Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Child Development Related Abstracts

8 Construction of an Assessment Tool for Early Childhood Development in the World of DiscoveryTM Curriculum

Authors: Divya Palaniappan


Early Childhood assessment tools must measure the quality and the appropriateness of a curriculum with respect to culture and age of the children. Preschool assessment tools lack psychometric properties and were developed to measure only few areas of development such as specific skills in music, art and adaptive behavior. Existing preschool assessment tools in India are predominantly informal and are fraught with judgmental bias of observers. The World of Discovery TM curriculum focuses on accelerating the physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional development of pre-schoolers in India through various activities. The curriculum caters to every child irrespective of their dominant intelligence as per Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence which concluded "even students as young as four years old present quite distinctive sets and configurations of intelligences". The curriculum introduces a new theme every week where, concepts are explained through various activities so that children with different dominant intelligences could understand it. For example: The ‘Insects’ theme is explained through rhymes, craft and counting corner, and hence children with one of these dominant intelligences: Musical, bodily-kinesthetic and logical-mathematical could grasp the concept. The child’s progress is evaluated using an assessment tool that measures a cluster of inter-dependent developmental areas: physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional development, which for the first time renders a multi-domain approach. The assessment tool is a 5-point rating scale that measures these Developmental aspects: Cognitive, Language, Physical, Social and Emotional. Each activity strengthens one or more of the developmental aspects. During cognitive corner, the child’s perceptual reasoning, pre-math abilities, hand-eye co-ordination and fine motor skills could be observed and evaluated. The tool differs from traditional assessment methodologies by providing a framework that allows teachers to assess a child’s continuous development with respect to specific activities in real time objectively. A pilot study of the tool was done with a sample data of 100 children in the age group 2.5 to 3.5 years. The data was collected over a period of 3 months across 10 centers in Chennai, India, scored by the class teacher once a week. The teachers were trained by psychologists on age-appropriate developmental milestones to minimize observer’s bias. The norms were calculated from the mean and standard deviation of the observed data. The results indicated high internal consistency among parameters and that cognitive development improved with physical development. A significant positive relationship between physical and cognitive development has been observed among children in a study conducted by Sibley and Etnier. In Children, the ‘Comprehension’ ability was found to be greater than ‘Reasoning’ and pre-math abilities as indicated by the preoperational stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. The average scores of various parameters obtained through the tool corroborates the psychological theories on child development, offering strong face validity. The study provides a comprehensive mechanism to assess a child’s development and differentiate high performers from the rest. Based on the average scores, the difficulty level of activities could be increased or decreased to nurture the development of pre-schoolers and also appropriate teaching methodologies could be devised.

Keywords: Child Development, Early Childhood Curriculum, early childhood assessment, quantitative assessment of preschool curriculum

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7 A Change in Psychological Child Development Case Study on Animation Film Tom and Jerry

Authors: Shani Ruri Efendi, Lucky Tio Monika, Prita Esita


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to know the negative impact of the animated film show Tom & Jerry, how it might affect the changes of psychological child development, if this affects the development growth of children's behaviour and advice from the case of psychology as a solution to such problems Design/methodology/approach: The paper’s findings are based on an experimental method in conducting the test. The experiment lasted for 6 days at elementary school children aged from 6-7 years. Findings: The results of the analysis can be found that pictorial questionnaire which is one of the test tools in the study had no significant effect and also using IQ test is one test tool in the study of positive and significant influence of television has changed the way of thinking in children. Originality/value: This research tries to dig more into the negative influence of animated film Tom and Jerry as a negative influence on the development of children who may have the implementation of the child's behaviour in life.

