Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

chickpea Related Abstracts

17 Determination of Some Agricultural Characters of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes

Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Ali Kahraman, Hasan Dalgıç

Abstract:

This research was made during the 2011 and 2012 growing periods according to “Randomized Blocks Design” with 3 replications. Research material was the following chickpea genotype: CA119, CA128, CA149, CA150, CA222, CA250, CA254 and other 2 commercial varieties named as Gökçe and Yaşa. Some agronomical characteristics such as plant height (cm), number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, number of seed per plant, 1000 seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Statistically significant variations were found amongst the genotypes for all variables except seeds per pod. Means of the two years showed the range for plant height was from 52.83 cm (Gökçe) to 73.00 cm (CA150), number of pod per plant was from 14.00 (CA149) to 26.83 (CA261), number of seed per pod was from 1.10 (Gökçe) to 1.19 (CA149 ve CA250), number of seed per plant was from 16.28 (CA149) to 31.65 (CA261), 1000 seed weight was from 295.85 g (CA149) to 437.80 g (CA261) and seed yield was from 1342.73 kg ha-1 (CA261) to 2161.50 kg ha-1 (CA128). Results of the research implicated that the new developed lines were superior compared with the control (commercial) varieties by means of most of the characteristics.

Keywords: agricultural characters, chickpea, seed yield, genotype variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
16 Effects of Some Legume Flours and Gums on Some Properties of Turkish Noodle

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nermin Bilgiçli, Tayyibe Erten, Perihan Kübra Çiçek

Abstract:

In this research, different wheat-legume flour blends were used in Turkish noodle preparation with the aid of some gums (xanthan and guar). Chickpea, common bean and soy flours were used in noodle formulation at 20% level with and without gum (1%) addition. Some physical, chemical and sensory properties of noodles were determined. Water uptake, volume increase and cooking loss values of the noodles changed between 92.03-116.37%, 125.0-187.23% and 4.88-8.10%, respectively. Xanthan or guar gam addition decreased cooking loss values of legume fortified noodles. Both legume flour and gum addition significantly (p<0.05) affected the color values of the noodles. The lowest lightness (L*), redness (a*) and the highest yellowness (b*) values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. Protein and ash values of noodles ranged between 15.14 and 21.82%; 1.62 and 2.50%, respectively, and the highest values were obtained with soy flour usage in noodle formulation. As a result of sensory evaluation, noodles containing chickpea flour and guar gum were rated with higher taste, odor, appearance and texture scores compared to other noodle samples.

Keywords: chickpea, common bean, soy, noodle, legume, gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
15 Effect of Different Weed Management Strategies in Chickpea Yield

Authors: Ijaz Ahmed Khan, Zaheen Ullah, Rahamdad, Gul Hassan

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Ahmad Wala, Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province during rabi season of 2010-011 to study the effect of different weed management practices on weed control in chickpea under field conditions. The results revealed that treatments showed significant influence on weed density, seed yield kg ha-1 and other growth parameters. Significantly lower weed density (98 m-2) was recorded with the application of Isoproturon 500 EW as compared to control plots having 368.3 weeds m-2. Moreover, significantly highest seed yield (1583.3 kg ha-1) was produced in the plots assigned with Isoproturon 500 EW followed by Eucalyptus extract that produce seed yield of 1416.7 kg ha-1. It was concluded from the study that Isoproturon 500 EW is the best option for controlling weeds and increase the seed yield kg ha-1 of chickpea.

Keywords: Herbicides, Weed control, chickpea, weeds extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
14 Study of Some Epidemiological Factors Influencing the Disease Incidence in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Muhammad Asim Nazir

Abstract:

The investigations reported in this manuscript were carried on the screening of one hundred and seventy-eight chickpea germplasm lines/cultivars against wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. The screening was conducted in vivo (field) conditions. The field screening was accompanied with the study of some epidemiological factors affecting the occurrence and severity of the disease. Among the epidemiological factors maximum temperature range (28-40°C), minimum temperature range (12-24°C), relative humidity (19-44%), soil temperature (26-41°C) and soil moisture range (19-34°C) was studied for affecting the disease incidence/severity. The results revealed that air temperature was positively correlated with diseases. Soil temperature data revealed that in all cultivars disease incidence was maximum as 39°C. Most of the plants show 40-50% disease incidence. Disease incidence decreased at 33.5°C. The result of correlation of relative humidity of air and wilt incidence revealed that all cultivars/lines were negatively correlated with relative humidity. With increasing relative humidity wilt incidence decreased and vice versa.

