Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 187

Children Related Abstracts

157 Functional Impairment in South African Children with ADHD: Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Targeted Intervention

Authors: Mareli Fischer, Kevin G. F. Thomas

Abstract:

Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent childhood neurobehavioural disorders, little empirical research has been published on its clinical presentation in Africa, and, globally, few studies evaluate ADHD intervention programs that emphasize parent training. Hence, Stage 1 of this research programme aimed to describe the functional impairment of South African children with ADHD, and also sought to investigate the influence of sociodemographic variables (e.g., sex, age, socioeconomic status, family environment) and clinical variables (e.g., ADHD subtype and comorbidity) on the degree of that impairment. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents as a diagnostic tool, and the Child Behavior Checklist, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Impairment Rating Scale as measures of functional impairment. Results from this stage of the research indicated that South African children and adolescents who meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD experience most functional impairment in the school domain, as well as in the area of social functioning. None of the measured sociodemographic variables had a significant detrimental or protective effect on how ADHD symptoms impacted on functioning. In terms of comorbidity, the presence of Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were all associated with significantly impaired overall functioning. Stage 2 of the research programme aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a child-specific intervention that targeted the primary areas of impairment identified in Stage 1. Existing literature suggests that a positive parent-training programme, in the group format, is one of the best options for cost-effective and successful ADHD intervention. Hence, the intervention took that form. Parents were taught basic behaviour analysis concepts within a supportive group context. Evaluation of the intervention’s efficacy used many of the same measures as in Stage 1, but also featured semi-structured interviews with participants and naturalistic observation of parent-child interaction. We will discuss preliminary results of that evaluation. Studying functional impairment and designing intervention plans in this way will pave the way for evidence-based treatment plans for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD.

Keywords: Children, Intervention, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, parenting groups

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156 The Importance of Erythrocyte Parameters in Obese Children

Authors: Orkide Donma, M. Metin Donma, Burcin Nalbantoglu, Birol Topcu, Feti Tulubas, Murat Aydin, Tuba Gokkus, Ahmet Gurel

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Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has increased the interest in early and late indicators of gaining weight. Cell blood counts may be indicators of proinflammatory states. The aim was to evaluate associations of hematological parameters, including Hematocrit (HTC), hemoglobin, blood cell counts, and their indices with the degree of obesity in pediatric population. A total of 249; -139 morbidly obese (MO), 82 healthy Normal Weight (NW) and 28 Overweight (OW) children were included into the scope of the study. WHO BMI-for age percentiles were used to form age- and sex-matched groups. Informed consent forms and the Ethics Committee approval were obtained. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Hematological parameters were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. The degree for statistical significance was p≤0.05. Significant differences (p=0.000) between waist-to-hip ratios and head-to-neck ratios (hnrs) of MO and NW children were detected. A significant difference between hnrs of OW and MO children (p=0.000) was observed. Red cell Distribution Width (RDW) was higher in OW children than NW group (p=0.030). Such finding couldn’t be detected between MO and NW groups. Increased RDW was prominent in OW children. The decrease in Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) values in MO children was sharper than the values in OW children (p=0.006 vs p=0.042) compared to those in NW group. Statistically higher HTC levels were observed between MO-NW (p=0.014), but none between OW-NW. Though the cause-effect relationship between obesity and erythrocyte indices still needs further investigation, alterations in RDW, HTC, MCHC during obesity may be of significance in the early life.

Keywords: Obesity, Children, Anthropometry, erythrocytes

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155 A Comparison Study of Different Methods Used in the Detection of Giardia lamblia on Fecal Specimen of Children

Authors: Muhammad Farooq Baig

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained using a single fecal specimen for O&P examination, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), and two conventional staining methods. Design: Hundred and fifty children fecal specimens were collected and examined by each method. The O&P and the DFA were used as the reference method. Setting: The study was performed at the laboratory in the Basic Medical Science Institute JPMC Karachi. Patients or Other Participants: The fecal specimens were collected from children with a suspected Giardia lamblia infection. Main Outcome Measures: The amount of agreement and disagreement between methods.1) Presence of giardiasis in our population. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of each method. Results: There was 45(30%) positive 105 (70%) negative on DFA, 41 (27.4%) positive 109 (72.6%) negative on iodine and 34 (22.6%) positive 116(77.4%) on saline method. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparision to iodine were 92.2%, 92.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of DFA in comparisoin to saline method were 91.2%, 87.9% respectively. The sensitivity of iodine method and saline method in compariosn to DFA were 82.2%, 68.8% respectively. There is mark diffrence in sensitivity of DFA to conventional method. Conclusion: The study supported findings of other investigators who concluded that DFA method have the greater sensitivity. The immunologic methods were more efficient and quicker than the conventional O&P method.

Keywords: Medical Science, Children, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA), ova and parasite (O&P), Giardia lamblia

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154 Stimulating the Social Emotional Development of Children through Play Activities: The Role of Teachers and Parents Support

Authors: Mahani Razali, Nordin Mamat

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The purpose of this research is to identify the teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion through play activities. This research is based on three main objectives which are to identify children`s socio emotion during play activities, teacher’s role and parent’s participation to develop children`s socio emotion. This qualitative study was carried out among 25 pre-school children, three teachers and three parents as the research sample. On the other hand, parent’s support was obtained from their discussions, supervisions and communication at home. The data collection procedures involved structured observation which was to identify socio emotional development element among pre-school children through play activities; as for semi-structured interviews, it was done to study the perception of the teachers and parents on the acquired socio emotional development among the children. Besides, documentation analysis method was used as to triangulate acquired information with observations and interviews. In this study, the qualitative data analysis was tabulated in descriptive manner with frequency and percentage format. This study primarily focused on five main socio emotional elements among the pre-school children: 1) Cooperation, 2) Confidence and Courage, 3) Ability to communicate, 4) patience, and 5) Tolerance. The findings of this study were presented in the form of case to case manner from the researches sample. Findings revealed that the children showed positive outcomes on the socio emotional development during their play. Both teachers and parents showed positive perceptions towards the acquired socio emotional development during their play activities. In conclusion, this research summarizes that teacher’s role and parent’s support can improve children`s socio emotional development through play activities. As a whole, this research highlighted the significance of play activities as to stimulate socio emotional development among the pre-school children.

