Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 187

Children Related Abstracts

127 Working Children and Adolescents and the Vicious Circle of Poverty from the Perspective of Gunnar Myrdal’s Theory of Circular Cumulative Causation: Analysis and Implementation of a Probit Model to Brazil

Authors: J. Leige Lopes, L. Aparecida Bastos, R. Monteiro da Silva

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to study the work of children and adolescents and the vicious circle of poverty from the perspective of Guinar Myrdal’s Theory of Circular Cumulative Causation. The objective is to show that if a person starts working in the juvenile phase of life they will be classified as poor or extremely poor when they are adult, which can to be observed in the case of Brazil, more specifically in the north and northeast. To do this, the methodology used was statistical and econometric analysis by applying a probit model. The main results show that: if people reside in the northeastern region of Brazil, and if they have a low educational level and if they start their professional life before the age 18, they will increase the likelihood that they will be poor or extremely poor. There is a consensus in the literature that one of the causes of the intergenerational transmission of poverty is related to child labor, this because when one starts their professional life while still in the toddler or adolescence stages of life, they end up sacrificing their studies. Because of their low level of education, children or adolescents are forced to perform low-paid functions and abandon school, becoming in the future, people who will be classified as poor or extremely poor. As a result of poverty, parents may be forced to send their children out to work when they are young, so that in the future they will also become poor adults, a process that is characterized as the "vicious circle of poverty."

Keywords: Poverty, Children, Adolescents, Gunnar Myrdal, vicious circle

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
126 Promotion of Healthy Food Choices in School Children through Nutrition Education

Authors: Vinti Davar

Abstract:

Introduction: Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Millions of school-age children worldwide are affected by serious yet easily treatable and preventable illnesses that inhibit their ability to learn. Healthier children stay in school longer, attend more regularly, learn more and become healthier and more productive adults. Schools are an important setting for nutrition education because one can reach most children, teachers and parents. These years offer a key window for shaping their lifetime habits, which have an impact on their health throughout life. Against this background, an attempt was made to impart nutrition education to school children in Haryana state of India to promote healthy food choices and assess the effectiveness of this program. Methodology: This study was completed in two phases. During the first phase, pre-intervention anthropometric and dietary survey was conducted; the teaching materials for nutrition intervention program were developed and tested; and the questionnaire was validated. In the second phase, an intervention was implemented in two schools of Kurukshetra, Haryana for six months by personal visits once a week. A total of 350 children in the age group of 6-12 years were selected. Out of these, 279 children, 153 boys and 126 girls completed the study. The subjects were divided into four groups namely: underweight, normal, overweight and obese based on body mass index-for-age categories. A power point colorful presentation to improve the quality of tiffin, snacks and meals emphasizing inclusion of all food groups especially vegetables every day and fruits at least 3-4 days per week was used. An extra 20 minutes of aerobic exercise daily was likewise organized and a healthy school environment created. Provision of clean drinking water by school authorities was ensured. Selling of soft drinks and energy-dense snacks in the school canteen as well as advertisements about soft drink and snacks on the school walls were banned. Post intervention, anthropometric indices and food selections were reassessed. Results: The results of this study reiterate the critical role of nutrition education and promotion in improving the healthier food choices by school children. It was observed that normal, overweight and obese children participating in nutrition education intervention program significantly (p≤0.05) increased their daily seasonal fruit and vegetable consumption. Fat and oil consumption was significantly reduced by overweight and obese subjects. Fast food intake was controlled by obese children. The nutrition knowledge of school children significantly improved (p≤0.05) from pre to post intervention. A highly significant increase (p≤0.00) was noted in the nutrition attitude score after intervention in all four groups. Conclusion: This study has shown that a well-planned nutrition education program could improve nutrition knowledge and promote positive changes in healthy food choices. A nutrition program inculcates wholesome eating and active life style habits in children and adolescents that could not only prevent them from chronic diseases and early death but also reduce healthcare cost and enhance the quality of life of citizens and thereby nations.

Keywords: Obesity, Children, eating habits healthy food, school going, fast foods

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
125 Evaluation of Airborne Particulate Matter Early Biological Effects in Children with Micronucleus Cytome Assay: The MAPEC_LIFE Project

Authors: E. Carraro, Sa. Bonetta, Si. Bonetta, E. Ceretti, G. C. V. Viola, C. Pignata, S. Levorato, T. Salvatori, S. Vannini, V. Romanazzi, A. Carducci, G. Donzelli, T. Schilirò, A. De Donno, T. Grassi, S. Bonizzoni, A. Bonetti, G. Gilli, U. Gelatti

Abstract:

In 2013, air pollution and particulate matter were classified as carcinogenic to human by the IARC. At present, PM is Europe's most problematic pollutant in terms of harm to health, as reported by European Environmental Agency (EEA) in the EEA Technical Report on Air quality in Europe, 2015. A percentage between 17-30 of the EU urban population lives in areas where the EU air quality 24-hour limit value for PM10 is exceeded. Many studies have found a consistent association between exposure to PM and the incidence and mortality for some chronic diseases (i.e. lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases). Among the mechanisms responsible for these adverse effects, genotoxic damage is of particular concern. Children are a high-risk group in terms of the health effects of air pollution and early exposure during childhood can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. The MAPEC_LIFE (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) is a project founded by EU Life+ Programme (LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614) which intends to evaluate the associations between air pollution and early biological effects in children and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. This work is focused on the micronuclei frequency in child buccal cells in association with airborne PM levels taking into account the influence of other factors associated with the lifestyle of children. The micronucleus test was performed in exfoliated buccal cells of 6–8 years old children from 5 Italian towns with different air pollution levels. Data on air quality during the study period were obtained from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection. A questionnaire administered to children’s parents was used to obtain details on family socio-economic status, children health condition, exposures to other indoor and outdoor pollutants (i.e. passive smoke) and life-style, with particular reference to eating habits. During the first sampling campaign (winter 2014-15) 1315 children were recruited and sampled for Micronuclei test in buccal cells. In the sampling period the levels of the main pollutants and PM10 were, as expected, higher in the North of Italy (PM10 mean values 62 μg/m3 in Torino and 40 μg/m3 in Brescia) than in the other towns (Pisa, Perugia, Lecce). A higher Micronucleus frequency in buccal cells of children was found in Brescia (0.6/1000 cells) than in the other towns (range 0.3-0.5/1000 cells). The statistical analysis underlines a relation of the micronuclei frequency with PM concentrations, traffic level near child residence, and level of education of parents. The results suggest that, in addition to air pollution exposure, some other factors, related to lifestyle or further exposures, may influence micronucleus frequency and cellular response to air pollutants.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Children, buccal cells, micronucleus cytome assay