Keywords: Disease, Screening, chickpea, epidemiological

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
13 Role of Salicylic Acid in Alleviating Chromium Toxicity in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)

Authors: Ghulam Hassan Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Ghazala Akhtar, M.Anwar-ul-Haq

Abstract:

Heavy metals are significant pollutants in environment and their toxicity is a problem for survival of living things while salicylic acid (SA) is signaling and ubiquitous bioactive molecule that regulates cellular mechanism in plants under stress condition. Therefore, exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) under chromium stress in two chickpea varieties were investigated in hydroponic experiment with five treatments comprising of control, 5 µM Cr + 5 mM SA, 5µM Cr + 10 mM SA, 10µM Cr + 5 mM SA, and 10µM Cr + 10 mM SA. Results revealed that treatments of plants with 10 mM SA application under both 5 µM Cr and 10 µM Cr stress resulted in maximum improvement in plant morphological attributes (root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, membrane stability index and relative water contents) relative to 5 mM SA application in both chickpea varieties. Results regarding Cr concentration showed that Cr was more retained in roots followed by shoots and maximum reduction in Cr uptake was observed at 10 mM SA application. Chickpea variety BRC-61 showed maximum growth and least concentration of Cr in root and shoot relative to BRC-390 variety.

Keywords: Growth, Chromium, chickpea, salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
12 Studies on Tolerance of Chickpea to Some Pre and Post Emergence Herbicides

Authors: Rahamdad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

In modern agriculture the herbicides application are considered the most effective and fast in action against all types of weeds. But it’s a fact that the herbicide applicator cannot totally secure the crop plants from the possible herbicide injuries that further leads to several destructive changes in plant biochemistry. For the purpose pots studies were undertaken to test the tolerance order of chickpea against pre- emergence herbicides (Stomp 330 EC- Dual Gold 960 EC) and post- emergence herbicides (Topik 15 WP- Puma Super 75 EW- Isoproturon 500 EW) during 2012-13 and 2013-14. The experimental design was CRD with three replications. Plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, nodulation, seed protein contents and other growth related parameters in chickpea were examined during the investigations. The results indicate that all the enquire herbicides gave a significant variation to all recorded parameter of chick pea except nodule fresh and dray weight. Moreover the toxic effect of pre-emergence herbicide on chickpea was found higher as compared to post-emergence herbicides. Minimum chickpea plant height (50.50 cm), number of nodule plant-1 (17.83) and lowest seed protein (14.13 %) was recorded in Stomp 330 EC. Similarly the outmost seeds plant-1 (29.66) and number of nodule plant-1 (21) were found for Puma Super 75 EW. The results further showed that the highest seed protein content (21.75 and 21.15 %) was recorded for control/ untreated and Puma Super 75EW. Taking under concentration the possible negative impact of the herbicides the chemical application must be minimized up to certain extent at which the crop is mostly secure. However chemical weed control has many advantages so we should train our farmer regarding the proper use of agro chemical to minimize the loses in crops while using herbicides.

Keywords: Protein, Herbicides, chickpea, weed, stomp 330 EC

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
11 Economic of Chickpea Cultivars as Influenced by Sowing Time and Seed Rate

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Parveen Kumar, Indu Bala Sethi, Meena Sewhag