Keywords: Children, social emotional, play activities, stimulating

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153 Protection of Minor's Privacy in Bosnian Herzegovinian Media (Legal Regulation and Current Media Reporting)

Authors: Ilija Musa

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Positive legal regulation of juvenile privacy protection, current state of showing a child in BH media and possibilities of a child’s privacy protection by more adequate media legislature which should be arranged in accordance to recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Privacy of the minors in Bosnian-Herzegovinian media is insufficiently legally arranged. Due to the fact that there is no law on media area arrangement at the state level, electronic media are under jurisdiction of Communications regulatory agency, which at least partially, regulated the sector of radio and television broadcasting by adequate protection of child’s privacy. However, print and online media are under jurisdiction of non-governmental association Print and online media council in B&H which is not authorized to punish violators of this body’s Codex, what points out the necessity of passing the unique media law which would enable sanctioning the child’s privacy violation. The analysis of media content, which is a common violation of the child's privacy, analysis of positive legislation which regulates the media, confirmed the working hypothesis by which the minor’s protection policy in BH media is not protected at the appropriate level. Taking this into consideration, in the conclusion of this article the author gives recommendations for the regulation of legal protection of minor’s privacy in BH media.

Keywords: Media, Children, Legislation, Privacy Protection, Bosnia Herzegovina

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152 Caring for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Malawi: Parental Psychological Experiences and Needs

Authors: Charles Masulani Mwale

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Background: It is argued that 85% of children with the disability live in resource-poor countries where there are few available disability services. A majority of these children, including their parents, suffer a lot as a result of the disability and its associated stigmatization, leading to a marginalized life. These parents also experience more stress and mental health problems such as depression, compared with families of normal developing children. There is little research from Africa addressing these issues especially among parents of intellectually disabled children. WHO encourages research on the impact that child with a disability have on their family and appropriate training and support to the families so that they can promote the child’s development and well-being. This study investigated the parenting experiences, mechanisms of coping with these challenges and psychosocial needs while caring for children with intellectual disabilities in both rural and urban settings of Lilongwe and Mzuzu. Methods: This is part of a larger Mixed-methods study aimed at developing a contextualized psychosocial intervention for parents of intellectually disabled children. 16 focus group discussions and four in-depth interviews were conducted with parents in catchments areas for St John of God and Children of Blessings in Mzuzu and Lilongwe cities respectively. Ethical clearance was obtained from COMREC. Data were stored in NVivo software for easy retrieval and management. All interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Note-taking was performed during all the observations. Data triangulation from the interviews, note taking and the observations were done for validation and reliability. Results: Caring for intellectually disabled children comes with a number of challenges. Parents experience stigma and discrimination; fear for the child’s future; have self-blame and guilt; get coerced by neighbors to kill the disabled child; and fear violence by and to the child. Their needs include respite relief, improved access to disability services, education on disability management and financial support. For their emotional stability, parents cope by sharing with others and turning to God while other use poor coping mechanisms like alcohol use. Discussion and Recommendation: Apart from neighbors’ coercion to eliminate the child life, the findings of this study are similar to those done in other countries like Kenya and Pakistan. It is recommended that parents get educated on disability, its causes, and management to array fears of unknown. Community education is also crucial to promote community inclusiveness and correct prevailing myths associated with disability. Disability institutions ought to intensify individual as well as group counseling services to these parents. Further studies need to be done to design culturally appropriate and specific psychosocial interventions for the parents to promote their psychological resilience.

Keywords: Children, Mental Health, Psychological distress, Intellectual Disability, psychosocial interventions, psychological resilience

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151 The Implementation of Child Adoption as Legal Protection of Children

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

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The principle of a marriage is to achieve a happy and eternity family based on the willing of the God. The family has a fundamental role in the society as a social individual and as a nuclear family consists of father, mother, and children. Thus, each family always would like to have children who will continue the family. However, not all family will be blessed with children and consequently, there is family without children. Therefore, the said the certain family will do any effort to fulfill the wish to have children. One of the ways is to adopt children. The implementation of child adoption is conducted by the family who does not have children but sometimes child adoption is conducted by a family who has already children. The implementation of child adoption is based on the interest of the welfare and the intellectual of the said child. Moreover, it should be based on the social liability of the individual in accordance with the developing of the traditional values as part of the nation culture. The child adoption is conducted for the welfare of the child demonstrates that a change on the basic motive (value) whereby in the past the child adoption is to fulfill the wish of foster parent (to have children in the family). Nowadays the purpose of child adoption is not merely for the interest of foster parent but in particular for the interest, welfare and the future of the child. The development of the society has caused the occurrence of changes of perspective in the society which lead to a need for new law. The court of justice has an impact of such changes. It is evidenced by the court order for child adoption in the legal framework of certainty of law. The changes of motives (value) of the child adoption in the society can be fully understood in the event that the society fully understand that the ultimate purpose of Indonesia nation is to achieve a justice and prosperity society, i.e., social welfare for all Indonesian people.

