate the nutrition of the child. The nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients has been studied for a long time and malnutrition, in particular under nutrition, in this population has long been recognized. Yet, its management remains variable with many malnourished children going unrecognized and consequently untreated. Nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated into the overall treatment of these children.

Keywords: Nutrition, Cancer Treatment, Children, complication, nursing approaches

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89 Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Resulting from the Chernobyl Fallout and Childhood Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Population Based Study

Authors: Geraldine Landon, Enora Clero, Jean-Rene Jourdain

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In 2005, the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN, France) launched a research program named EPICE (acronym for 'Evaluation of Pathologies potentially Induced by CaEsium') to collect scientific information on non-cancer effects possibly induced by chronic exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation with the view of addressing a question raised by several French NGOs related to health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in children. The implementation of the program was preceded by a pilot phase to ensure that the project would be feasible and determine the conditions for implementing an epidemiological study on a population of several thousand children. The EPICE program focused on childhood cardiac arrhythmias started in May 2009 for 4 years, in partnership with the Russian Bryansk Diagnostic Center. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias in the Bryansk oblast (depending on the contamination of the territory and the caesium-137 whole-body burden) and to assess whether caesium-137 was or not a factor associated with the onset of cardiac arrhythmias. To address these questions, a study bringing together 18 152 children aged 2 to 18 years was initiated; each child received three medical examinations (ECG, echocardiography, and caesium-137 whole-body activity measurement) and some of them were given with a 24-hour Holter monitoring and blood tests. The findings of the study, currently submitted to an international journal justifying that no results can be given at this step, allow us to answer clearly to the issue of radiation-induced childhood arrhythmia, a subject that has been debated for many years. Our results will be certainly helpful for health professionals responsible for the monitoring of population exposed to the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and also useful for future comparative study in children exposed to ionizing radiation in other contexts, such as cancer radiation therapies.

Keywords: Children, Caesium-137, cardiac arrhythmia, Chernobyl

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88 Unpredictable Territorial Interiority: Learning the Spatiality from the Early Space Learners

Authors: M. Mirza Y. Harahap

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This paper explores the interiority of children’s territorialisation in domestic space context by looking at their affective relations with their surroundings. Examining its spatiality, the research focuses on the interactions that developed between the children and the things which exist in their house, specifically those which left traces, indicating the very arena of their territory. As early learners, the children whose mind and body are still in the development stage are hypothetically distinct in the way they territorialise the space. Rule, common sense and other form of common acceptances among the adults might not be relevant with their way on territorialising the space. Unpredictability-ness, inappropriateness, and unimaginableness hypothetically characterise their unique endeavour when territorialising the space. The purpose might even be insignificant, expressing their very development which unrestricted. This indicates how the interiority of children’s territorialisation in a domestic space context actually is. It would also implicate on a new way of seeing territory since territorialisation act has natural purpose: to aim the space and regard them as his/her own. Aiming to disclose the above territorialisation characteristics, this paper addresses a qualitative study which covers a comprehensive analysis as follow: 1) Collecting various territorial traces left from the children activities within their respective houses. Further within this stage, the data is categorised based on the territorial strategy and tactic. This stage would particularly result in the overall map of the children’s territorial interiority which expresses its focuses, range and ways; 2) Examining the interactions occurred between the children and the spatial elements within the house. Stressing on the affective relations, this stage revealed the immaterial aspect of the children’s territorialisation, thus disclosed the unseen spatial aspect of territorialisation; and 3) Synthesising the previous two stages. Correlating the results from the two stages would then help us to understand the children’s unpredictable, inappropriate and unimaginable territorial interiority. This would also help us to justify how the children learn the space through territorialisation act, its importance and its position in interiority conception. The discussed relation between the children and the houses that cover both its physical and imaginary entity as part of their overall dwelling space would also help us to have a better understanding towards specific spatial elements which are significant and undeniably important for children’s spatial learning process. Particularly for this last finding, it would also help us to determine what kind of spatial elements which are necessary to be existed in a house, thus help for design development purpose. Overall, the study in this paper would help us to broaden our mindset regarding the territory, dwelling, interiority and the overall interior architecture conception, promising a chance for further research within interior architecture field.