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
124 Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Food and Increasing Food Safety Among Thai Children

Authors: Mayurachat Kanyamee, Srisuda Rassameepong, Narunest Chulakarn

Abstract:

This experimental pretest-posttest control group design aimed to examine the effects of a family-based intervention on increasing fruit and vegetable intake and reduce fat and sugar intake and nutritional status among school-age children. Children were randomized to experimental 68 children and control 68 children. The experimental group received the intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. The control group received the school’s usual educational program regarding healthy eating behavior. Data were collected via three questionnaires including: demographic characteristics; fruit and vegetable intake; and fat and sugar intake at baseline, sixteen weeks after baseline. Analysis of the data included the use of descriptive statistic and independent t-test. Results revealed the significant differences between the experimental and control group, regarding: fruit and vegetable intake, fat and sugar intake and nutritional status at sixteenth week after baseline. The findings suggest a family-based intervention, based on SCT, appears to be effective to improve eating behavior, and nutritional status of school -age children. So, the intervention can be applied to improve eating behavior among other groups of children.

Keywords: Food Safety, Children, family-based intervention, unhealthy food

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
123 Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: Children, Adolescents, Suicide, positive

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
122 The Effect of Prior Characteristic on Perceived Prosocial Content in Media

Authors: Pawit Monkolprasit, Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

It was important to understand the impact of media in young adolescents. The animated film, Khun Tong Dang the Inspirations (2015), was purposefully created for teaching young children to have a positive personal trait. The current study used this film as the case study. The objective is to understand the relationship between the good characteristic of movie audiences and their perception of the good characteristic of a movie character. One-hundred students from various age ranges responded to quantitative questionnaires. The questions included their age, gender, perception about their own personal traits, perception about their experiences with others, and perception about the bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character. It was found that a good personal trait has a strong relationship with the perception of bravery, intelligence, and gratefulness of the character.

Keywords: Children, impact of media, personal trait, prosocial content

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
121 Usability Testing with Children: BatiKids Case Study

Authors: Hestiasari Rante, Leonardo De Araújo, Heidi Schelhowe

Abstract:

Usability testing with children is similar in many aspects to usability testing with adults. However, there are a few differences that one needs to be aware of in order to get the most out of the sessions, and to ensure that children are comfortable and enjoying the process. This paper presents the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing, with consideration on Piaget’s theory of cognitive growth. As a case study, we use BatiKids, an application developed to evoke children’s enthusiasm to be involved in culture heritage preservation. The usability test was applied to 24 children from 9 to 10 years old. The children were divided into two groups; one interacted with the application through a graphic tablet with pen, and the other through touch screen. Both of the groups had to accomplish the same amount of tasks. In the end, children were asked to give feedback. The results suggested that children who interacted using the graphic tablet with pen had more difficulties rather than children who interacted through touch screen. However, the difficulty brought by the graphic tablet with pen is an important learning objective in order to understand the difficulties of using canting, which is an important part of batik.

Keywords: Children, usability test, batikids, child-computer interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
120 Investigating Unplanned Applications and Admissions to Hospitals of Children with Cancer

Authors: Hacer Kobya Bulut, Ilknur Kahriman, Birsel C. Demirbag

Abstract:

Introduction and Purpose: The lives of children with cancer are affected by long term hospitalizations in a negative way due to complications arising from diagnosis or treatment. However, the children's parents are known to have difficulties in meeting their children’s needs and providing home care after cancer treatment or during remission process. Supporting these children and their parents by giving a planned discharge training starting from the hospital and home care leads to reducing hospital applications, hospitalizations, hospital costs, shortening the length of hospital stay and increasing the satisfaction of the children with cancer and their families. This study was conducted to investigate the status of children and their parents' unplanned application to hospital and re-hospitalization. Methods: The study was carried out with 65 children with hematological malignancy in 0-17 age group and their families in a hematology clinic and polyclinic of a university hospital in Trabzon. Data were collected with survey methodology between August-November, 2015 through face to face interview using numbers, percentage and chi-square test in the evaluation. Findings: Most of the children were leukemia (90.8%) and 49.2% had been ill over 13 months. Few of the parents (32.3%) stated that they had received discharge and home care training (24.6%) but most of them (69.2%) found themselves enough in providing home care. Very few parents (6.2%) received home care training after their children being discharged and the majority of parents (61.5%) faced difficulties in home care and had no one to call around them. The parents expressed that in providing care to their children with hematological malignance, they faced difficulty in feeding them (74.6%), explaining their disease (50.0%), giving their oral medication (47.5%), providing hygiene (43.5%) and providing oral care (39.3%). The question ‘What are the emergency situations in which you have to bring your children to a doctor immediately?' was replied as fever (89.2%), severe nausea and vomiting (87.7%), hemorrhage (86.2%) and pain (81.5%). The study showed that 50.8% of the children had unplanned applications to hospitals and 33.8% of them identified as unplanned hospitalization and the first causes of this were fever and pain. The study showed that the frequency of applications (%78.8) and hospitalizations (%81.8) was higher for boys and a statistically significant difference was found between gender and unplanned applications (X=4.779; p=0.02). Applications (48.5%) and hospitalizations (40.9%) were found lower for the parents who had received hospital discharge training, and a significant difference was determined between receiving training and unplanned hospitalizations (X=8.021; p=0.00). Similarly, applications (30.3%) and hospitalizations (40.9%) was found lower for the ones who had received home care training, and a significant difference was determined between receiving home care training and unplanned hospitalizations (X=4.758; p=0.02). Conclusion: It was found out that caregivers of children with cancer did not receive training related to home care and complications about treatment after discharging from hospital, so they faced difficulties in providing home care and this led to an increase in unplanned hospital applications and hospitalizations.

