Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Chemical Treatment Related Abstracts

7 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah


Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Chemical Treatment, thin film, Cd1−xZnxS, depth profile, RBS, RUMP simulation, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

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6 An Experimental Investigation of Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (Ceor) for Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs, Case Study: Kais Formation on Wakamuk Field

Authors: Jackson Andreas Theo Pola, Leksono Mucharam, Hari Oetomo, Budi Susanto, Wisnu Nugraha


About half of the world oil reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs, where 65% of the total carbonate reservoirs are oil wet and 12% intermediate wet [1]. Oil recovery in oil wet or mixed wet carbonate reservoirs can be increased by dissolving surfactant to injected water to change the rock wettability from oil wet to more water wet. The Wakamuk Field operated by PetroChina International (Bermuda) Ltd. and PT. Pertamina EP in Papua, produces from main reservoir of Miocene Kais Limestone. First production commenced on August, 2004 and the peak field production of 1456 BOPD occurred in August, 2010. It was found that is a complex reservoir system and until 2014 cumulative oil production was 2.07 MMBO, less than 9% of OOIP. This performance is indicative of presence of secondary porosity, other than matrix porosity which is of low average porosity 13% and permeability less than 7 mD. Implementing chemical EOR in this case is the best way to increase oil production. However, the selected chemical must be able to lower the interfacial tension (IFT), reduce oil viscosity, and alter the wettability; thus a special chemical treatment named SeMAR has been proposed. Numerous laboratory tests such as phase behavior test, core compatibility test, mixture viscosity, contact angle measurement, IFT, imbibitions test and core flooding were conducted on Wakamuk field samples. Based on the spontaneous imbibitions results for Wakamuk field core, formulation of SeMAR with compositional S12A gave oil recovery 43.94% at 1wt% concentration and maximum percentage of oil recovery 87.3% at 3wt% concentration respectively. In addition, the results for first scenario of core flooding test gave oil recovery 60.32% at 1 wt% concentration S12A and the second scenario gave 96.78% of oil recovery at concentration 3 wt% respectively. The soaking time of chemicals has a significant effect on the recovery and higher chemical concentrations affect larger areas for wettability and therefore, higher oil recovery. The chemical that gives best overall results from laboratory tests study will also be a consideration for Huff and Puff injections trial (pilot project) for increasing oil recovery from Wakamuk Field

Keywords: viscosity, Oil Recovery, Chemical Treatment, Wakamuk field

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5 Use of Natural Fibers in Landfill Leachate Treatment

Authors: Araujo J. F. Marina, Araujo F. Marcus Vinicius, Mulinari R. Daniella


Due to the resultant leachate from waste decomposition in landfills has polluter potential hundred times greater than domestic sewage, this is considered a problem related to the depreciation of environment requiring pre-disposal treatment. In seeking to improve this situation, this project proposes the treatment of landfill leachate using natural fibers intercropped with advanced oxidation processes. The selected natural fibers were palm, coconut and banana fiber. These materials give sustainability to the project because, besides having adsorbent capacity, are often part of waste discarded. The study was conducted in laboratory scale. In trials, the effluents were characterized as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Turbidity and Color. The results indicate that is technically promising since that there were extremely oxidative conditions, the use of certain natural fibers in the reduction of pollutants in leachate have been obtained results of COD removals between 67.9% and 90.9%, Turbidity between 88.0% and 99.7% and Color between 67.4% and 90.4%. The expectation generated is to continue evaluating the association of efficiency of other natural fibers with other landfill leachate treatment processes.

Keywords: Natural Fibers, Advanced Oxidation Processes, Chemical Treatment, lndfill leachate

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4 Pretreatment of Cattail (Typha domingensis) Fibers to Obtain Cellulose Nanocrystals

Authors: Marivane Turim Koschevic, Maycon dos Santos, Marcello Lima Bertuci, Farayde Matta Fakhouri, Silvia Maria Martelli


Natural fibers are rich raw materials in cellulose and abundant in the world, its use for the cellulose nanocrystals extraction is promising as an example cited is the cattail, macrophyte native weed in South America. This study deals with the pre-treatment cattail of crushed fibers, at six different methods of mercerization, followed by the use of bleaching. As a result, have found The positive effects of treating fibers by means of optical microscopy and spectroscopy, Fourier transform (FTIR). The sample selected for future testing of cellulose nanocrystals extraction was treated in 2.5% NaOH for 2 h, 60 °C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2, NaOH 5% in the proportion 30/70% (v/v) for 1 hour 60 °C, followed by treatment at 50/50% (v/v) 15 minutes, 50°C, with the same constituents of the solution.