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted at Pulse Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi 2012-13 to study the economics of chickpea cultivars as influenced by sowing time and seed rate on sandy loam soils under irrigated conditions. The factorial experiment consisting of 24 treatment combinations with two sowing time (1st fortnight of November and 1st fortnight of December.) and four cultivars (H09-23, H08-18, C-235 and HC-1) kept in main plots while three seed rates viz. 40 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The crop was sown with common row spacing of 30 cm as per the dates of sowing. The fertilizer was applied in the form of di- ammonium phosphate. The soil of the experimental site was deep sandy loam having pH of 7.9, EC of 0.13 dS/m and low in organic carbon (0.34%), low in available N status (193.36 kg ha-1), medium in available P2O5 (32.18 kg ha-1) and high in available K2O (249.67 kg ha-1). The crop was irrigated as and when required so as to maintain adequate soil moisture in the root zone The crop was sprayed with monocrotophos (1.25 l/ha) at initiation of flowering and at pod filling stage to protect the crop from pod borer attack. The yield was measured at the time of harvest. The cost of field preparation, sowing of seeds, thinning, weeding, plant protection, harvesting and cleaning contributed to fixed cost. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with two sowing time (1st fortnight of November and 1st fortnight of December.) and four cultivars (H09-23, H08-18, C-235 and HC-1) kept in main plots while three seed rates viz. 40 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1 and 60 kg ha-1 were kept in subplots and replicated thrice. Results revealed that 1st fortnight of November sowing recorded significantly higher gross (Rs.1, 01,254 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 68,504 ha-1) and BC (3.09) ratio as compared to delayed crop of chickpea. Highest gross (Rs.91826 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 59076ha-1) and BC ratio (2.81) was recorded with H08-18. Higher value of cost of cultivation of chickpea was observed in higher seed rate than the lower ones. However no significant variation in net and gross returns was observed due to seed rates. Highest BC (2.72) ratio was recorded with 50 kg ha-1 which differs significantly from 60 kg ha-1 but was at par with 40 kg ha-1. This is because of higher grain yield obtained with 50 kg ha-1 seed rate. Net profit for farmers growing chickpea with seed rate of 50 kg ha-1 was higher than the farmers growing chickpea with seed rate of 40 and 60 kg ha.

Keywords: chickpea, sowing time, cultivars, seed rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
10 Salinity Response of Some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes in Germination and Seedling Growth of Periods

Authors: Ercan Ceyhan, Onder Aldemir

Abstract:

The research was conducted to determine effects of salt concentrations on emergence and seedling development of chickpea genotypes. Trials were performed during the year of 2013 on the laboratory and greenhouse of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University. Emergency trial was set up according to ‘Randomized Plots Design’ by two factors and four replications; greenhouse trial was also set up according to ‘Randomized Plots Design’ by two factors with three replications. The chickpea genotypes; CA119, CA132, CA149, CA150, CA215, CA222, CA235, CA261, Bozkır and Gokce were used as material for both of the trials. Effects of the five doses of salt concentrations (control, 30 mM, 60 mM, 90 mM and 120 mM) on the ratio of emergency, speed of emergency, average time for emergency, index of sensibility, length of shoot and root, fresh weight of shoot and root, dry weight of shoot and root, index of salt tolerance were evaluated. Responses of the chickpea genotypes for salt concentrations were found different. Comparing to the control, all of the investigated characteristics on the chickpea genotypes showed significant reduction by depending on the increasing salt level. According to the effects of salt application, the chickpea genotypes Gokce, CA215 and CA222 were the most tolerant in respect to plant dry weights while the chickpea genotypes CA149 and CA150 were the most sensitive.

Keywords: Emergence, chickpea, salt tolerant, seedling development

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
9 Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages

Authors: M. Farsi, Ali. Marjani, M. Rahimizadeh

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Keywords: Tolerance, chickpea, growth stage, drought stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
8 Developing Drought and Heat Stress Tolerant Chickpea Genotypes

Authors: Derya Yucel, Nigar Angın, Dürdane Mart, Meltem Turkeri, Volkan Catalkaya, Celal Yucel