Keywords: Children, Family Law, Legal Protection, child adoption

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150 Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy: Preliminary Results of MAPEC_LIFE Project

Authors: Elisabetta Ceretti, Silvia Bonizzoni, Alberto Bonetti, Milena Villarini, Marco Verani, Maria Antonella De Donno, Sara Bonetta, Umberto Gelatti

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Introduction: Air pollution is a global problem. In 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic to human. The study of the health effects of air pollution in children is very important because they are a high-risk group in terms of the health effects of air pollution and early exposure during childhood can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. The MAPEC_LIFE (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for supporting public health policy) is a project founded by EU Life+ Programme which intends to evaluate the associations between air pollution and early biological effects in children and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods: The study was carried out on 6-8-year-old children living in five Italian towns in two different seasons. Two biomarkers of early biological effects, primary DNA damage detected with the comet assay and frequency of micronuclei, were investigated in buccal cells of children. Details of children diseases, socio-economic status, exposures to other pollutants and life-style were collected using a questionnaire administered to children’s parents. Child exposure to urban air pollution was assessed by analysing PM0.5 samples collected in the school areas for PAHs and nitro-PAHs concentration, lung toxicity and in vitro genotoxicity on bacterial and human cells. Data on the chemical features of the urban air during the study period were obtained from the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection. The project created also the opportunity to approach the issue of air pollution with the children, trying to raise their awareness on air quality, its health effects and some healthy behaviors by means of an educational intervention in the schools. Results: 1315 children were recruited for the study and participate in the first sampling campaign in the five towns. The second campaign, on the same children, is still ongoing. The preliminary results of the tests on buccal mucosa cells of children will be presented during the conference as well as the preliminary data about the chemical composition and the toxicity and genotoxicity features of PM0.5 samples. The educational package was tested on 250 children of the primary school and showed to be very useful, improving children knowledge about air pollution and its effects and stimulating their interest. Conclusions: The associations between levels of air pollutants, air mutagenicity and biomarkers of early effects will be investigated. A tentative model to calculate the global absolute risk of having early biological effects for air pollution and other variables together will be proposed and may be useful to support policy-making and community interventions to protect children from possible health effects of air pollutants.

Keywords: Children, Public Health Policy, air pollution exposure, biomarkers of early effects

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149 Manifestation of Behavioral and Emotional Disturbances and Perceived Coping Strategies of Earthquake Survived Children

Authors: Mahwish Rabia, Najma Najam

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The present study was conducted to identify emotional and behavioral disturbances among earthquake survived children and the perceived coping strategies of affected children. In the present study, a sample of 50 children (6-16 years) belonging to badly affected areas (earthquake) was selected from different camps in Islamabad. Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL) and Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB) interpretations were used to assess variety of emotional and behavioral patterns, and Child Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC) was used to assess the perceived coping strategies of affected children. Results showed that some of the frequent emotional/behavioral reactions exhibited by children like withdrawal, anxiety\depression, aggression and attention seeking behavior. Whereas gender-based comparisons indicated that female children showed more internalizing behavioral patterns (withdrawn, somatic complaints) as compared to male children who exhibited more externalizing emotions (aggression, delinquent behavior).Coping strategies in which male children tried to adopt Positive Cognitive Restructuring and for distracting attention they used distraction strategies of coping. It is concluded that significant negative emotional and behavioral reactions are exhibited by the earthquake affected children. Male children adopt coping strategies more as compared to female children. The study identifies the negative emotional and behavioral reactions towards trauma, which can be helpful for identifying the problematic area for counseling and therapeutic interventions for these children.

Keywords: Earthquake, Children, coping strategies, behavioural disturbances, emotional disturbances

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148 Use of Oral Midazolam in Endoscopy

Authors: Alireza Javadzadeh

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Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oral versus i.v. midazolam in providing sedation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: Sixty-one children (age < 16 years) scheduled for upper GI endoscopy were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral or i.v. midazolam. Measurements were made and compared for vital signs, level of sedation, pre- and post-procedure comfort, anxiety during endoscopy, ease of separation from parents, ease and duration of procedure, and recovery time. Results: Patients were aged 1–16 years (mean 7.5 ± 3.42 years); 30 patients received oral medication, and 31 received i.v. medication. There were no statistically significant differences in age or gender between groups. There were no significant differences in level of sedation, ease of separation from parents, ease of ability to monitor the patient during the procedure, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, or respiratory rate. Oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the i.v. group than the oral group 10 and 30 min after removal of the endoscope, and recovery time was longer in the oral than the i.v. group. Conclusions: Oral administration of midazolam is a safe and effective method of sedation that significantly reduces anxiety and improves overall tolerance for children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

Keywords: Children, Oral, Endoscopy, Sedation, midazolam

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147 Multiple Strategies in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Result from Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Maryam Shahrooz