Keywords: Natural Fibers, Chemical Treatment, cellulose nanocrystal, mercerization

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3 Effect of Fibres-Chemical Treatment on the Thermal Properties of Natural Composites

Authors: J. S. S. Neto, R. A. A. Lima, D. K. K. Cavalcanti, J. P. B. Souza, R. A. A. Aguiar, M. D. Banea


In the last decade, investments in sustainable processes and products have gained space in several segments, such as in the civil, automobile, textile and other industries. In addition to increasing concern about the development of environmentally friendly materials that reduce, energy costs and reduces environmental impact in the production of these products, as well as reducing CO2 emissions. Natural fibers offer a great alternative to replace synthetic fibers, totally or partially, because of their low cost and their renewable source. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of surface chemical treatment on the thermal properties of hybrid fiber reinforced natural fibers (NFRC), jute + ramie, jute + sisal, jute + curauá, and jute fiber in polymer matrices. Two types of chemical treatment: alkalinization and silanization were employed, besides the condition without treatment. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) were performed to explore the thermal stability and weight loss in the natural fiber reinforced composite as a function of chemical treatment.

Keywords: Thermal, Chemical Treatment, jute, hybrid composite

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2 Mechanical Properties of Enset Fibers Obtained from Different Breeds of Enset Plant

Authors: Diriba T. Balcha, Boris Kulig, Oliver Hensel, Eyassu Woldesenbet


Enset fiber is agricultural waste and available in a surplus amount in Ethiopia. However, the hypothesized variation in properties of this fiber due to diversity of its plant source breed, fiber position within plant stem and chemical treatment duration had not proven that its application for the development of composite products is problematic. Currently, limited data are known on the functional properties of the fiber as a potential functional fiber. Thus, an effort is made in this study to narrow the knowledge gaps by characterizing it. The experimental design was conducted using Design-Expert software and the tensile test was conducted on Enset fiber from 10 breeds: Dego, Dirbo, Gishera, Itine, Siskela, Neciho, Yesherkinke, Tuzuma, Ankogena, and Kucharkia. The effects of 5% Na-OH surface treatment duration and fiber location along and across the plant pseudostem was also investigated. The test result shows that the rupture stress variation is not significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds. However, strain variation is significant among the fibers from 10 Enset breeds that breed Dego fiber has the highest strain before failure. Surface treated fibers showed improved rupture strength and elastic modulus per 24 hours of treatment duration. Also, the result showed that chemical treatment can deteriorate the load-bearing capacity of the fiber. The raw fiber has the higher load-bearing capacity than the treated fiber. And, it was noted that both the rupture stress and strain increase in the top to bottom gradient, whereas there is no significant variation across the stem. Elastic modulus variation both along and across the stem was insignificant. The rupture stress, elastic modulus, and strain result of Enset fiber are 360.11 ± 181.86 MPa, 12.80 ± 6.85 GPa and 0.04 ± 0.02 mm/mm, respectively. These results show that Enset fiber is comparable to other natural fibers such as abaca, banana, and sisal fibers and can be used as alternatives natural fiber for composites application. Besides, the insignificant variation of properties among breeds and across stem is essential for all breeds and all leaf sheath of the Enset fiber plant for fiber extraction. The use of short natural fiber over the long is preferable to reduce the significant variation of properties along the stem or fiber direction. In conclusion, Enset fiber application for composite product design and development is mechanically feasible.

Keywords: Natural Fiber, Agricultural waste, Chemical Treatment, Fiber characteristics

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1 Processing and Evaluation of Jute Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Authors: Mohammad W. Dewan, Jahangir Alam, Khurshida Sharmin


Synthetic fibers (carbon, glass, aramid, etc.) are generally utilized to make composite materials for better mechanical and thermal properties. However, they are expensive and non-biodegradable. In the perspective of Bangladesh, jute fibers are available, inexpensive, and comprising good mechanical properties. The improved properties (i.e., low cost, low density, eco-friendly) of natural fibers have made them a promising reinforcement in hybrid composites without sacrificing mechanical properties. In this study, jute and e-glass fiber reinforced hybrid composite materials are fabricated utilizing hand lay-up followed by a compression molding technique. Room temperature cured two-part epoxy resin is used as a matrix. Approximate 6-7 mm thick composite panels are fabricated utilizing 17 layers of woven glass and jute fibers with different fiber layering sequences- only jute, only glass, glass, and jute alternatively (g/j/g/j---) and 4 glass - 9 jute – 4 glass (4g-9j-4g). The fabricated composite panels are analyzed through fiber volume calculation, tensile test, bending test, and water absorption test. The hybridization of jute and glass fiber results in better tensile, bending, and water absorption properties than only jute fiber-reinforced composites, but inferior properties as compared to only glass fiber reinforced composites. Among different fiber layering sequences, 4g-9j-4g fibers layering sequence resulted in better tensile, bending, and water absorption properties. The effect of chemical treatment on the woven jute fiber and chopped glass microfiber infusion are also investigated in this study. Chemically treated jute fiber and 2 wt. % chopped glass microfiber infused hybrid composite shows about 12% improvements in flexural strength as compared to untreated and no micro-fiber infused hybrid composite panel. However, fiber chemical treatment and micro-filler do not have a significant effect on tensile strength.

Keywords: Hybrid Composites, Mechanical Properties, Chemical Treatment, Compression Molding

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