Keywords: Cancer, Children, unplanned application, unplanned hospitalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
119 Translation, War and Humanitarian Action: A Case Study of the Kindertransporte to Switzerland

Authors: Lisa Mockli, Chelsea Sambells

Abstract:

By combining the methodologies of history and translation studies, this study will explore the interplay between humanitarian action, politics, and translation within the advertising for a lesser-known Swiss child evacuation project of some 60.000 Belgium and French children to Switzerland for three month periods from 1940 to 1945. Inspired by Descriptive-Explanatory Translation Studies, this project compares Swiss speeches published between May and September 1942 (the termination of the evacuations). Radio broadcasts, leaflets and newspapers will triangulate the data. First, linguistic and content-related differences will be identified and described. Second, based on findings from the Swiss Federal Archives, the evidence from the comparative textual analysis will then be evaluated in order to explore how the speeches were modified, for what purpose, and which key issues were raised during their modification. By exploring these questions, this paper provides new insights into (I) Switzerland’s understanding of Swiss neutrality and humanitarianism during the Second World War, (II) the role of children in war and (III) the role of translation in shaping political discourse and humanitarian action. Moreover, this interdisciplinary approach also demonstrates how scholarly collaboration may help to make some elements of humanitarian action more self-reflexive and effective.

Keywords: History, Politics, Children, Translation, Humanitarianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
118 Socio-Economic Child’S Wellbeing Impasse in South Africa: Towards a Theory-Based Solution Model

Authors: Paulin Mbecke

Abstract:

Research Issue: Under economic constraints, socio-economic conditions of households worsen discounting child’s wellbeing to the bottom of many governments and households’ priority lists. In such situation, many governments fail to rebalance priorities in providing services such as education, housing and social security which are the prerequisites for the wellbeing of children. Consequently, many households struggle to respond to basic needs especially those of children. Although economic conditions play a crucial role in creating prosperity or poverty in households and therefore the wellbeing or misery for children; they are not the sole cause. Research Insights: The review of the South African Index of Multiple Deprivation and the South African Child Gauge establish the extent to which economic conditions impact on the wellbeing or misery of children. The analysis of social, cultural, environmental and structural theories demonstrates that non-economic factors contribute equally to the wellbeing or misery of children, yet, they are disregarded. In addition, the assessment of a child abuse database proves a weak correlation between economic factors (prosperity or poverty) and child’s wellbeing or misery. Theoretical Implications: Through critical social research theory and modelling, the paper proposes a Theory-Based Model that combines different factors to facilitate the understanding of child’s wellbeing or misery. Policy Implications: The proposed model assists in broad policy and decision making and reviews processes in promoting child’s wellbeing and in preventing, intervening and managing child’s misery with regard to education, housing, and social security.

Keywords: Children, child’s misery, child’s wellbeing, household’s despair, household’s prosperity

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
117 Motor Speech Profile of Marathi Speaking Adults and Children

Authors: Anindita Banik, Anjali Kant, Aninda Duti Banik, Arun Banik

Abstract:

Speech is a complex, dynamic unique motor activity through which we express thoughts and emotions and respond to and control our environment. The aim was based to compare select Motor Speech parameters and their sub parameters across typical Marathi speaking adults and children. The subjects included a total of 300 divided into Group I, II, III including males and females. Subjects included were reported of no significant medical history and had a rating of 0-1 on GRBAS scale. The recordings were obtained utilizing three stimuli for the acoustic analysis of Diadochokinetic rate (DDK), Second Formant Transition, Voice and Tremor and its sub parameters. And these aforementioned parameters were acoustically analyzed in Motor Speech Profile software in VisiPitch IV. The statistical analyses were done by applying descriptive statistics and Two- Way ANOVA.The results obtained showed statistically significant difference across age groups and gender for the aforementioned parameters and its sub parameters.In DDK, for avp (ms) there was a significant difference only across age groups. However, for avr (/s) there was a significant difference across age groups and gender. It was observed that there was an increase in rate with an increase in age groups. The second formant transition sub parameter F2 magn (Hz) also showed a statistically significant difference across both age groups and gender. There was an increase in mean value with an increase in age. Females had a higher mean when compared to males. For F2 rate (/s) a statistically significant difference was observed across age groups. There was an increase in mean value with increase in age. It was observed for Voice and Tremor MFTR (%) that a statistically significant difference was present across age groups and gender. Also for RATR (Hz) there was statistically significant difference across both age groups and gender. In other words, the values of MFTR and RATR increased with an increase in age. Thus, this study highlights the variation of the motor speech parameters amongst the typical population which would be beneficial for comparison with the individuals with motor speech disorders for assessment and management.

Keywords: Tremor, Children, adult, voice, diadochokinetic rate, second formant transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
116 D-Epi App: Mobile Application to Control Sodium Valproat Administration in Children with Idiopatic Epilepsy in Indonesia

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini

Abstract:

There are 325,000 children younger than age 15 in the U.S. have epilepsy. In Indonesia, 40% of 3,5 millions cases of epilepsy happens in children. The most common type of epilepsy, which affects 6 out of 10 people with the disorder, is called idiopathic epilepsy and which has no identifiable cause. One of the most commonly used medications in the treatment of this childhood epilepsy is sodium valproate. Administration of sodium valproat in children has a problem to fail. Nearly 60% of pediatric patients known were mildly, moderately, or severely non-adherent with therapy during the first six months of treatment. Many parents or caregiver took far less medication than prescribed, and the treatment-adherence pattern for the majority of patients was established during the first month of treatment. 42% of the patients were almost always given their medications as prescribed but 13% had very poor adherence even in the early weeks and months of treatment. About 7% of patients initially gave the medication correctly 90% of the time, but adherence dropped to around 20% within six months of starting treatment. Over the six months of observation, the total missing of administration is about four out of 14 doses in any given week. This fail can cause the epilepsy to relapse. Whereas, current reported epilepsy disorder were significantly more likely than those never diagnosed to experience depression (8% vs 2%), anxiety (17% vs 3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (23% vs 6%), developmental delay (51% vs 3%), autism/autism spectrum disorder (16% vs 1%), and headaches (14% vs 5%) (all P< 0.05). They had a greater risk of limitation in the ability to do things (relative risk: 9.22; 95% CI: 7.56–11.24), repeating a school grade (relative risk: 2.59; CI: 1.52–4.40), and potentially having unmet medical and mental health needs. In the other side, technology can help to make our life easier. One of the technology, that we can use is a mobile application. A mobile app is a software program we can download and access directly using our phone. Indonesians are highly mobile centric. They use, on average, 6.7 applications over a 30 day period. This paper is aimed to describe an application that could help to control a sodium valproat administration in children; we call it as D-Epi app. D-Epi app is a downloadable application that can help parents or caregiver alert by a timer-related application to warn whether it is the time to administer the sodium valproat. It works not only as a standard alarm, but also inform important information about the drug and emergency stuffs to do to children with epilepsy. This application could help parents and caregiver to take care a child with epilepsy in Indonesia.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Children, Application, D-Epi