Keywords: Child Development, animated film, Tom and Jerry, elementary school children

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6 Effects of Paternity: A Comparative Study to Analyze the Organization's Support in the Psychological Development of Children in India and USA

Authors: Aayushi Dalal


It is the mother who bears the child in her womb for 9 months. It is typically rooted in the Indian culture that it is solely the responsibility of women to take care of the children and as a result the gender roles are stereotyped. Instead of a 50-50 partnership in parenting the child, it is hackneyed that men take the responsibility of the bread earner while women nurture the children by staying at home. Thus, mothers are considered to be more psychologically connected to the children than fathers. But the current society is observing role dilution of parents which can create a gap in understanding from the organization’s perspective. This is the basis of the study. The emergence of women into the job market has forever changed how society views the traditional roles of fathers and mothers. Feminism and financial power has reformed the classic parenting model. This has given rise to a more open and flexible society consequently emphasizing the father's importance in the emotional well being of the child while also being capable caretakers and disciplinarians. This study focuses on analyzing the comparative differences of the father's role in the psychological development of the child in India and USA while taking into consideration the organization’s support towards them. A sample size of 150 fathers- 75 from India and 75 from USA was selected and a structured survey was carried out which had several open ended as well as closed ended questions probing to the issue. It was made sure that the environmental factors had as minimal effect as possible on the subjects. The findings of this research would materialize a framework for fathers to understand the magnitude of their role in their child's upbringing. This would not only ameliorate the "father-child" relationship but also make organization more sympathetic towards their employees.

Keywords: Psychology, Child Development, Gender Role, paternity, organization policy

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5 Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Cognitive Development: Preliminary Analyses of a 12-Month Follow-Up

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy


Introduction: Over the last decade, researchers have implemented attachment-based interventions to promote parental interactive sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families. In the context of the present study, these interventions have been shown to be effective to enhance cognitive development when child outcome was measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child cognitive development one year post-intervention. Methods: Thirty-five mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, were included in this study: 21 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 14 dyads not exposed to the intervention and matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex and family status. Child cognitive development was measured using the WPPSI-IV, 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children was 54 months old. Findings: An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the scores obtained on the WPPSI-IV for the two groups. In general, no differences were observed between the two groups. There was a significant difference on the fluid reasoning scale between children exposed to the intervention (M = 95,13, SD = 16,67) and children not exposed (M = 81, SD = 9,90). T (23) = -2,657; p= .014 (IC :-25.13;3.12). This difference was found only for children aged between 48 and 92 months old. Other results did not show any significant difference between the two groups (Global IQ or subscales). Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggest that relatively little effects of attachment-based intervention remain on the level of cognitive functioning 12-months post-intervention. It is possible that the significant findings concerning fluid reasoning may be pertinent in that fluid reasoning is linked to the capacity to analyse, to solve problems, and remember information, which may be important for promoting school readiness. As the study is completed and as more information is gained from other assessments of cognitive and socioemotional outcome, a clearer picture of the potential moderate-term impact of attachment-based intervention will emerge.

Keywords: Child Development, Cognitive development, attachment-based intervention, child protective services

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4 Factors Influencing Paternal Involvement in Childcare: Empirical Evidence from Rural India

Authors: Anu Jose, Sapna Nair


By using the baseline data of a randomized cluster trial aiming to understand the effects of social, technological and business innovation on child development in two districts of Tamil Nadu, India, we examine the determinants of father involvement in childcare. While there is a growing literature on the role of fathers in child development and family systems, we particularly look at the effect of the attitude of mother and father towards father's involvement in childcare in rural South India. We find that father's own attitude and the mother's gatekeeping attitude significantly affect the father's behavior when other socio-economic characteristics of the parents are controlled. Further, the results are corroborated using different empirical models in which father involvement is conceptualized into three categories broadly; play, caretaking, and affection. We also examine the other socio-economic characteristics affecting paternal involvement using both quantitative and qualitative methods. For instance, child characteristics such as the age and birth order have a significant influence on the level of paternal involvement. That is, older the child, the more involved the father is and the father gets more involved in childcare of the second child as compared to the first child. The participants of the study included 1516 children of age 0 to 22 months from 1476 households. Results indicate that fathers of households where the mother and the father have less traditional attitude exhibit a higher level of involvement in childcare as opposed to parents having a more traditional attitude towards gender role in parenting. The results of this paper provide a major policy lesson aiming to improve paternal involvement in childcare.