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Background: Nowadays the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has taken on a growing trend. Studies have shown the relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) status and Mets in children. Also studies have recorded that exerting strategies for vitamin D status improvement can help prevent Mets in children. This study investigated multiple strategies of prevention of Mets resulting from VDD in children. Methods: This review study has been done by using keywords related to the topic and 54 articles were found (2000-2015) that 25 were selected according to the indicators of Mets, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D and attention to children environment and life style. Results: Studies have suggested the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with waist circumference (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01), HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). An inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and HOMA-IR (p = 0.006) and insulin (P = 0.002) has been proved in overweight group. Higher HOMASDS and triglycerides found in vitamin D deficient obese children compared to control group without VDD (p=0.04). After supplementation with vitamin D, serum TG concentration decreases significantly (p=0.04), and improves insulin resistance (p=0.02). The prevalence of VDD is associated with time of watching TV (P < 0.01), hours of physical activity per week (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P < 0.001) soda intake (P < 0.001), and milk intake per day (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the beneficial role of vitamin D in prevention of Mets and proven relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and Mets indicators, we can prevent childhood Mets through the application of appropriate strategies such as supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D and positive changes in children life style with especial attention to physical activity in exposure of sunlight and their environment condition.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, Children, vitamin D, prevention strategies

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146 Existing Cardiovascular Risk among Children Diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus at the Emergency Clinic

Authors: Masuma Novak, Daniel Novak

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Background: Sweden along with other Nordic countries has the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) worldwide. The trend is increasing globally. The diagnosis is often given at the emergency clinic when children arrive with cardinal symptom of T1DM. Children with T1DM are known to have an increased risk of microvascular- and macrovascular complications. A family history of cardiovascular complications may further increase their risk. Clinically evident diabetes-related vascular complications are however rarely visible in childhood and adolescence, whereby an intensive diabetes treatment and normoglycemic control is a goal for every child. This study is a risk evaluation of children with T1DM based on their family’s cardiovascular history. Method: Since 2005 the Better Diabetes Diagnosis (BDD) study is a nationwide Swedish prospective cohort study that recruits new-onset T1DM who are less than 18 years old at time of diagnosis. For each newly diagnosed child, blood samples are collected for specific HLA genotyping and islet autoantibody assays and their family’s cardiovascular history is evaluated. As part of the BDD study, during the years 2010-2013 all children diagnosed with T1DM at the Queen Silvia’s Children’s Hospital in Sweden were asked about their family’s cardiovascular history. Questions regarded maternal and paternal high blood pressure, stroke, and myocardial infarction before the age of 55 years, and hyperlipidemia were answered. A maximum risk score of eight was possible. All children are clinically observed prospectively for early functional and structural abnormalities such as protein uremia, blood pressure, and retinopathy. Results: A total of 275 children aged 0 to 18 years were diagnosed with T1DM at the Queen Silvia’s Children’s Hospital emergency clinic during this four year period. The participation rate was 99.7%. 26.4% of the children had no hereditary cardiovascular risk factors. 22.7 % had one risk factor and 18.8% had two risk factors. 14.8% had three risk factors. 9.7% had four risk factors and 7.5% had five risk factors or more. Conclusion: Among children with T1DM in Sweden there is a difference in hereditary cardiovascular risk factors. These results indicate that children with T1DM who also have increased hereditary cardiovascular risk factors should be monitored closely with early screening for functional and structural cardiovascular abnormalities. This is a very preliminary and ongoing study which will be complemented with the cardiovascular risk analysis among children without T1DM.

Keywords: Children, type I diabetes, emergency clinic, CVD risk

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145 Studying the Beginnings of Strategic Behavior

Authors: Taher Abofol, Yaakov Kareev, Judith Avrahami, Peter M. Todd

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Are children sensitive to their relative strength in competitions against others? Performance on tasks that require cooperation or coordination (e.g. the Ultimatum Game) indicates that early precursors of adult-like notions of fairness and reciprocity, as well as altruistic behavior, are evident at an early age. However, not much is known regarding developmental changes in interactive decision-making, especially in competitive interactions. Thus, it is important to study the developmental aspects of strategic behavior in these situations. The present research focused on cognitive-developmental changes in a competitive interaction. Specifically, it aimed at revealing how children engage in strategic interactions that involve the allocation of limited resources over a number of fields of competition, by manipulating relative strength. Relative strength refers to situations in which player strength changes midway through the game: the stronger player becomes the weaker one, while the weaker player becomes the stronger one. An experiment was conducted to find out if the behavior of children of different age groups differs in the following three aspects: 1. Perception of relative strength. 2. Ability to learn while gaining experience. 3. Ability to adapt to change in relative strength. The task was composed of a resource allocation game. After the players allocated their resources (privately and simultaneously), a competition field was randomly chosen for each player. The player who allocated more resources to the field chosen was declared the winner of that round. The resources available to the two competitors were unequal (or equal, for control). The theoretical solution for this game is that the weaker player should give up on a certain number of fields, depending on the stronger opponent’s relative strength, in order to be able to compete with the opponent on equal footing in the remaining fields. Participants were of three age groups, first-graders (N = 36, mean age = 6), fourth-graders (N = 36, mean age = 10), and eleventh-graders (N = 72, mean age = 16). The games took place between players of the same age and lasted for 16 rounds. There were two experimental conditions – a control condition, in which players were of equal strength, and an experimental condition, in which players differed in strength. In the experimental condition, players' strength was changed midway through the session. Results indicated that players in all age groups were sensitive to their relative strength, and played in line with the theoretical solution: the weaker players gave up on more fields than the stronger ones. This understanding, as well as the consequent difference in allocation between weak and strong players, was more pronounced among older participants. Experience led only to minimal behavioral change. Finally, the children from the two older groups, particularly the eleventh graders adapted quickly to the midway switch in relative strength. In contrast, the first-graders hardly changed their behavior with the change in their relative strength, indicating a limited ability to adapt. These findings highlight young children’s ability to consider their relative strength in strategic interactions and its boundaries.