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with high protein content is a vital food, especially in under-developed and developing countries for the people who do not consume enough meat due to low-income level. The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate growing, yield and yield components of chickpea genotypes under Mediterranean condition so determine tolerance of chickpea genotypes against drought and heat stress. For this purpose, a total of 34 chickpea genotypes were used as material. The experiment was conducted according to factorial randomized complete block design with 3 reps at the Eastern Mediterranean Research Institute, Adana, TURKEY for 2014-15 growing season under three different growing conditions (Winter sowing, irrigated-late sowing and non-irrigated- late sowing). According to results of this experiment, vegetative period, flowering time, poding time, maturity time, plant height, height of first pod, seed yield and 100 seed weight were ranged between 68.33 to 78.77 days, 94.22 to 85.00 days, 94.11 to 106.44 days, 198.56 to 214.44 days, 37.18 to 64.89 cm, 18.33 to 34.83 cm, 417.1 to 1746.4 kg/ha and 14.02 to 45.02 g, respectively. Among the chickpea genotypes, the Aksu, Arda, Çakır, F4 09 (X 05 TH 21-16189), FLIP 03-108 were least affected by drought and heat stress. Therefore, these genotypes can be used as sources of drought and heat tolerance in further breeding programme for evolving the drought and heat tolerant genotypes in chickpea.

Keywords: Yield, Heat Stress, chickpea, drought stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
7 Distribution, Seasonal Phenology and Infestation Dispersal of the Chickpea Leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Diptera: Agromizidae) on Two Winter and Spring Chickpea Varieties

Authors: Abir Soltani, Moez Amri, Jouda Mediouni Ben Jemâa

Abstract:

In North Africa, the chickpea leafminer Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani) (Diptera: Agromizidae) is one of the major damaging pests affecting both spring and winter-planted chickpea. Damage is caused by the larvae which feed in the leaf mesophyll tissue, resulting in desiccation and premature leaf fall that can cause severe yield losses. In the present work, the distribution and the seasonal phenology of L. cicerina were studied on two chickpea varieties; a winter variety Beja 1 which is the most cultivated variety in Tunisia and a spring-sown variety Amdoun 1. The experiment was conducted during the cropping season 2015-2016. In the experimental research station Oued Beja, in the Beja region (36°44’N; 9°13’E). To determine the distribution and seasonal phenology of L. cicerina in both studied varieties Beja 1 and Amdoun 1, respectively 100 leave samples (50 from the top and 50 from the base) were collected from 10 chickpea plants randomly chosen from each field. The sampling was done during three development stages (i) 20-25 days before flowering (BFL), (ii) at flowering (FL) and (ii) at pod setting stage (PS). For each plant, leaves were checked from the base till the upper ones for the insect infestation progress into the plant in correlation with chickpea growth Stages. Fly adult populations were monitored using 8 yellow sticky traps together with weekly leaves sampling in each field. The traps were placed 70 cm above ground. Trap catches were collected once a week over the cropping season period. Results showed that L. cicerina distribution varied among both studied chickpea varieties and crop development stage all with seasonal phenology. For the winter chickpea variety Beja 1, infestation levels of 2%, 10.3% and 20.3% were recorded on the bases plant part for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively against 0%, 8.1% and 45.8% recorded for the upper plant part leaves for the same stages respectively. For the spring-sown variety Amdoun 1 the infestation level reached 71.5% during flowering stage. Population dynamic study revealed that for Beja 1 variety, L. cicerina accomplished three annual generations over the cropping season period with the third one being the most important with a capture level of 85 adult/trap by mid-May against a capture level of 139 adult/trap at the end May recorded for cv. Amdoun 1. Also, results showed that L. cicerina field infestation dispersal depends on the field part and on the crop growth stage. The border areas plants were more infested than the plants placed inside the plots. For cv. Beja 1, border areas infestations were 11%, 28% and 91.2% for BFL, FL and PS stages respectively, against 2%, 10.73% and 69.2% recorded on the on the inside plot plants during the for the same growth stages respectively. For the cv. Amdoun1 infestation level of 90% was observed on the border plants at FL and PS stages against an infestation level less than 65% recorded inside the plot.