Keywords: Children, relation, territory, interiority

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87 Providing Healthy Food in Primary and Secondary Schools of Saudi Arabia to Significantly Reduce Obesity and Improve Health by Using the Star Rating System for a Healthier Diet

Authors: Emran M. Badghish

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Overweight and obesity have now become an epidemic around the globe, both in high-, as well as low-income regions. It is important to use preventive measures that are cost-effective. Schools are the essence of building societies and engaging them in healthy nutrition will offer a way to reach individuals at an early stage in life, with many positive and significant impacts. Aim: Provide healthy food in schools of children aged 5 to 18 years old. Methods: Distributing healthy food to a school and implementation of a star rating system for healthier foods, with five stars for the healthiest option to a half a star for the unhealthiest. The stars system was developed in Australia and should motivate children to consume the healthier nutritional options. Each canteen should be allowed a minimum of 3.5 stars rating for the food provided. Outcome Measurement: Body-mass-index as an indicator of overweight and obesity should be checked at the beginning of the study annually for five years for all children. Another side measurement is the performance by checking the grades and a questionnaire on eating habits at the start of the study and yearly. Expected Outcome: A lower health-risk behaviour and assistance to children in reaching their potentials as they will adapt to eating healthier. Nutrition during childhood has the potential to prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, dental diseases, hypertension and, in later life, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and a variety of cancers. In Australia NSW starting from 2016 is expecting a 5% reduction of childhood overweight and obesity by 2025. As for Saudi-Arabia, it is expected to have an, even more, reduction by 2023 as a lot of our children are canteen-dependent. Conclusion: Introducing healthy food in schools is a preventative method that would have significant influence on the reduction of the prevalence of obesity in Saudi-Arabia and improves its general health.

Keywords: Food, Obesity, Children, Healthy, Schools

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86 An Indispensable Parameter in Lipid Ratios to Discriminate between Morbid Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Children: High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

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Obesity is a low-grade inflammatory disease and may lead to health problems such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes. It is also associated with important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. This requires the detailed evaluation of obesity, particularly in children. The aim of this study is to enlighten the potential associations between lipid ratios and obesity indices and to introduce those with discriminating features among children with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 408 children (aged between six and eighteen years) participated in the scope of the study. Informed consent forms were taken from the participants and their parents. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, height as well as waist, hip, head, neck circumferences and body fat mass were taken. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index-II (D2 index), waist-to-hip, head-to-neck ratios were calculated. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLChol), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLChol) analyses were performed in blood samples drawn from 110 children with normal body weight, 164 morbid obese (MO) children and 134 children with MetS. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles tabulated by World Health Organization were used to classify groups; normal body weight, MO and MetS. 15th-to-85th percentiles were used to define normal body weight children. Children, whose values were above the 99th percentile, were described as MO. MetS criteria were defined. Data were evaluated statistically by SPSS Version 20. The degree of statistical significance was accepted as p≤0.05. Mean±standard deviation values of BMI for normal body weight children, MO children and those with MetS were 15.7±1.1, 27.1±3.8 and 29.1±5.3 kg/m2, respectively. Corresponding values for the D2 index were calculated as 3.4±0.9, 14.3±4.9 and 16.4±6.7. Both BMI and D2 index were capable of discriminating the groups from one another (p≤0.01). As far as other obesity indices were considered, waist-to hip and head-to-neck ratios did not exhibit any statistically significant difference between MO and MetS groups (p≥0.05). Diagnostic obesity notation model assessment index-II was correlated with the triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio in normal body weight and MO (r=0.413, p≤0.01 and r=0.261, (p≤0.05, respectively). Total cholesterol-to-HDL-C and LDL-C-to-HDL-C showed statistically significant differences between normal body weight and MO as well as MO and MetS (p≤0.05). The only group in which these two ratios were significantly correlated with waist-to-hip ratio was MetS group (r=0.332 and r=0.334, p≤0.01, respectively). Lack of correlation between the D2 index and the triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio was another important finding in MetS group. In this study, parameters and ratios, whose associations were defined previously with increased cardiovascular risk or cardiac death have been evaluated along with obesity indices in children with morbid obesity and MetS. Their profiles during childhood have been investigated. Aside from the nature of the correlation between the D2 index and triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio, total cholesterol-to-HDL-C as well as LDL-C-to- HDL-C ratios along with their correlations with waist-to-hip ratio showed that the combination of obesity-related parameters predicts better than one parameter and appears to be helpful for discriminating MO children from MetS group.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, lipid ratios, obesity indices

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85 A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Eileen K. Africa, Karel J. van Deventer

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Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.