Keywords: Decision Making, Children, Competition, developmental changes, strategic behavior

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144 Hematological Malignancies in Children and Parental Occupational Exposure

Authors: H. Kalboussi, A. Aloui, W. Boughattas, M. Maoua, A. Brahem, S. Chatti, O. El Maalel, F. Debbabi, N. Mrizak, Y. Ben Youssef, A. Khlif, I. Bougmiza

Abstract:

Background: In recent decades, the incidence of children's hematological malignancies has been increasing worldwide including Tunisia. Their severity is reflected in the importance of the medical, social and economic impact. This increase remains fully unexplained, and the involvement of genetic, environmental and occupational factors is strongly suspected. Materials and Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional survey of the type case-control conducted in the University Hospital of Farhat Hached of Sousse during the period ranging between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012,and which included children with acute leukemia compared to children unharmed by neoplastic disease . Cases and controls were matched by age and gender. Our objective was to: - Describe the socio-occupational characteristics of the parents of children with acute leukemia. - Identify potential occupational factors implicated in the genesis of acute leukemia. Result: The number of acute leukemia cases in the Hematology Service and day hospital of the University Hospital of Farhat Hached during the study period was 66 cases divided into in 40 boys and 26 girls with a sex ratio of 1.53. Our cases and controls were matched by age and gender. The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from smoking fathers was higher (p = 0.02, OR = 2.24, IC = [1.11 - 4.52]). The risk of incidence of leukemia in children from alcoholic fathers was higher with p = 0,009, OR = 3.9; CI = [1.33 - 11.39]. After adjusting different variables, the difference persisted significantly with pa = 0.03 and ORa = 3.5; ICa = [1.09 -11.6]. 25.7 % of cases had a family history of blood disease and neoplasia, whereas no control presented that. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.006), OR = 1.46, IC = [1.38 - 1.56]. The parental occupational exposures associated to the occurrence of acute leukemia in children were: - Pesticides with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.03), OR = 2.94, IC = [1.06 - 8.13]. This difference persisted after adjustment with different variables pa = 0.01, ORa 3.75; ICa = [1.27 - 11.03]. - Cement without a statistically non-significant difference (p = 0.2). This difference has become significant after adjustment with the different variables pa = 0.03; ORa = 2.67; ICa = [1.06 - 6.7]. Conclusion: Parental exposure to occupational risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute leukemia in children.

Keywords: Children, Parents, occupational exposure, hematological malignancies

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143 Review Architectural Standards in Design and Development Children's Educational Centers

Authors: Ahmad Torkaman, Suogol Shomtob, Hadi Akbari Seddigh

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In this paper it has been attempted to investigate the lack of attention to how specific spatial characteristics of the children except existing places such as nurseries. In order to achieve the standard center to faster children understanding their mentality is the first issue that must be studied. Exploring the spiritual characteristics and complexities of children cannot be possible except in accordance with the different aspects and background of their growth in various age periods. In order to achieving the standard center for fostering children, the first issue that must be studied understands their mentality. Exploring the spiritual qualities and complexities of children are not provided except in accordance with the characteristics and their different growth backgrounds in different age periods. According to previous researches game or playing is the most important activity that helps children to communicate and educate and sometimes therapy in specific fields. Investigating game as a proper way to train, the variety of games, the various kind of play environment and how to treat some abnormalities thereby are the issues discussed in recent research. Another consideration concerns the importance of artistic activities among children which is very evident in studying identification of their abnormalities. At the end of this study after investigating how to understand child and communicate with him/her, aiming to recognize Specific spatial characteristics for better training children, the physical and physiological criteria and characteristics is Reviewed and ends up to a list of required spaces and dimensional characteristic of spaces and needed children's equipment.

Keywords: Development, Space, Growth, Children, Interior Design

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142 Implementation of Nutrition Sensitive Agriculture in the Central Province of Zambia

Authors: G. Chipili, J. Msuya

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The Central Province of Zambia contains the majority of the nation’s malnourished children, despite being the most productive province in terms of Agriculture. Most studies in the province have not paid attention to the linkages between agriculture performance and nutrition outcomes of the population. In light of this knowledge gap, this study focused on the linkage between nutrition and agriculture. In 2010 the Ministry of Agriculture in the Central Province while working with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education started a pilot project in Kapiri-Mponshi on Orange-fleshed Sweet Potatoes and Orange Maize and educating farmers on the importance of crop diversity. The study assessed the extent to which the small scale farmers are implementing the best practices of nutrition-sensitive agriculture in the Central Province. This study sought to determine the association of crop diversity and nutritional status of children aged 6-59 months in Kapiri-Mposhi district in the Central Province of Zambia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. A total of 365 households were randomly sampled and the nutritional status of one child from each household assessed using anthropometric measurements. A total of 100 children were included in the study. Up to 21% of the children were stunted; 2% were wasted; and 9% underweight. There was a significant relationship between crops grown in households (ground nuts, maize and mangoes) and Z-scores for stunting (HAZ) and underweight (WAZ) (p< 0.05). This study has established that farmers may not diversify if they have high market demands on the staple.