Keywords: Distribution, chickpea, Tunisia, leaf miner, liriomyza cicerina, seasonal phenology

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
6 Effect of Four Medicinal Plant Extracts on Chickpea Leaf Miner Liriomyza cicerina (Rondani)

Authors: Sabraoui Abdelhadi, El Bouhssini Mustapha, Lhaloui Saadia, El Fakhouri Karim, Bouchelta Aziz

Abstract:

The surveys carried out in 2014, 2015 in the regions of Abda- Doukala, Chaouia- Ouardigha, Zemour- Zair and Fes- Sais have confirmed that the leaf miner was the main insect pest attacking chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Morocco. The grain yield losses caused by this pest could be more than 20% for winter planting and more than 42% for spring-sown crop. To reduce the chickpea leaf miner infestations, four essential oils, as biopesticide alternatives, were tested for their insecticidal effect on L. ciccerina, adults and larvae under laboratory conditions. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of these essential oils with and without adjuvant against this pest in comparison to three insecticides under field conditions. Mentha pulegium, with a dose of 33 µl/l of air caused 100% mortality on adults and larvae, after three hours and six hours of exposure, respectively. Eucalyptus showed 100% mortality on adults and larvae, with doses of 33 and 83 µl/l, after six and three hours of exposure, respectively. In the field conditions M. pulegium and E. globulus with adjuvant showed promising results compared with Abamectin, Azadirachtin and Spinetoram respectively. Essential oils could be used as one of the IPM components for the control of chickpea leaf miner.

Keywords: essential oils, chickpea, Morocco, insecticidal activity, liriomyza cicerina

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
5 Insecticidal Effect of Nanoparticles against Helicoverpa armigera Infesting Chickpea

Authors: Shabistana Nisar, Parvez Qamar Rizvi, Sheeraz Malik

Abstract:

The potential advantage of nanotechnology is comparably marginal due to its unclear benefits in agriculture and insufficiency in public opinion. The nanotech products might solve the pesticide problems of societal concern fairly at acceptable or low risk for consumers and environmental applications. The deleterious effect of chemicals used on crops can be compacted either by reducing the existing active ingredient to nanosize or by plummeting the metals into nanoform. Considering the above facts, an attempt was made to determine the efficacy of nanoelements viz., Silver, Copper Manganese and Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) for effective management of gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera infesting chickpea, being the most damaging pest of large number of crops, gram pod borer was selected as test insect to ascertain the impact of nanoparticles under controlled conditions (25-27 ˚C, 60-80% RH). The respective nanoformulations (0.01, 0.005, 0.003, 0.0025, 0.002, 0.001) were topically applied on 4th instar larvae of pod borer. In general, nanochemicals (silver, copper, manganese, NSKE) produced relatively high mortality at low dilutions (0.01, 0.005, 0.003). The least mortality was however recorded at 0.001 concentration. Nanosilver proved most efficient producing significantly highest (f₄,₂₄=129.56, p < 0.05) mortality 63.13±1.77, 83.21±2.02 and 96.10±1.25 % at 0.01 concentration after 2nd, 4th and 6th day, respectively. The least mortality was however recorded with nanoNSKE. The mortality values obtained at respective days were 21.25±1.50%, 25.20±2.00%, and 56.20±2.25%. Nanocopper and nanomanganese showed slow rate of killing on 2nd day of exposure, but increased (79.20±3.25 and 65.33±1.25) at 0.01 dilution on 3rd day, followed by 83.00±3.50% and 70.20±2.20% mortality on 6thday. The sluggishness coupled with antifeedancy was noticed at early stage of exposure. The change in body colour to brown due to additional melanisation in copper, manganese, and silver treated larvae and demalinization in nanoNSKE exposed larvae was observed at later stage of treatment. Thus, all the nanochemicals applied, produced the significant lethal impact on Helicoverpa armigera and can be used as valuable tool for its effective management.

Keywords: Management, Nanoparticles, chickpea, helicoverpa armigera

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4 Effect of Irrigation Regime and Plant Density on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Yield in a Semi-Arid Environment