Keywords: Children, Autism spectrum disorder, gross motor skills, group intervention programme

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84 The Direct and Indirect Effects of Buddhism on Fertility Rates in General and in Specific Socioeconomic Circumstances of Women

Authors: Szerena Vajkovszki

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Our worldwide aging society, especially in developed countries, including members of EU, raise sophisticated sociological and economic issues and challenges to be met. As declining fertility has outstanding influence underlying this trend, numerous studies have attempted to identify, describe, measure and interpret contributing factors of the fertility rate, out of which relatively few revealed the impact of religion. Identified, examined and influential factors affecting birth rate as stated by the present scientific publications are more than a dozen out of which religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms were examined first with a special focus on abortion and forms of birth control. Nevertheless, connected to religion, not only these topics are crucial regarding fertility, but many others as well. Among many religious guidelines, we can separate two major categories: direct and indirect. The aim of this research was to understand what are the most crucial identified (family values, gender related behaviors, religious sentiments) and not yet identified most influential contributing religious factors. Above identifying these direct or indirect factors, it is also important to understand to what extent and how do they influence fertility, which requires a wider (inter-discipline) perspective. As proved by previous studies religion has also an influential role on health, mental state, well-being, working activity and many other components that are also related to fertility rates. All these components are inter-related. Hence direct and indirect religious effects can only be well understood if we figure out all necessary fields and their interaction. With the help of semi-structured opened interviews taking place in different countries, it was showed that indeed Buddhism has significant direct and indirect effect on fertility. Hence the initial hypothesis was proved. However, the interviews showed an overall positive effect; the results could only serve for a general understanding of how Buddhism affects fertility. Evolution of Buddhism’s direct and indirect influence may vary in different nations and circumstances according to their specific environmental attributes. According to the local patterns, with special regard to women’s position and role in the society, outstandingly indirect influences could show diversifications. So it is advisory to investigate more for a deeper and clearer understanding of how Buddhism function in different socioeconomic circumstances. For this purpose, a specific and detailed analysis was developed from recent related researches about women’s position (including family roles and economic activity) in Hungary with the intention to be able to have a complex vision of crucial socioeconomic factors influencing fertility. Further interviews and investigations are to be done in order to show a complex vision of Buddhism’s direct and indirect effect on fertility in Hungary to be able to support recommendations and policies pointing to higher fertility rates in the field of social policies. The present research could serve as a general starting point or a common basis for further specific national investigations.

Keywords: Women, Children, Religion, Buddhism, Fertility, Gender Roles

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83 The Effect of Mindfulness on Eating Enjoyment and Behavior in Preschool and Elementary Children: A Field Experiment across Four Schools

Authors: Phan Hong, David Lishner, Matthew Hanson

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Sixty-five children across four school research sites participated in the present experiment, which was designed to examine whether mindfulness promotes eating enjoyment and diverse eating behaviors in preschool- and early elementary-age children. Children, ages 3-9 years old, were randomly assigned to a 4-week mindfulness intervention condition or a 4-week exposure, control condition. Each week for four days, children received one of four different foods (celery, cauliflower, kidney beans, or garbanzo beans). Children either received instructions to mindfully engage with the food or were given the food and allowed to eat without mindfulness prompts from the researchers. Following the eating exercise, they recorded the amount eaten and rated their enjoyment level. Across all sessions, researchers modeled eating behaviors for the children by eating all the offered food. Results suggested that a brief mindfulness intervention promoted more diverse eating behaviors and more overall food consumption of typically not preferred and unfamiliar foods (celery, cauliflower, and garbanzo beans), compared with an exposure, control condition in preschool children and elementary-age children. However, food enjoyment ratings did not significantly differ between the two conditions for any of the foods. Implications of the finding for addressing eating behavior of young children are considered.

Keywords: Children, Mindfulness, Schools, Eating Behavior, control trial, eating enjoyment

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82 Emotional and Personal Characteristics of Children in Relation to the Parental Attitudes

Authors: Svetlana S. Saveysheva, Victoria E. Vasilenko

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The purpose of the research was to study the emotional and personal characteristics of preschool children in relation to the characteristics of child-parent interaction and deviant parental attitudes. The study involved 172 mothers and 172 children (85 boys and 87 girls) aged 4,5 to 7 years (mean age 6 years) living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods used were, demographic questionnaire, projective drawing method 'House-Tree-Man', Test of anxiety (Temml, Dorki, Amen), technique of studying self-esteem 'Ladder', expert evaluation of sociability and aggressiveness, questionnaire for children-parent emotional interaction (E.I. Zaharova) and questionnaire 'Analysis of family relationships' (E.G. Eidemiller, V.V. Yustitsky). Results. The greatest number of links with personal characteristics have received such parental deviant attitudes as overprotection and characteristics of authoritarian style (prohibitions, sanctions). If the mother has such peculiarities of the parental relationship, the child is characterized by lower self-esteem, increased anxiety, distrust of themselves and hostility. Children have more pronounced manifestations of aggression in a conniving and unstable style of parenting. The sensitivity of the mother is positively associated with children’s self-esteem. Unconditional acceptance of the child, the predominance of a positive emotional background, orientation to the state of the child during interaction promote the development of communication skills and reduce of aggressiveness. But the excessive closeness of the mother with the child can make it difficult to develop the communicative skills. Conclusions. The greatest influence on emotional and personal characteristics is provided by such features of the parental relation as overprotection, characteristics of authoritarian style, underdevelopment of the sphere of parental feelings, sensitivity of mother and behavioral manifestations of emotional interaction. Research is supported by RFBR №18-013-00990.