Keywords: Agriculture, Nutrition, Children, Crop Diversity

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141 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton

Abstract:

Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: Sport, barrier, Children, Participation, Deaf, hard of hearing

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140 Barriers to Participation in Sport for Children without Disability: A Systematic Review

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare

Abstract:

Participation in sport is linked to better mental and physical health in children and adults. Studies have shown children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sports from a young age are also more likely to continue to have active lifestyles during adulthood. This is an important consideration with a nation where physical activity levels are declining and the incidences of obesity are rising. Getting children active and keeping them active can provide long term health benefits to the individual but also a potential reduction in health costs in the future. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to participation in sport for children aged up to 18 years and encompasses both qualitative and quantitative studies. The bibliographic databases, EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus were searched. Additional hand searches were carried out on review articles found in the searches to identify any studies that may have been missed. Studies involving children up to 18 years without additional needs focusing on barriers to participation in sport were included. Randomised control trials, policy guidelines, studies with sport as an intervention, studies focusing on the female athlete triad, tobacco abuse, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, pre exercise testing, and cardiovascular disease were excluded. Abstract review, full paper review and quality appraisal were conducted by two researchers. A consensus meeting took place to resolve any differences at the abstract, full text and data extraction / quality appraisal stages. The CASP qualitative studies appraisal tool and the CASP cohort studies tool (excluding question 3 and 4 which refer to interventions) were used for quality appraisal in this review. The review identified several salient barriers to participation in sport for children. These barriers ranged from the uniform worn during school physical education lessons to the weather during participation in sport. The most commonly identified barriers in the review include parental support, time allocation, location of the activity and the cost of the activity. Therefore, it would be beneficial for a greater provision to be made within the school environment for children to participate sport. This can reduce the cost and time commitment required from parents to encourage participation. This would help to increase activity levels of children, which ultimately can only be a good thing.

Keywords: Sport, barrier, Children, Participation

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139 Experienced Chronic Sorrow in Mothers of Children with Cancer: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Nikfarid Lida, Maryam Rassouli, Leili Borimnejad, Hamid Alavi Majd

Abstract:

Purpose: Chronic sorrow is experienced by mothers of children with cancer. It is a multidimensional concept and is experienced by mothers in different ways depends on their various contexts. Little is known about the concept of chronic sorrow in mothers of children with cancer living in Iran. This study aimed to clarify the concept and explain lived experiences of chronic sorrow in Iranian mothers of children with cancer. Methods: In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, 8 mothers of children with cancer participated in semi structured in-depth interviews about their experiences of chronic sorrow. Interviews continued until data saturation was reached. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, analyzed, and interpreted using 7 steps of the Dickelman et al’s phenomenological approach. Results: Three main themes emerged from mothers’ experiences of chronic sorrow related to child’s cancer. These main themes were ‘climbing up shaky rocks,’ ‘fear and hope,’ and ‘continuous role changing.’ Each of these themes consisted of several subthemes. Conclusion: There are similarities in experiencing chronic sorrow by mothers of children with chronic diseases in different societies. However some experiences are unique in Iranian mothers of children with cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Children, phenomenology, Mothers, Iran

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138 Effectiveness of Medication and Non-Medication Therapy on Working Memory of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

Authors: Mohaammad Ahmadpanah, Amineh Akhondi, Mohammad Haghighi, Ali Ghaleiha, Leila Jahangard, Elham Salari

Abstract:

Background: Working memory includes the capability to keep and manipulate information in a short period of time. This capability is the basis of complicated judgments and has been attended to as the specific and constant character of individuals. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilizes a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of the effects of the trainings. Participants: The children participating in this study were of 7-15 year age, who were diagnosed by the psychiatrist and psychologist as hyperactive and attention deficit based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group was consisted of 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 years and standard deviation of 2, and the control group was consisted of 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 and standard deviation of 3. Three children in the test group and two in the control group were under medicinal therapy. Results: Working memory training meaningfully improved the performance in not-trained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of non-verbal, complicated reasoning tasks. In addition, motional activities – measured based on the number of head movements during computerized measuring program – was meaningfully reduced in the medication group. The results of the second test showed that training similar exercise to teenagers and adults results in the improvement of cognition functions, as in hyperactive people. Discussion: The results of this study showed that the performance of working memory is improved through training, and these trainings are extended and generalized in other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal. They had also a positive and meaningful impact on the moving activities of hyperactive children.

Keywords: Children, Working memory, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, non-medical treatment

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137 Learning through Gaming with Mobile Devices

Authors: Luis Rodrigo Valencia Pérez, Juan Manuel Peña Aguilar, Adelina Morita Alexander, Alberto Lamadrid Alvarez, Héctor Fernando Valencia Pérez

Abstract:

Financial education is among the areas of opportunity in the Spanish-speaking from an early age to high school, through mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets using ludic and fun applications like interactive games, children can learn money management and investment through time, thereby fostering the habit of saving and/or sound management of cash and family business resources, having interaction with an uncontrolled environment such as the involvement of other players in the external decisions of the environment in which the game is play. The application proposed in Phase 1 (design and development) was designed in multi-user environments, under methodologies of hybrid programming for any platform on the market and designed under CMMI standards that allow for quality production over time, following up on these improvements counting with continuous user feedback and usage statistics.

Keywords: Children, multiuser, mobile educational games, ludic games, design and software development

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136 De-Learning Language at Preschool: A Case of Nepal

Authors: Meenakshi Dahal

Abstract:

Generally, children start verbal communication by the age of eighteen months. Though they have difficulties in constructing complete sentences, they try to make their thought s understandable to the audience. By the age of 36 months, when they enroll in preschool, their Language and communication skills are enhanced. Children need plenty of classroom experiences that will help them to develop their oral language skills. Oral language is the primary means through which each individual child is enabled to structure, evaluate, describe and to express his/her experiences. In the context of multi lingual and multi-cultural country like Nepal, the languages used in preschool and the communities vary. In such a case, the language of instruction in the preschool is different from the language used by the children to communicate at home. Using qualitative research method the socio-cultural aspect of the language learning has been analyzed. This has been done by analyzing and exploring preschool activities as well as the language of instruction and communication in the preschools in rural Nepal. It is found that the language of instruction is different from the language of communications primarily used by the children. Teachers seldom use local language resulting in difficulties for the children to understand. Instead of recognizing their linguistic, social and cultural capitals teachers conform to using the Nepali language which the children are not familiar with. Children have to adapt to new language structures and patterns of usage resulting them to be slow in oral language and communication in the preschool. The paper concludes that teachers have to recognize the linguistic capitals of the children and schools need to be responsible to facilitate this process for all children, whatever their language background.