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
115 Indoor Air Pollution Effects on Physical Growth of Children under 5 Years from Solid Fuel Combustion

Authors: Nayomi Ranathunga, Priyantha Perera, Sumal Nandasena, Nalini Sathiakumar, Anuradhini Kasthuriratne, Rajitha Wikremasinghe

Abstract:

Solid fuel combustion is an important source of indoor air pollution (IAP) in developing countries that has adverse health impacts particularly in children. This study was conducted to determine the effect of IAP due to solid fuel combustion on physical growth of children under five in a Sri Lankan setting. A prospective study was conducted in a mixed population comprising urban and semi urban residents. The study included 240 children under 5 who were permanent residents of the area. Physical growth was assessed by measuring anthropometric indices based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and standards. Exposure levels were defined according to the main type of fuel used for cooking at home: children residing in households using biomass fuel or kerosene as the main type of fuel for cooking were classified as the “high exposure” group and children resident in households using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or electricity for cooking were classified as the “low exposure” group. Sixty percent of the children were classified as from the “high” exposure group and 40% of the children were classified as from the “low” exposure group; 54% of the children were male. At baseline, the prevalence of wasting was 17.1% and the prevalence of stunting was 10.4%; the mean z-score for weight for height was - 0.85, weight for age was - 0.46 and height for age was -0.38. At baseline, children from the “high” exposure group had a significantly lower mean weight for height z-score (p=0.02) and a mean height for age z-score (p=0.001) as compared to children from the “low” exposure group after adjusting for confounding factors such as father’s education, mother’s education and family income. Poor maternal education was significantly associated with lower height for age z-scores (p=0.04) after adjusting for exposure status. IAP due to combustion of biomass fuel leads to chronic malnutrition.

Keywords: Growth, Children, indoor air pollution, solid fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
114 Eosinophils and Platelets: Players of the Game in Morbid Obese Boys with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Orkide Donma, Mustafa M. Donma

Abstract:

Childhood obesity, which may lead to increased risk for heart diseases in children as well as adults, is one of the most important health problems throughout the world. Prevalences of morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are being increased during childhood age group. MetS is a cluster of metabolic and vascular abnormalities including hypercoagulability and an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). There are also some relations between some components of MetS and leukocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate complete blood cell count parameters that differ between morbidly obese boys and girls with MetS diagnosis. A total of 117 morbid obese children with MetS consulted to Department of Pediatrics in Faculty of Medicine Hospital at Namik Kemal University were included into the scope of the study. The study population was classified based upon their genders (60 girls and 57 boys). Their heights and weights were measured and body mass index (BMI) values were calculated. WHO BMI-for age and sex percentiles were used. The values above 99 percentile were defined as morbid obesity. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Waist-to-hip and head-to-neck ratios as well as homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Components of MetS (central obesity, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure, high triacylglycerol levels, low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol) were determined. Hematological variables were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p ≤ 0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the ages (11.2±2.6 years vs 11.2±3.0 years) and BMIs (28.6±5.2 kg/m2 vs 29.3±5.2 kg/m2) of boys and girls (p ≥ 0.05), respectively. Significantly increased waist-to-hip ratios were obtained for boys (0.94±0.08 vs 0.91±0.06; p=0.023). Significantly elevated values of hemoglobin (13.55±0.98 vs 13.06±0.82; p=0.004), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (33.79±0.91 vs 33.21±1.14; p=0.003), eosinophils (0.300±0.253 vs 0.196±0.197; p=0.014), and platelet (347.1±81.7 vs 319.0±65.9; p=0.042) were detected for boys. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios as well as HOMA-IR values (p ≥ 0.05). Statistically significant gender-based differences were found for hemoglobin as well as mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and hence, separate reference intervals for two genders should be considered for these parameters. Eosinophils may contribute to the development of thrombus in acute coronary syndrome. Eosinophils are also known to make an important contribution to mechanisms related to thrombosis pathogenesis in acute myocardial infarction. Increased platelet activity is observed in patients with MetS and these individuals are more susceptible to CVDs. In our study, elevated platelets described as dominant contributors to hypercoagulability and elevated eosinophil counts suggested to be related to the development of CVDs observed in boys may be the early indicators of the future cardiometabolic complications in this gender.

Keywords: Gender, metabolic syndrome, Children, complete blood count

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
113 Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A Predictor of Cardiometabolic Complications in Morbid Obese Girls