Keywords: Children, characteristics of personality, child-parent interaction, deviant parental attitudes

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81 Water and Beverage Consumption among Children and Adolescents in Tehran Metropolitan City of Iran

Authors: Mitra Abtahi, Esmat Nasseri, Morteza Abodllahi

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Introduction: Adequate hydration is necessary for proper physical and mental function. The aim of this study is to determine the consumption of water and all other beverages in children (8-13 years) and adolescents (14-17 years) in Tehran metropolitan city of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 455 children (8-13 years) and 334 adolescents (14-17 years) were retrieved from north, center, and south of Tehran (18 schools). Instrument for data collection consisted of a “demographic and general health” questionnaire and a “7-day fluid record”. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 16 software. Results: The mean total consumption of fluids in school children was 1302 ± 500.6 ml/day. The highest mean intakes were observed for water (666 ± 398 ml/day), followed by milk (239 ± 183 ml/day), regular soft beverages (RSB) (188 ± 148 ml/day), and juices (60 ± 74 ml/day). Water, hot drinks (mainly tea) and soft drinks intake was significantly more in boys than girls. A significantly lower intake of milk and a higher intake of RSB and hot beverages (mainly tea) have been seen among adolescents compared to children. Conclusion: The most important finding is that mean fluid intake of children and adolescents does not meet international adequate intake references for water and fluids. This finding may suggest the necessity of development of the local references. To improve fluid intake habits of children and adolescents, relevant policy making and actions are warranted.

Keywords: Water, Children, Adolescents, Beverages

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80 Building Children's Capacity towards Sustainable Future: Making a Case for a Socio-Cultural Approach to Understanding Sustainability

Authors: Taiwo Frances Gbadegesin

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Children’s capacity to contribute to social and economic status of a nation has been given more recognition than ever. Global policy priority aimed at ensuring sustainable development has been extended to the developing nations of the world. However, many developing countries have continued to puzzle out the extent and possibilities of exploring sustainability within their socio-economic environment. This paper considers ways in which the theoretical framework of Dahlberg, Moss and Pence (1999; 2007) and Moss (2007; 2012) that embraces meaning-making, social construction of childhood experiences and democratic perspectives can be used to understand children’s capacity for building a sustainable future. This paper presents data collected through interviews and observations from ECCE teachers and children in Lagos, Nigeria. A distinct finding is that children’s participation in building sustainable future is a consequence of the knowledge of the workings of their social, economic and cultural nuances and not a matter of economic wealth per se. It further argues that sustainability is situated within a complex network of local and global contexts. It thus challenges the present neo-liberal approach and advocates a democratic approach to preparing children for a sustainable society. It concludes that sustainability cannot be built on what may be seen as decontextualized responses by relevant stakeholders to the needs and experiences of the “whole child”.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Children, Nigeria, ECCE

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79 The Moderating Roles of Bedtime Activities and Anxiety and Depression in the Relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep Problems in Children

Authors: Lian Tong, Yan Ye, Qiong Yan

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Background: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience sleep problems, but the comorbidity mechanism has not been sufficiently studied. This study aimed to determine the comorbidity of ADHD and sleep problems as well as the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. Methods: We recruited 934 primary students from third to fifth grade and their parents by stratified random sampling from three primary schools in Shanghai, China. This study used parent-reported versions of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV, Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist. We used hierarchical linear regression analysis to clarify the moderating effects of bedtime activities and depression/anxiety symptoms. Results: We found that children with more ADHD symptoms had shorter sleep durations and more sleep problems on weekdays. Screen time before bedtime strengthened the relationship between ADHD and sleep-disordered breathing. Children with more screen time were more likely to have sleep onset delay, while those with less screen time had more sleep onset problems with increasing ADHD symptoms. The high bedtime eating group experienced more night waking with increasing ADHD symptoms compared with the low bedtime eating group. Anxiety/depression exacerbated total sleep problems and further interacted with ADHD symptoms to predict sleep length and sleep duration problems. Conclusions: Bedtime activities and emotional problems had important moderating effects on the relationship between ADHD and sleep problems. These findings indicate that appropriate bedtime management and emotional management may reduce sleep problems and improve sleep duration for children with ADHD symptoms.