Authors: Atif Naim, Faisal E. Ahmed, Sershen

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive winter seasons at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan, to study effects of different levels of irrigation regime and plant density on yield of introduced small seeded (desi type) chickpea cultivar (ILC 482). The experiment was laid out in a 3X3 factorial split-plot design with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of three irrigation regimes (designated as follows: I1 = optimum irrigation, I2 = moderate stress and I3 = severe stress; this corresponded with irrigation after drainage of 50%, 75% and 100% of available water based on 70%, 60% and 50% of field capacity, respectively) assigned as main plots and three plant densities (D₁=20, D₂= 40 and D₃= 60 plants/m²) assigned as subplots. The results indicated that the yield components (number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight), seed yield per plant, harvest index and yield per unit area of chickpea were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by irrigation regime. Decreasing irrigation regime significantly (p < 0.05) decreased all measured parameters. Alternatively, increasing plant density significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the number of pods and seed yield per plant and increased seed yield per unit area. While number of seeds per pod and harvest index were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by plant density. Interaction between irrigation regime and plant density was also significantly (p < 0.05) affected all measured parameters of yield, except for harvest index. It could be concluded that the best irrigation regime was full irrigation (after drainage of 50% available water at 70% field capacity) and the optimal plant density was 20 plants/m² under conditions of semi-arid regions.

Keywords: chickpea, plant density, irrigation regime, Cicer arietinum

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
3 Enhanced Iron Accumulation in Chickpea Though Expression of Iron-Regulated Transport and Ferritin Genes

Authors: T. M. L. Hoang, G. Tan, S. D. Bhowmik, B. Williams, A. Johnson, M. R. Karbaschi, Y. Cheng, H. Long, S. G. Mundree

Abstract:

Iron deficiency is a worldwide problem affecting both developed and developing countries. Currently, two major approaches namely iron supplementation and food fortification have been used to combat this issue. These measures, however, are limited by the economic status of the targeted demographics. Iron biofortification through genetic modification to enhance the inherent iron content and bioavailability of crops has been employed recently. Several important crops such as rice, wheat, and banana were reported successfully improved iron content via this method, but there is no known study in legumes. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important leguminous crop that is widely consumed, particularly in India where iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent. Chickpea is also an ideal pulse in the formulation of complementary food between pulses and cereals to improve micronutrient contents. This project aims at generating enhanced ion accumulation and bioavailability chickpea through the exogenous expression of genes related to iron transport and iron homeostasis in chickpea plants. Iron-Regulated Transport (IRT) and Ferritin genes in combination were transformed into chickpea half-embryonic axis by agrobacterium–mediated transformation. Transgenic independent event was confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. T3 leaves and seeds of transgenic chickpea were assessed for iron contents using LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry). The correlation between transgene expression levels and iron content in T3 plants and seeds was assessed using qPCR. Results show that iron content in transgenic chickpea expressing the above genes significantly increased compared to that in non-transgenic controls.

Keywords: chickpea, ferritin, ICP-OES, IRT, iron biofortification, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, LA-ICP-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2 Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Cicer arietinum Heavy Metal Toxicity

Authors: S. Srivastava, A. Mani, B. S. Yadav

Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual, self-pollinating, diploid (2n = 2x = 16) pulse crop that ranks second in world legume production after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). ICC 4958 flowers approximately 39 days after sowing under peninsular Indian conditions and the crop matures in less than 90 days in rained environments. The estimated collective yield losses due to abiotic stresses (6.4 million t) have been significantly higher than for biotic stresses (4.8 million t). Most legumes are known to be salt sensitive, and therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to produce cultivars tolerant to high-salinity in addition to other abiotic and biotic stresses for sustainable chickpea production. Our aim was to identify the genes that are involved in the defence mechanism against heavy metal toxicity in chickpea and establish the biological network of heavy metal toxicity in chickpea. ICC4958 variety of chick pea was taken and grown in normal condition and 150µM concentration of different heavy metal salt like CdCl₂, K₂Cr2O₇, NaAsO₂. At 15th day leave samples were collected and stored in RNA Later solution microarray was performed for checking out differential gene expression pattern. Our studies revealed that 111 common genes that involved in defense mechanism were up regulated and 41 genes were commonly down regulated during treatment of 150µM concentration of CdCl₂, K₂Cr₂O₇, and NaAsO₂. Biological network study shows that the genes which are differentially expressed are highly connected and having high betweenness and centrality.

Keywords: Abiotic Stress, biological network, Microarray, chickpea

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Renu Yadav

Abstract:

In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Heat Stress, Priming, chickpea, RT-PCR, combinatorial stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 25