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

Obesity is a low-grade inflammatory state. Childhood obesity is a multisystem disease, which is associated with a number of complications as well as potentially negative consequences. Gender is an important universal risk factor for many diseases. Hematological indices differ significantly by gender. This should be considered during the evaluation of obese children. The aim of this study is to detect hematologic indices that differ by gender in morbid obese (MO) children. A total of 134 MO children took part in this study. The parents filled an informed consent form and the approval from the Ethics Committee of Namik Kemal University was obtained. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their genders (64 females aged 10.2±3.1 years and 70 males aged 9.8±2.2 years; p ≥ 0.05). Waist-to-hip as well as head-to-neck ratios and body mass index (BMI) values were calculated. The children, whose WHO BMI-for age and sex percentile values were > 99 percentile, were defined as MO. Hematological parameters [haemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width, leukocyte count, neutrophil %, lymphocyte %, monocyte %, eosinophil %, basophil %, platelet count, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume] were determined by the automatic hematology analyzer. SPSS was used for statistical analyses. P ≤ 0.05 was the degree for statistical significance. The groups included children having mean±SD value of BMI as 26.9±3.4 kg/m2 for males and 27.7±4.4 kg/m2 for females (p ≥ 0.05). There was no significant difference between ages of females and males (p ≥ 0.05). Males had significantly increased waist-to-hip ratios (0.95±0.08 vs 0.91±0.08; p=0.005) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration values (33.6±0.92 vs 33.1±0.83; p=0.001) compared to those of females. Significantly elevated neutrophil (4.69±1.59 vs 4.02±1.42; p=0.011) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (1.70±0.71 vs 1.39±0.48; p=0.004) were detected in females. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of C-reactive protein values (p ≥ 0.05). Adipose tissue plays important roles during the development of obesity and associated diseases such as metabolic syndrom and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). These diseases may cause changes in complete blood cell count parameters. These alterations are even more important during childhood. Significant gender effects on the changes of neutrophils, one of the white blood cell subsets, were observed. The findings of the study demonstrate the importance of considering gender in clinical studies. The males and females may have distinct leukocyte-trafficking profiles in inflammation. Female children had more circulating neutrophils, which may be the indicator of an increased risk of CVDs, than male children within this age range during the late stage of obesity. In recent years, females represent about half of deaths from CVDs; therefore, our findings may be the indicator of the increasing tendency of this risk in females starting from childhood.

Keywords: Gender, Children, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, morbid obesity

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
112 The Exercise of Choice by Children and Young People in the British Public Care System

Authors: Siobhan Laird

Abstract:

Under article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which extends human rights in their application to those under the age of 18 years, children must be consulted ‘in all matters affecting the child’. The Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England is responsible for improving the welfare of children and young people by ensuring that their Convention rights are respected and realised and their views taken seriously. In 2014 the Children’s Commissioner engaged a team of researchers at the Centre for Social Work, University of Nottingham to develop and roll out an online survey to gather information from children and young people about their exercise of choice within the public care system. Approximately 3,000 children responded to this survey, which comprised both closed and open-ended questions. SPSS was used to analyse the numerical data and a thematic analysis of textual data was conducted on answers to open-ended questions. Findings revealed that children exercised considerable choice over personal space and their spare time, but had much less choice in relation to contact with their birth families, where they lived, or the timings of moves from one placement into another. The majority of children described how they were supported to express their opinions and believed that these were taken seriously. However, a significant number reported problems and explained how specific behaviours by professionals and carers made it difficult for them to express their opinion or to feel that they had influenced decisions which affected them. In open-ended questions eliciting information about their experiences, children and young people were asked to describe how they could be better supported to make choices and what changes would assist for these to be better acknowledged and acted upon by professionals and carers. This paper concludes by presenting the ideas and suggestions of children and young people for improving the public care system in Britain in relation to their exercise of choice.

Keywords: Children, Participation, Choice, public care

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
111 Proposed Program for Developing Some Concepts for Nursery School Children in Egypt Using Artistic Activities

Authors: Ebtehag Tolba

Abstract:

The study presents a proposed program for nursery school children in Egypt. The program consists of a collection of artistic activities and aims to develop the language, mathematical, and artistic skills of preschool children. Furthermore, the researcher has presented a questionnaire to experts about the link between the target group and the content. Finally, the proposed program was applied to group of 30 children. In addition, the researcher has prepared another questionnaire for measuring the effect of the program. This questionnaire was used as a pre-test and post-test, and at the end of the study, a significant difference was determined in favour of the post-test results.

Keywords: Children, Nursery, Developing, Concepts, artistic activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
110 Multiple Etiologies and Incidences of Co-Infections in Childhood Diarrhea in a Hospital Based Screening Study in Odisha, India

Authors: Arpit K. Shrivastava, Nirmal K. Mohakud, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi S. Sahu

Abstract:

Acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years of age. Multiple etiologies have been implicated for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea. In our study fecal samples (n=165) were collected from children (<5 years) presenting with symptoms of acute diarrhea. Samples were screened for viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies such as Rotavirus, Adenovirus, Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (EPEC, EHEC, STEC, O157, O111), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholera, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. The overall results from our study showed that 57% of children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were positive for at least one infectious etiology. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli was detected to be the major etiological agent (29.09%) followed by Rotavirus (24.24%), Shigella (21.21%), Adenovirus (5.45%), Cryptosporidium (2.42%), and Giardia (0.60%). Among the different DEC strains, EPEC was detected significantly higher in <2 years children in comparison to >2 years age group (p =0.001). Concurrent infections with two or more pathogens were observed in 47 of 160 (28.48%) cases with a predominant incidence particularly in <2-year-old children (66.66%) compared to children of 2 to 5 years age group. Co-infection of Rotavirus with Shigella was the most frequent combination, which was detected in 17.94% cases, followed by Rotavirus with EPEC (15.38%) and Shigella with STEC (12.82%). Detection of multiple infectious etiologies and diagnosis of the right causative agent(s) can immensely help in better management of acute childhood diarrhea. In future more studies focusing on the detection of cases with concurrent infections must be carried out, as we believe that the etiological agents might be complementing each other’s strategies of pathogenesis resulting in severe diarrhea.

Keywords: Children, Odisha, co-Infection, infectious diarrhea

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
109 Using Music in the Classroom to Help Syrian Refugees Deal with Post-War Trauma

Authors: Vartan Agopian

Abstract:

Millions of Syrian families have been displaced since the beginning of the Syrian war, and the negative effects of post-war trauma have shown detrimental effects on the mental health of refugee children. While educational strategies have focused on vocational training and academic achievement, little has been done to include music in the school curriculum to help these children improve their mental health. The literature of music education and psychology, on the other hand, shows the positive effects of music on traumatized children, especially when it comes to dealing with stress. This paper presents a brief literature review of trauma, music therapy, and music in the classroom, after having introduced the Syrian war and refugee situation. Furthermore, the paper highlights the benefits of using music with traumatized children from the literature and offers strategies for teachers (such as singing, playing an instrument, songwriting, and others) to include music in their classrooms to help Syrian refugee children deal with post-war trauma.