Keywords: Children, ADHD, sleep problems, anxiety/depression, bedtime activities

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78 Effects of National Policy on Montana Medicaid Coverage and Enrollment

Authors: Ryan J. Trefethen, Vincent H. Smith

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This study explores the relationship between national spending on the Medicaid program, and total Medicaid spending and enrollment in Montana, a state that ranks thirty-third in per capita income and thirty-seventh in median household income in the United States. The purpose of the research is to estimate the potential effects that specific changes to national healthcare policy would likely have on funding for the Montana Medicaid Program and enrollees in the program, members of families in poverty whose incomes are low, even though in many cases they have steady jobs. A particular concern is the effect on access to care for children in poverty who tend to be food insecure and, therefore, especially in need of access to health care. The research uses data collected from a variety of government publications, including the Medicaid Financial Management Report, the Medicaid Managed Care Enrollment Report, and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services MSIS State Summaries for fiscal years 2000-2015. These data were examined using econometric analysis, to assess these impacts. The evidence indicates that the changes included in recent congressional legislative initiatives would potentially leave an additional 50,000 to 60,000 Montana residents, five to six percent of the state’s population, in poverty without access to health care. Impacts on children in poverty would potentially be substantial.

Keywords: Healthcare, Poverty, Children, medicaid, montana

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77 Nutrition, Dental Status and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Underage Refugees in Germany

Authors: Marios Loucas, Rafael Loucas, Oliver Muensterer

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Aim of the Study: Over the last two years, there has been a substantial rise of refugees entering Germany, of which approximately one-third are underage. Little is known about the general state of health such as nutrition, dental status and post-traumatic stress disorder among underage refugees. Our study assesses the general health status of underage refugees based on a large sample cohort. Methods: After ethics board approval, we used a structured questionnaire to collect demographic information and health-related elements in 3 large refugee accommodation centers, focusing on nutritional and dental status, as well as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Main results: A total of 461 minor refugees were included. The majority were boys (54.5%), average age was 8 years. Out of the 8 recorded countries of origin, most children came from Syria (33.6%), followed by Afghanistan (23.2%). Of the participants, 50.3% reported DSM-5 criteria of Posttraumatic stress disorder and presented mental health-related problems. The most frequently reported mental abnormalities were concentration disturbances (15.2%), sleep disorders (6.9%), unclear headaches (5.4%). The majority of the participants showed an unfavorable nutritional and dental status. According to the family, the majority of the children rarely eat healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables and fish. However, the majority of these children (over 90%) consume a large quantity of sugary foods and sweetened drinks such as soft drinks and confectionery at least daily. Caries was found in 63% of the minor children included in the study. A large proportion (47%) reported never brushing their teeth. According to the family, 78.3% of refugee children have never been evaluated by a dentist in Germany. The remainder visited a dentist mainly because of unbearable toothache. Conclusions: Minor refugees have specific psychological, nutritional and dental problems that must be considered in order to ensure appropriate medical care. Posttraumatic stress disorder is mainly caused by physical and emotional trauma suffered either during the flight or in the refugee camp in Germany. These data call for widespread screening of psychological, dental and nutritional problems in underage refugees. Dental care of this cohort is completely inadequate. Nutritional programs should focus on educating the families and providing the means to obtain healthy foods for these children.

Keywords: Nutrition, Children, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, refugee

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76 Association between Dental Caries and Asthma among 12-15 Years Old School Children Studying in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza, Masood Kadir

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Background: Dental caries affects the overall health and well-being of children. Findings from various international studies regarding the association of dental caries with asthma are inconsistent. With the increasing burden of caries and childhood asthma, it becomes imperative for an underdeveloped country like Pakistan where resources are limited to identify whether there is a relationship between the two. This study aims to identify an association between dental caries and asthma. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 544 children aged 12-15 years recruited from five private schools in Karachi. Information on asthma was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed questions regarding child’s demographics, physician diagnoses of asthma, type of medication administered, family history of asthma and allergies, dietary habits and oral hygiene behavior. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth) index The data was analyzed using Cox proportional Hazard algorithm and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Results: This study comprises of 306 (56.3%) boys and 238 (43.8%) girls. The mean age of children was 13.2 ± (0.05) years. The total number of children with carious teeth (DMFT > 0) were 166/544 (30.5%), and the decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. The prevalence of physician’s diagnosed asthma was 13%. This study identified almost 7% asthmatic children using the internationally validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) tool and 8 children with childhood asthma were identified by parent interviews. Overall prevalence of asthma was 109/544 (20%). The prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. The adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.59-1.29). After adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit, the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be non-significant. Conclusion: There was no association between asthma and dental caries among children who participated in this study.