Keywords: Gender, Child Development, father involvement, parent’s attitude towards paternal involvement

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3 Early Childhood Developmental Delay in 63 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Prevalence and Inequalities Estimated from National Health Surveys

Authors: Jesus D. Cortes Gil, Fernanda Ewerling, Leonardo Ferreira, Aluisio J. D. Barros


Background: The sustainable development goals call for inclusive, equitable, and quality learning opportunities for all. This is especially important for children, to ensure they all develop to their full potential. We studied the prevalence and inequalities of suspected delay in child development in 63 low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings: We used the early child development module from national health surveys, which covers four developmental domains (physical, social-emotional, learning, literacy-numeracy) and provides a combined indicator (early child development index, ECDI) of whether children are on track. We calculated the age-adjusted prevalence of suspected delay at the country level and stratifying by wealth, urban/rural residence, sex of the child, and maternal education. We also calculated measures of absolute and relative inequality. We studied 330.613 children from 63 countries. The prevalence of suspected delay for the ECDI ranged from 3% in Barbados to 67% in Chad. For all countries together, 25% of the children were suspected of developmental delay. At regional level, the prevalence of delay ranged from 10% in Europe and Central Asia to 42% in West and Central Africa. The literacy-numeracy domain was by far the most challenging, with the highest proportions of delay. We observed very large inequalities, and most markedly for the literacy-numeracy domain. Conclusions: To date, our study presents the most comprehensive analysis of child development using an instrument especially developed for national health surveys. With a quarter of the children globally suspected of developmental delay, we face an immense challenge. The multifactorial aspect of early child development and the large gaps we found only add to the challenge of not leaving these children behind.

Keywords: Child Development, Global health, inequalities, Equity

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2 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki


Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: Child Development, Wavelet Transform, synchrony, interpersonal coordination, prosociality

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1 How Did a Blind Child Begin Understanding Her “Blind Self”?: A Longitudinal Analysis Of Conversation between Her and Adults

Authors: Masahiro Nochi


This study explores the process in which a Japanese child with congenital blindness deepens understanding of the condition of being “unable to see” and develops the idea of “blind self,” despite having no direct experience of vision. The rehabilitation activities of a child with a congenital visual impairment that were video-recorded from 1 to 6 years old were analyzed qualitatively. The duration of the video was about 80 hours. The recordings were transcribed verbatim, and the episodes in which the child used the words related to the act of “looking” were extracted. Detailed transcripts were constructed referencing the notations of conversation analysis. Characteristics of interactions in those episodes were identified and compared longitudinally. Results showed that the child used the expression "look" under certain interaction patterns and her body expressions and interaction with adults developed in conjunction with the development of language use. Four stages were identified. At the age of 1, interactions involving “look” began to occur. The child said "Look" in the sequence: the child’s “Look,” an adult’s “I’m looking,” certain performances by the child, and the adult’s words of praise. At the age of 3, the child began to behave in accordance with the spatial attributes of the act of "looking," such as turning her face to the adult’s voice before saying, “Look.” She also began to use the expression “Keep looking,” which seemed to reflect her understanding of the temporality of the act of “looking.” At the age of 4, the use of “Look” or “Keep looking” became three times more frequent. She also started to refer to the act of looking in the future, such as “Come and look at my puppy someday.” At the age of 5, she moved her hands toward the adults when she was holding something she wanted to show them. She seemed to understand that people could see the object more clearly when it was in close priximity. About that time, she began to say “I cannot see” to her mother, which suggested a heightened understanding of her own blindness. The findings indicate that as she grew up, the child came to utilize nonverbal behavior before and after the order "Look" to make the progress of the interaction with adults even more certain. As a result, actions that reflect the characteristics of the sighted person's visual experience were incorporated into the interaction chain. The purpose of "Look," with which she intended to attract the adult's attention at first, changed and became something that requests a confirmation she was unable to make herself. It is considered that such a change in the use of the word as well as interaction with sighted adults reflected her heightened self-awareness as someone who could not do what sighted people could do easily. A blind child can gradually deepen their understanding of their own characteristics of blindness among sighted people around them. The child can also develop “blind self” by learning how to interact with others even without direct visual experiences.

Keywords: Child Development, Conversation Analysis, self-concept, blindness

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