Keywords: Music, War, Children, Refugees, Syria

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
108 Evidence-Based Practices in Education: A General Review of the Literature on Elementary Classroom Setting

Authors: Carolina S. Correia, Thalita V. Thomé, Andersen Boniolo, Dhayana I. Veiga

Abstract:

Evidence-based practices (EBP) in education is a set of principles and practices used to raise educational policy, it involves the integration of professional expertise in education with the best empirical evidence in making decisions about how to deliver instruction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and characterize studies about EBP in education in elementary classroom setting. Data here presented is part of an ongoing systematic review research. Articles were searched and selected from four academic databases: ProQuest, Scielo, Science Direct and Capes. The search terms were evidence-based practices or program effectiveness, and education or teaching or teaching practices or teaching methods. Articles were included according to the following criteria: The studies were explicitly described as evidence-based or discussed the most effective practices in education, they discussed teaching practices in classroom context in elementary school level. Document excerpts were extracted and recorded in Excel, organized by reference, descriptors, abstract, purpose, setting, participants, type of teaching practice, study design and main results. The total amount of articles selected were 1.185, 569 articles from Proquest Research Library; 216 from CAPES; 251 from ScienceDirect and 149 from Scielo Library. The potentially relevant references were 178, from which duplicates were removed. The final number of articles analyzed was 140. From 140 articles, are 47 theoretical studies and 93 empirical articles. The following research design methods were identified: longitudinal intervention study, cluster-randomized trial, meta-analysis and pretest-posttest studies. From 140 articles, 103 studies were about regular school teaching and 37 were on special education teaching practices. In several studies, used as teaching method: active learning, content acquisition podcast (CAP), precision teaching (PT), mediated reading practice, speech therapist programs and peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS). The countries of origin of the studies were United States of America, United Kingdom, Panama, Sweden, Scotland, South Korea, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and Brunei. The present study in is an ongoing project, so some representative findings will be discussed, providing further acknowledgment on the best teaching practices in elementary classroom setting.

Keywords: Children, Teaching Methods, Evidence-Based Education, Elementary school, best practices

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
107 Examining Relationship between Resource-Curse and Under-Five Mortality in Resource-Rich Countries

Authors: Aytakin Huseynli

Abstract:

The paper reports findings of the study which examined under-five mortality rate among resource-rich countries. Typically when countries obtain wealth citizens gain increased wellbeing. Societies with new wealth create equal opportunities for everyone including vulnerable groups. But scholars claim that this is not the case for developing resource-rich countries and natural resources become the curse for them rather than the blessing. Spillovers from natural resource curse affect the social wellbeing of vulnerable people negatively. They get excluded from the mainstream society, and their situation becomes tangible. In order to test this hypothesis, the study compared under-5 mortality rate among resource-rich countries by using independent sample one-way ANOVA. The data on under-five mortality rate came from the World Bank. The natural resources for this study are oil, gas and minerals. The list of 67 resource-rich countries was taken from Natural Resource Governance Institute. The sample size was categorized and 4 groups were created such as low, low-middle, upper middle and high-income countries based on income classification of the World Bank. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in the scores for low, middle, upper-middle and high-income countries in under-five mortality rate (F(3(29.01)=33.70, p=.000). To find out the difference among income groups, the Games-Howell test was performed and it was found that infant mortality was an issue for low, middle and upper middle countries but not for high-income countries. Results of this study are in agreement with previous research on resource curse and negative effects of resource-based development. Policy implications of the study for social workers, policy makers, academicians and social development specialists are to raise and discuss issues of marginalization and exclusion of vulnerable groups in developing resource-rich countries and suggest interventions for avoiding them.

Keywords: Children, Natural Resource, vulnerable groups, extractive industries, resource-based development

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
106 The Lived Experiences of Fathers with Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Krizette Ladera

Abstract:

Fathers are there not only to provide the financial stability of a family but a father is also there to provide the love and support that usually people would see as the mother’s responsibility. To describe the lived experiences and how fathers make sense of their lived experiences with their children who have cerebral palsy is the main objective of the study. A qualitative research using a thematic analysis was used for the study. The qualitative research focused on the personal narratives, self-report and expression of the participant’s memory in terms of how they tell their stories. The interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to focus on the experience of the participants on how they will describe their experiences, and to also add on that the IPA will also attempt to describe and explain the meaning of human experiences using interview, specifically on the father who have a child that suffers from cerebral palsy. For the sampling technique, the snowball technique was used to gather participants from the referral of other participants. The five non-randomly selected fathers will be served as the participants for the research. A self-made interview with an open-ended question was used as the research instrument; it includes profiling of the respondent as well as their experiences in taking care of their child that suffers from cerebral palsy. In analyzing a data, the researcher used the thematic analysis where in the interview was made into a transcript, then it was organized and divided themes. After that, the relations of each themes, was identified and it was later documented and translated into written text format using thematic grouping. Finally, the researcher analyzed each data according to its themes and put it in a table to be presented in the result section of the study And as for the result of the study, the researcher was able to come up with the four (4) main themes that most of the participants experienced and those are: The experiences in finding out about the condition of the Child, disclosing the condition of the child to the family and its emotional effect, The experiences of living the day of day realities in providing the physical, financial, emotional and a well balanced environment to the child, and the religious perspectives of the fathers. Along with those four (4) themes comes the subtheme which explains the themes in a more detailed explanation.

Keywords: Children, Cerebral Palsy, lived experiences, fathers

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
105 The Effect of Music Therapy on Anxiety, Fear and Pain Management in 6-12 Year Old Children Undergoing Surgery

Authors: Özgür Bahadir, Meltem Kurtuncu

Abstract:

The study was designed as quasi-experimental and conducted to determine the effect of music therapy on anxiety, fear and pain management in 6-12-year-old children undergoing surgery. The present study was carried out between 01.01.2016 and 19.08.2016 in BEU. Application and Research Center. The children aged 6 -12 who applied for surgery between the mentioned dates constituted the universe of the study. In the quasi-experimental study that was conducted in the clinics where children received operational treatment, two groups were formed: experimental group (the children who received musical therapy before the surgery) and control group (the children who were administered surveys and the surgery service routines only). Each group consisted of 30 children, and the participants of the study were 60 children in total. Necessary permissions were obtained from the parents of the children hospitalized before the beginning of the implementation. The data was collected through Child Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI), “Fear In Medical Treatment Scale”, Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability Scale (FLACC), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Participant Information Form. In the analysis of the data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution scale was used to examine the normality of the distribution along with descriptive statistics methods (Frequency, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation). Data was presented in the tables in numbers and percentages. Means were demonstrated along with the standard deviations. The research compared children received; case and control groups include socio-demographic perspective, non-significant difference statistically among similar groups are intertwined. The general level of fear regarding the medical processes before returning to service after the operation and 30 minutes before getting discharged was found to be significantly low in the experimental group compared to control group (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in terms of general level of fear regarding the medical processes before the operation, during the operation day and in the recovery room after the operation (p>0.05). Total CASI AD (anxiety sensitivity) levels before the operation, day of the operation and 30 minutes before the discharge for patients in experimental group was found to be significantly higher than the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the total CASI AD levels for the post-operative recovery room and for returning to the service room after the operation (p>0.05). VAS levels for patients in the experimental group in the post-operative recovery room was significantly higher than the control group (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of VAS findings in returning to service room after the operation and in 30 minutes before the discharge (p>0.05). As a result of the research; applied children music therapy in the experimental group anxiety, fear, and pain of the scales, their scores average, is lower than the control group children in this situation an increase in the satisfaction of children and parents was observed. In line with this, music therapy preoperative anxiety, fear, and can be used as an effective method of decreasing postoperative pain clinics is suggested.

Keywords: Children, Anxiety, Pain, music therapy, fear

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
104 Development of Children through the Prism of Pending Bills in India: An Analytical Study

Authors: S. Sunaina, Neha Saini

Abstract:

Children are considered as future of a country. In order to have a better future, better laws are required in the present, especially for the children. Their development primarily revolves around physical, mental, psychological, emotional and financial facets. Hence the holistic development of a child in the contemporary society is a must in order to secure a better future. The present paper is an endeavour to analyse the development of children in India vis-a-vis The Child Development Bill 2016 and Child Labour (Abolition) Bill 2016 pending before the Indian Parliament. The findings of the study will attempt to highlight the flaws of the Bills and their probable repercussions, supporting the same with Constitutional provisions, judicial precedents, and the international perspective. Finally, the paper will conclude with concrete suggestions to overcome the flaws of the Bills so that the Bills, when passed, can be sincerely implemented.

Keywords: Development, Children, Bill, repercussion

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
103 Health Satisfaction and Family Impact of Parents of Children with Cancer

Authors: Ekhlas Al Gamal, Tony Long

Abstract:

The impact on the parents of caring for a child with cancer was intense and wide-ranging. A high level of distress and low level or resilience remains during treatment. Even completion of treatment can be a time of increased anxiety and stress for parents particularly with worries about recurrence or relapse. The purpose of this study to examine the associations between parental satisfactions with healthcare provided for their child and the impact of being a caregiver for a child with cancer. Methodology: A descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional design was employed using data from Arabic versions of self-report questionnaires which were administered to 113 parents with children with cancer in Jordan during 2015. Findings: the result indicated that Family relationship functioning was ranked as the highest (better functioning) domain while daily activities were ranked as the lowest (poorer functioning) domain. Parents were generally satisfied with the health care provided, but their emotional needs were not met adequately. Parents with better social functioning were more satisfied in all areas of healthcare satisfaction other than emotional needs and communication. Parents who had a child with more emotional and behavioural problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on the family and a poor level of family functioning. Conclusion and Significance: Nurses and other health care providers should emphasis on family centred approach rather than child centred approach.

Keywords: Cancer, Children, Parents, jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
102 The Development of Space-Time and Space-Number Associations: The Role of Non-Symbolic vs. Symbolic Representations

Authors: Letizia Maria Drammis, Maria Antonella Brandimonte

Abstract:

The idea that people use space representations to think about time and number received support from several lines of research. However, how these representations develop in children and then shape space-time and space-number mappings is still a debated issue. In the present study, 40 children (20 pre-schoolers and 20 elementary-school children) performed 4 main tasks, which required the use of more concrete (non-symbolic) or more abstract (symbolic) space-time and space-number associations. In the non-symbolic conditions, children were required to order pictures of everyday-life events occurring in a specific temporal order (Temporal sequences) and of quantities varying in numerosity (Numerical sequences). In the symbolic conditions, they were asked to perform the typical time-to-position and number-to-position tasks by mapping time-related words and numbers onto lines. Results showed that children performed reliably better in the non-symbolic Time conditions than the symbolic Time conditions, independently of age, whereas only pre-schoolers performed worse in the Number-to-position task (symbolic) as compared to the Numerical sequence (non-symbolic) task. In addition, only older children mapped time-related words onto space following the typical left-right orientation, pre-schoolers’ performance being somewhat mixed. In contrast, mapping numbers onto space showed a clear left-right orientation, independently of age. Overall, these results indicate a cross-domain difference in the way younger and older children process time and number, with time-related tasks being more difficult than number-related tasks only when space-time tasks require symbolic representations.

Keywords: Children, Orientation, space-time associations, space-number associations

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
101 Anxiety Treatment: Comparing Outcomes by Different Types of Providers

Authors: Melissa K. Hord, Stephen P. Whiteside

Abstract:

With lifetime prevalence rates ranging from 6% to 15%, anxiety disorders are among the most common childhood mental health diagnoses. Anxiety disorders diagnosed in childhood generally show an unremitting course, lead to additional psychopathology and interfere with social, emotional, and academic development. Effective evidence-based treatments include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s). However, if anxious children receive any treatment, it is usually through primary care, typically consists of medication, and very rarely includes evidence-based psychotherapy. Despite the high prevalence of anxiety disorders, there have only been two independent research labs that have investigated long-term results for CBT treatment for all childhood anxiety disorders and two for specific anxiety disorders. Generally, the studies indicate that the majority of youth maintain gains up to 7.4 years after treatment. These studies have not been replicated. In addition, little is known about the additional mental health care received by these patients in the intervening years after anxiety treatment, which seems likely to influence maintenance of gains for anxiety symptoms as well as the development of additional psychopathology during the subsequent years. The original sample consisted of 335 children ages 7 to 17 years (mean 13.09, 53% female) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in 2010. Medical record review included provider billing records for mental health appointments during the five years after anxiety treatment. The subsample for this study was classified into three groups: 64 children who received CBT in an anxiety disorders clinic, 56 who received treatment from a psychiatrist, and 10 who were seen in a primary care setting. Chi-square analyses resulted in significant differences in mental health care utilization across the five years after treatment. Youth receiving treatment in primary care averaged less than one appointment each year and the appointments continued at the same rate across time. Children treated by a psychiatrist averaged approximately 3 appointments in the first two years and 2 in the subsequent three years. Importantly, youth treated in the anxiety clinic demonstrated a gradual decrease in mental health appointments across time. The nuanced differences will be presented in greater detail. The results of the current study have important implications for developing dissemination materials to help guide parents when they are selecting treatment for their children. By including all mental health appointments, this study recognizes that anxiety is often comorbid with additional diagnoses and that receiving evidence-based treatment may have long-term benefits that are associated with improvements in broader mental health. One important caveat might be that the acuity of mental health influenced the level of care sought by patients included in this study; however, taking this possibility into account, it seems those seeking care in a primary care setting continued to require similar care at the end of the study, indicating little improvement in symptoms was experienced.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, Anxiety, outcomes