Keywords: Asthma, Children, caries, school-based

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75 Assessment of Nigerian Newspapers' Reportage of Violence against Children: Case Study of Daily Sun and Punch National Newspapers

Authors: Adline Nkwam-Uwaoma, Mishack Ndukwu

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Traditionally, child rearing in Nigeria closely reflects the ‘spare the rod and spoil the child’ maxim and as such spanking, flogging, slapping, beating and even starving a child as a form of punishment for wrongdoing and as a method of behaviour modification are common. These are not necessarily considered as maltreatment or abuse of the child. Despite the adoption and implementation of the child rights act in Nigeria, violence against children seems to be on a steady increase. Stories of sexual molestation, rape, child labour, infliction of physical injuries and use of children for rituals by parents, guardians or other members of the society abound. Violence against children is considered as those acts by other persons especially adults that undermine and threaten the healthy life and existence of children or those that violet their rights as humans. In Nigeria newspapers are a major source of News, second only to radio and television in coverage, currency and content. National dailies are newspapers with daily publications and national spread or coverage. This study analysed the frequency, length, prominence level, direction and sources of information reported on violence against children in the selected national daily newspapers. It then provided information on the role of the newspapers in Nigeria in the fight against child violence and public awareness of the impact of violence against children on the development of the nation and the attempts to curtail such violence. The composite week sampling technique in which the four weeks of the month are reduced to one and a sample is randomly selected from each day of the week was used. As such 168 editions of Daily Sun and Punch newspapers published from January to December of 2016 were selected. Data were collected using code sheet and analyzed via content analysis. The result showed that the frequency of the newspapers’ reportage of violence against children in Nigeria was low. Again, it was found that the length or space given to reports on violence against children was inadequate, the direction of the few reports on violence against children was in favour of the course or fight against child violence, and these newspapers gave no prominence to reports on violence against children. Finally, it was found that a major source of News about violence against children was through journalism; government and individual sources provided only minimal information.

Keywords: Violence, Children, Nigeria, newspapers' reportage

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74 2017 Survey on Correlation between Connection and Emotions for Children and Adolescents

Authors: Ya-Hsing Yeh, I-Chun Tai, Ming-Chieh Lin, Li-Ting Lee, Ping-Ting Hsieh, Yi-Chen Ling, Jhia-Ying Du, Li-Ping Chang, Guan-Long Yu

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Objective: To understand the connection between children/adolescents and those who they miss, as well as the correlation between connection and their emotions. Method: Based on the objective, a close-ended questionnaire was made into a formal questionnaire after experts evaluated its validity. In February 2017, the paper-based questionnaire was adopted. Twenty-one elementary schools and junior high schools in Taiwan were sampled by purposive sampling approach and the fifth to ninth graders were our participants. A total of 2,502 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Results: Forty-four-point three percent of children/adolescents missed a person in mind, or they thought a person as a significant other in mind, but they had no connection with them. The highest proportion of those they wanted to contact with was ‘Friends and classmates’, and the others were ‘immediate family’, such as parents and grandparents, and ‘academic or vocational instructors, such as home-room teachers, coaches, cram school teachers and so on, respectively. Only 14% of children/adolescents would actively contact those they missed. The proportion of what children/adolescents ‘often’ actively keeping in touch with those they missed felt happy or cheerful was higher compared with those who ‘seldom’ actively keeping in touch with people they missed whenever they recalled who they missed, or the person actively contacted with them. Sixty-one-point seven percent of participants haven’t connected with those they missed for more than one year. The main reason was ‘environmental factors’, such as school/class transfer or moving, and then ‘academic or personal factors’, ‘communication tools’, and ‘personalities’, respectively. In addition to ‘greetings during festivals and holidays’, ‘hearing from those they missed’, and ‘knowing the latest information about those they missed on their Internet communities’, children/adolescents would like to actively contact with them when they felt ‘happy’ and ‘depressed or frustrated. The first three opinions of what children/adolescents regarded truly connection were ‘listening to people they missed attentively’, ‘sharing their secrets’, and ‘contacting with people they regularly missed with real actions’. In terms of gender, girls’ proportion on ‘showing with actions, including contacting with people they missed regularly or expressing their feelings openly’, and ‘sharing secrets’ was higher than boys’, while boy’s proportion on ‘the attitudes when contacting people they missed, including listening attentively or without being distracted’ was higher than girls’. Conclusions: I. The more ‘active’ connection they have, the more happiness they feel. II. Teachers can teach children how to manage their emotions and express their feelings appropriately. III. It is very important to turn connection into ‘action.’ Teachers can set a good example and share their moods with others whatever they are in the mood. This is a kind of connection.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, emotion, connection

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73 Evidence Based Practice for Oral Care in Children

Authors: T. Turan, Ç. Erdoğan

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As far as is known, general nursing care practices do not include specific evidence-based practices related to oral care in children. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence based nursing practice for oral care in children. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature in this field. According to all age groups and the oral care in various specific situations located evidence in the literature were examined. It has been determined that the methods and frequency used in oral care practices performed by nurses in clinics differ from one hospital to another. In addition, it is seen that different solutions are used in basic oral care, oral care practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and evidence-based practice in mucositis management in children. As a result, a standard should be established in oral care practices for children and education for children is recommended.