Keywords: Language, Children, preschool, socio-culture

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135 Temperament and Psychopathology in Children of Patients Suffering from Schizophrenia

Authors: Rushi Naaz, Diksha Suchdeva

Abstract:

Background: Temperament is a very important aspect of functioning that needs to be understood in children of patients suffering from schizophrenia. The children of parents with mental disorder have substantially increased risk of psychiatric illness in them and may exhibit a range of problems from minor variations in temperament and adjustment to manifest psychiatric disorder. Method: A case control study was conducted to study the temperament characteristics and psychopathology in children of patients suffering from schizophrenia as compared to those of healthy controls. Both the groups were evaluated on Temperament Measurement Schedule and Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule. Results: The results showed that children of patients suffering from schizophrenia were withdrawing, less adaptable, less sociable and had lower activity level than children of healthy parents. However, on the measure of psychopathology, no significant difference was found. Conclusion: Since temperament can be identified at an early age, children at risk for the disorder later on could be identified early enough for possible primary intervention.

Keywords: Psychiatric Disorders, Schizophrenia, Children, temperament, childhood psychopathology, parental psychopathology

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134 Recessionary Tales: An Investigation into How Children with Intellectual Disability, and Their Families Experience the Current Economic Downturn

Authors: S. Flynn

Abstract:

This paper offers a focused commentary on the impact of the current economic downturn on children with ID (intellectual disability), and their families, in the Republic of Ireland. It will examine the practical challenges, serious concerns, and trends in the field of disability with specific regard to the impact of the economic downturn in the Irish context. This includes the impact of cutbacks to services and supports, and the erosion of possibilities for life progression for children with ID as evident within the existing body of research. This focused commentary on core and seminal literature, policy and research will then be used to provide a discussion on what are the core points of learning for policy makers, researchers, practitioners and society as whole.

Keywords: Disability, Economic, Children, recession

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133 High Rate of Dual Carriage of Hepatitis B Surface and Envelope Antigen in Gombe in Infants and Young Children, North-East Nigeria: 2000-2015

Authors: E. Isaac, I. Jalo, Y. Alkali, A. Ajani, A. Rasaki, Y. Jibrin, K. Mustapha, S. Charanchi, A. Kudi, H. Danlami

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatitis B infection is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where transmission predominantly occurs in infants and children by perinatal and horizontal routes. The risk of chronic infection peaks when infection is acquired early. Materials and Methods: Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen results in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Results: Paediatric outpatient visits and in-patient admissions were 64,193 accounting for 13% of total. Individuals tested for Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia were 23,866. Children aged 0-18 years constituted 11% (2,626). Among children tested, males accounted for 52.8% (1386/2626) and females 47.2% (1240/2626). Infants contributed 65 (2.3%); 1-4 year old children 309 (11.7%); 5-9 year old children 564 (21.4%) and adolescents 1717 (65.1%). HbSAg sero-positivity was 18% (496/2626) among children tested. The highest number of children tested per year was in 2009 (518) and 2014 (569) and the lowest, in the first study year (62). The highest sero-positivity rate was in 2010; 21.7% (54/255). Children aged 0-18years accounted for 10.5% (496/4720) of individuals with Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Sero-positivity was 3.1% (2/65); 12.9% (40/309); 18.1% (102/564); and 20.5% (352/1717) in infants, children ages 1-4years, 5-9years and adolescents respectively. 2.5% (1/40) and 4% (1/25) of male and female infants respectively had HbSAg. Among children aged 1-4years, 15.1% (30/198) of males and 9.0% (10/111) of females were seropositive; 14.8% (52/350) and 22% (50/224) of male and female 5-9year old children respectively has HbSAg. 14.3% (138/943) of adolescent females had Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. Adolescent males demonstrated the highest sero-positivity rate 27.6% (214/774). 97.3% (483/496) of children who demonstrated Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia were tested for dual carriage with the e antigen. Males accounted for 296/483 (63.1%) and females 187/483 (36.9%). Infants constituted 0.97% (4/482); children aged 1-4years, 5-9years and adolescents were 6.8% (33/483); 20.9% (100/483) and 71.3% (342/483) respectively. 17.6% (85/483) of children tested had HBe antigenaemia. Of these, males accounted for 69.4% (59/85). 1.2% (1/85) were infants; 9.4% (8/85%) 1-4years; 22.3% (19/85) 5-9years and 68.2% (58/85) adolescents. 25% (1/4) infants; 24% (8/33) children aged 1-4 years; 19% (19/100) 5-9 year old children and 16.9% (58/342) adolescents had dual carriage. Infants and young children demonstrated the highest rate of dual carriage but were less likely to be tested for dual carriage 37/42 (88%) than their 5-9 year old 98% (100/102) and adolescent 342/352 (97%) counterparts. HB e antigen positivity rate was 45.4% (59/130) males and 36.0% (27/75) in females. Conclusion: Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia is high among adolescent males. Infants and young children who had HBSAg had the highest rate of envelope antigen carriage. Testing in pregnancy, vaccination programmes and prophylaxis need to be strengthened.