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
100 Efficacy of Music for Improving Language in Children with Special Needs

Authors: Louisa Han Lin Tan, Poh Sim Kang, Wei Ming Loi, Susan Jane Rickard Liow

Abstract:

The efficacy of music for improving speech and language has been shown across ages and diagnoses. Across the world, the wide range of therapy settings and increasing number of children diagnosed with special needs demand more cost and time effective service delivery. However, research exploring co-treatment models on children other than those with Autism Spectrum Disorder remains sparse. The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of music for improving language in children with special needs, and generalizability of therapy effects. 25 children (7 to 12 years) were split into three groups – A, B and control. A cross-over design with direct therapy (storytelling) with or without music, and indirect therapy was applied with two therapy phases lasting 6 sessions each. Therapy targeted three prepositions in each phase. Baseline language abilities were assessed, with re-assessment after each phase. The introduction of music in therapy led to significantly greater improvement (p=.046, r=.53) in associated language abilities, with case studies showing greater effectiveness in developmentally appropriate target prepositions. However, improvements were not maintained once direct therapy ceased. As such, the incorporation of music could lead to greater efficiency and effectiveness of language therapy in children with special needs, but sustainability and generalizability of therapy effects both require further exploration.

Keywords: Music, Children, special needs, language therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
99 Joubert Syndrome in Children as Multicentric Screening in Ten Different Places in World

Authors: Bajraktarevic Adnan, Djukic Branka, Sporisevic Lutvo, Krdzalic Zecevic Belma, Uzicanin Sajra, Hadzimuratovic Admir, Hadzimuratovic Hadzipasic Emina, Abduzaimovic Alisa, Kustric Amer, Suljevic Ismet, Serafi Ismail, Tahmiscija Indira, Khatib Hakam, Semic Jusufagic Aida, Haas Helmut, Vladicic Aleksandra, Aplenc Richard, Kadic Deovic Aida

Abstract:

Introduction: Joubert syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. It is referred as the brain malfunctioning and caused due to the underdevelopment of the cerebellar vermis. Associated conditions involving the eye, the kidney, and ocular disease are well described. Aims: Research helps us better understand this diseases, Joubert syndrome and can lead to advances in diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Different several conditions have been described in which the molar tooth sign and characteristics of Joubert syndrome in ten different places in the world. Carrier testing and diagnosis are available if one of these gene mutations has been identified in an affected family member. Results: Authors have described eleven cases during twenty years of Joubert syndrome. It is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis with the characteristic neuroradiologic molar tooth sign, and accompanying neurologic symptoms, including dysregulation of breathing pattern and developmental delay. We made confirmation of diagnosis in twin sisters with Joubert syndrome with renal anomalies. Ocular symptoms have existed in seven cases (63.64%) from total eleven. Eleven cases were different sex, five boys (45.45%) and six girls (54.44%). Conclusions: Joubert syndrome is inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic disorder with several features of the disease.

Keywords: Children, Joubert syndrome, cerebellooculorenal syndrome, autosomal recessive genetic disorder (ARGD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
98 Relationship between the Level of Perceived Self-Efficacy of Children with Learning Disability and Their Mother’s Perception about the Efficacy of Their Child, and Children’s Academic Achievement

Authors: Payal Maheshwari, Maheaswari Brindavan

Abstract:

The present study aimed at studying the level of perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability and their mother’s perception about the efficacy of the child and the relationship between the two. The study further aimed at finding out the relationship between the level of perceived self-efficacy of children with learning disability and their academic achievement and their mother’s perception about the Efficacy of the child and child’s Academic Achievement. The sample comprised of 80 respondents (40 children with learning disability and their mothers). Children with learning disability as their primary condition, belonging to middle or upper middle class, living with both the parents, residing in Mumbai and their mothers were selected. Purposive or judgmental and snowball sampling technique was used to select the sample for the present study. Proformas in the form of questionnaires were used to obtain the background information of the children with learning disability and their mother’s. A self-constructed Mother’s Perceived Efficacy of their Child Assessment Scale was used to measure mothers perceived level of efficacy of their child with learning disability. Self-constructed Child’s Perceived Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale was used to measure the level of child’s perceived self-efficacy. Academic scores of the child were collected from the child’s parents or teachers and were converted into percentage. The data were analyzed quantitatively using frequencies, mean and standard deviation. Correlations were computed to ascertain the relationships between the different variables. The findings revealed that majority of the mother’s perceived efficacy about their child with learning disability was above average as well as majority of the children with learning disability also perceived themselves as having above average level of self-efficacy. Further in the domains of self-regulated learning and emotional self-efficacy majority of the mothers perceived their child as having average or below average efficacy, 50% of the children also perceived their self-efficacy in the two domains at average or below average level. A significant (r=.322, p < .05) weak correlation (Spearman’s rho) was found between mother’s perceived efficacy about their child, and child’s perceived self-efficacy and a significant (r=.377, p < .01) weak correlation (Pearson Correlation) was also found between mother’s perceived efficacy about their child and child’s academic achievement. Significant weak positive correlation was found between child’s perceived self-efficacy and academic achievement (r=.332, p < .05). Based on the findings, the study discussed the need for intervention program for children in non-academic skills like self-regulation and emotional competence.

Keywords: Children, Academic Achievement, Learning disability, Mothers, perceived self efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164