Keywords: Nursing, Children, Oral Care, Evidence-Based Practice

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72 An Alternative and Complementary Medicine Method in Vulnerable Pediatric Cancer Patients: Yoga

Authors: Ç. Erdoğan, T. Turan

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Pediatric cancer patients experience multiple distressing, challenges, physical symptom such as fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and balance impairment that continue years after treatment completion. In recent years, yoga is often used in children with cancer to cope with these symptoms. Yoga practice is defined as a unique physical activity that combines physical practice, breath work and mindfulness/meditation. Yoga is an increasingly popular mind-body practice also characterized as a mindfulness mode of exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of yoga intervention of children with cancer. This article planned searching the literature in this field. It has been determined that individualized yoga is feasible and provides benefits for inpatient children, improves health-related quality of life, physical activity levels, physical fitness. After yoga program, children anxiety score decreases significantly. Additionally, individualized yoga is feasible for inpatient children receiving intensive chemotherapy. As a result, yoga is an alternative and complementary medicine that can be safely used in children with cancer.

Keywords: Nursing, Cancer Treatment, Children, Yoga

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71 Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents in Mendefera Community, Eritrea

Authors: Estifanos H. Zeru

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Introduction: Epidemiological research is important to draw need-based rational public health policy. However, research on child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries, where socioeconomic, political, cultural, biological and other mental health hazards are in abundance, is almost nonexistent. To the author's knowledge, there is no published research in this field in Eritrea, whose child and adolescent population constitutes 53% of its total population. Study Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and identify their socio-demographic correlates among children and adolescents in Mendefera, Eritrea. The study aims to provide local information to public health policymakers to guide policy in service development. Methodology: In a cross-sectional two stage procedure, both the Parent and Child versions of the SDQ were used to screen 314 children and adolescents aged 4-17 years, recruited by a multi-stage random sampling method. All parents/adult guardians also completed a socio-demographic questionnaire. All children and adolescents who screened positive for any of the SDQ abnormality sub-classes were selected for the second stage interview, which was conducted using the K-SADS-PL 2009 Working Draft version to generate specific DSM-IV diagnoses. All data gathered was entered into CSPro version 6.2 and was then transported in to and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Results: Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders was found to be 13.1%. Adolescents 11-17 years old and males had higher prevalence than children 4-10 years old and females, respectively. Behavioral disorders were the commonest disorders (9.9%), followed by affective disorders (3.2%) and anxiety disorders (2.5). Chronic medical illness in the child, poor academic performance, difficulties with teachers in school, psychopathology in a family member and parental conflict were found to be independently associated with these disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in Eritrea is high. Promotion, prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation for child and adolescent mental health services need to be made widely available in the country. The socio-demographic correlates identified by this study can be targeted for intervention. The need for further research is emphasized.

Keywords: Children, Adolescents, correlates, Eritrea, DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, K-SAD-PL 2009, prevalence and correlates, SDQ

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70 Executive Function and Attention Control in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: A Systematic Review

Authors: Zihan Geng, L. Quentin Dixon

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It has been proposed that early bilingual experience confers a number of advantages in the development of executive control mechanisms. Although the literature provides empirical evidence for bilingual benefits, some studies also reported null or mixed results. To make sense of these contradictory findings, the current review synthesize recent empirical studies investigating bilingual effects on children’s executive function and attention control. The publication time of the studies included in the review ranges from 2010 to 2017. The key searching terms are bilingual, bilingualism, children, executive control, executive function, and attention. The key terms were combined within each of the following databases: ERIC (EBSCO), Education Source, PsycINFO, and Social Science Citation Index. Studies involving both children and adults were also included but the analysis was based on the data generated only by the children group. The initial search yielded 137 distinct articles. Twenty-eight studies from 27 articles with a total of 3367 participants were finally included based on the selection criteria. The selective studies were then coded in terms of (a) the setting (i.e., the country where the data was collected), (b) the participants (i.e., age and languages), (c) sample size (i.e., the number of children in each group), (d) cognitive outcomes measured, (e) data collection instruments (i.e., cognitive tasks and tests), and (f) statistic analysis models (e.g., t-test, ANOVA). The results show that the majority of the studies were undertaken in western countries, mainly in the U.S., Canada, and the UK. A variety of languages such as Arabic, French, Dutch, Welsh, German, Spanish, Korean, and Cantonese were involved. In relation to cognitive outcomes, the studies examined children’s overall planning and problem-solving abilities, inhibition, cognitive complexity, working memory (WM), and sustained and selective attention. The results indicate that though bilingualism is associated with several cognitive benefits, the advantages seem to be weak, at least, for children. Additionally, the nature of the cognitive measures was found to greatly moderate the results. No significant differences are observed between bilinguals and monolinguals in overall planning and problem-solving ability, indicating that there is no bilingual benefit in the cooperation of executive function components at an early age. In terms of inhibition, the mixed results suggest that bilingual children, especially young children, may have better conceptual inhibition measured in conflict tasks, but not better response inhibition measured by delay tasks. Further, bilingual children showed better inhibitory control to bivalent displays, which resembles the process of maintaining two language systems. The null results were obtained for both cognitive complexity and WM, suggesting no bilingual advantage in these two cognitive components. Finally, findings on children’s attention system associate bilingualism with heightened attention control. Together, these findings support the hypothesis of cognitive benefits for bilingual children. Nevertheless, whether these advantages are observable appears to highly depend on the cognitive assessments. Therefore, future research should be more specific about the cognitive outcomes (e.g., the type of inhibition) and should report the validity of the cognitive measures consistently.