Keywords: Children, Hepatitis B, dual carriage, Gombe

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132 Resilience in Children: A Comparative Analysis between Children with and without Parental Supervision Bandar Abbas

Authors: N. Taghinejad, F. Dortaj, N. Khodabandeh

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This research aimed at comparing resilience among male and female children with and without parental supervision in Bandar Abbas. The sample consists of 200 subjects selected through cluster sampling. The research method was comparative causal and Conner and Davidson’s questionnaire form resilience was used for data collection. Results indicated that there is no difference between children with and without parental supervision regarding their resilience capacity. These findings may be challenging and useful for psychologists, officials of children’s affairs and legislators.

Keywords: Children, Resilience, children with parental supervision, children without parental supervision

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131 Training Can Increase Knowledge and Skill of Teacher's on Measurement and Assessment Nutritional Status Children

Authors: Herawati Tri Siswati, Nurhidayat Ana Sıdık Fatimah

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The Indonesia Basic Health Research, 2013 showed that prevalence of stunting of 6–12 children years old was 35,6%, wasting was 12,2% and obesiy was 9,2%. The Indonesian Goverment have School Health Program, held in coordination, plans, directing and responsible, developing and implement health student. However, it's implementation still under expected, while Indonesian Ministry of Health has initiated the School Health Program acceleration. This aimed is to know the influencing of training to knowledge and skill of elementary school teacher about measurement and assesment nutrirional status children. The research is quasy experimental with pre-post design, in Sleman disctrict, Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, 2015. Subject was all of elementary school teacher’s who responsible in School Health Program in Gamping sub-district, Sleman, Yogyakarta, i.e. 32 persons. The independent variable is training, while the dependent variable are teacher’s klowledge and skill on measurement and assesment nutrirional status children. The data was analized by t-test. The result showed that the knowledge score before training is 31,6±9,7 and after 56,4±12,6, with an increase 24,8±15,7, and p=0.00. The skill score before training is 46,6±11,1 and after 61,7±13, with an increase 15,2±14,2, p = 0.00. Training can increase the teacher’s klowledge and skill on measurement and assesment nutrirional status.

Keywords: training, Children, Nutritional status, school health program

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130 Stress and Marital Satisfaction of Parents to Children Diagnosed with Autism

Authors: Oren Shtayermman

Abstract:

The current investigation expended on research among parents caring for a child who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An online web survey was used to collect data from 253 parents caring for a child with a diagnosis of ASD. Both parents reported on elevated levels of parental stress associated with caring for the child on the spectrum. In addition, lower levels of marital satisfaction were found in both parents. About 13% of the parents in the sample met the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and About 15% of the parents met the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Although the majority of the sample was females (94%) significant differences were found between males and females in relation to meeting the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder and for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Higher levels of stress were associated with higher number of Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms and higher number of Major Depressive Disorder symptoms. Findings from this study indicate how vulnerable parents and especially females are in relation to caring to a child diagnosed with ASD. Educational Objectives: At the conclusion of the paper, the readers should be able to: -Identify levels of stress and marital satisfaction among parents caring for a child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, -Recognize the impact of stress on the development of mental health issues, -Name the two most common mood and anxiety related disorders associated with caring for a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Keywords: Children, autism, stress, Parents

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129 Realistic Study Discover Some Posture Deformities According to Some Biomechanical Variables for Schoolchildren

Authors: Basman Abdul Jabbar

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The researchers aimed to improve the importance of the good posture without any divisions & deformities. The importance of research lied in the discovery posture deformities early so easily treated before its transformation into advanced abnormalities difficult to treat and may need surgical intervention. Research problem was noting that some previous studies were based on the discovery of posture deformities, which was dependent on the (self-evaluation) which this type did not have accuracy to discover deformities. The Samples were (500) schoolchildren aged (9-11 years, males) at Baghdad al Karak. They were students at primary schools. The measure included all posture deformities. The researcher used video camera to analyze the posture deformities according to biomechanical variables by Kinovea software for motion analysis. The researcher recommended the need to use accurate scientific methods for early detection of posture deformities in children which contribute to the prevention and reduction of distortions.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Children, posture, deformities

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128 BECOME: Body Experience-Based Co-Operation between Juveniles through Mutually Excited Team Gameplay

Authors: Tsugunosuke Sakai, Haruya Tamaki, Ryuichi Yoshida, Ryohei Egusa, Etsuji Yamaguchi, Shigenori Inagaki, Fusako Kusunoki, Miki Namatame, Masanori Sugimoto, Hiroshi Mizoguchi

Abstract:

We aim to develop a full-body interaction game that could let children cooperate and interact with other children in small groups. As the first step for our aim, the objective of the full-body interaction game developed in this study is to make interaction between children. The game requires two children to jump together with the same timing. We let children experience the game and answer the questionnaires. The children using several strategies to coordinate the timing of their jumps were observed. These included shouting time, watching each other, and jumping in a constant rhythm as if they were skipping rope. In this manner, we observed the children playing the game while cooperating with each other. The results of a questionnaire to evaluate the proposed interactive game indicate that the jumping game was a very enjoyable experience in which the participants could immerse themselves. Therefore, the game enabled children to experience cooperation with others by using body movements.

Keywords: Children, cooperation, Kinect sensor, full-body interaction game

Procedia PDF Downloads 157