Keywords: Attention, Children, executive function, bilingual advantage

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69 An Analysis of Preliminary Intervention for Developing to Promote Resiliency of Children Whose Parents Suffer Mental Illness

Authors: Sookbin Im, Myounglyun Heo

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This study aims at analyzing composition and effects of the preliminary intervention to promote resiliency of children whose parents suffer mental illness, and considerations according to the program, and developing the resiliency promotion program for children of psychiatric patients. For participants of preliminary intervention, they were recruited through a community mental health and social welfare center in a city, and there were 10 children (eight girls and two boys) who are from second to five graders in elementary school, and whose parents suffer schizophrenia, depression, or alcoholism, etc. The program was conducted in the seminar room of the community mental illness and social welfare center from October to December 2015 and from July to September 2016. The elements of resiliency were figured out by reviewing the literature. And therapeutic activities to promote resiliency was composed, and total twice, 8 sessions(two hours, once a week) were applied. Each session consisted of playgroup activities, art activities, and role-playing with feedback for achieving goals to promote self-awareness, self-efficacy, positive outlook, ability to solve problems, empathy for others, peer group acceptance, having goals and aspirations, and assertiveness. In addition, auxiliary managers as many as children played a role as mentor and role model, and children's behaviors were collected by participatory observation. As a result of the study, four children quit the program because the schedules of their own school programs were overlapped with it. Therefore, six children completed the program. Children who completed it became active, positive, decreased compulsive actions, and increased self-expressions. The participants reacted the 8-session program is too short and regretted about it. However, recruiting the participants were difficult, and too distracting children caused negative influences in the group activities. Based on the results, the program was developed as follows: The program would consist of total 11 sessions, and the first eight sessions would be made of plays, art activities, role-plays, and presentations for promoting self-understanding, improving positiveness, providing meaning for experiences, emotional control, and interpersonal relations. In order to balance various contents, methods such as structuring environments, storytelling, emotional coaching, and group feedback would be applied, and the ninth to eleventh sessions would be booster sessions consisting of optional activities for children. This program is for children who attend school with active linguistic communications and interactions with peers. Especially, considering that effective development starts at around 10 years old, it would be for children who are third and fourth graders in elementary school. These result showed that this program was useful for improving the key elements of resiliency such as positive thinking or impulse control. It is suggested the necessary of resiliency promoting program model and practical guidance with comprehensive measuring methods(narratives, drawing, self-reported questionnaire, behavioral observation). Also, it is necessary to make a training program for the coaches or leaders to operate this program to spread out for child health.

Keywords: Children, Resilience, Parents, mental

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68 Traced Destinies: A Study on the Migration of Brazilian Children for Switzerland

Authors: Flavia Schuler Gomes, Cristina Brito Dias, Emily Schuler

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One of the emerging themes in modern society is migration. What in the past was a route mostly traveled by men, is currently carried out by women and even children. In this sense, the objective of this research was to understand the experiences and repercussions of the migration in the life of young Brazilians who went to Switzerland. The specific objectives were: to know the causes and consequences of migration; how was the adaptation in the country in emotional and educational terms; as how the interviewees feel the impact of living with two cultures simultaneously. The research had a qualitative methodology. The participants were eight young men and women, between the ages of 18 and 25, who migrated to Switzerland as a child. The instrument used was interview technique of life history. The collected data were analyzed through the thematic content analysis. The results indicate that the young people migrated to accompany their mothers; in terms of nationality, two participants feel completely Swiss, and six believe they share Swiss and Brazilian aspects. None of the participants followed an academic career, having secondary education.

Keywords: Migration, Culture, Children, Adaptation

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