Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

chemical oxygen demand Related Abstracts

11 Comparison of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket and an Anaerobic Filter for Treating Wheat Straw Washwater

Authors: Syazwani Idrus, Sonia Heaven, S. Charles J. Banks


The study compared the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and anaerobic filters (AF) for the treatment of wheat straw washwater (WSW) which has a high concentration of Potassium ions. The trial was conducted at mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). The digesters were started up over a 48-day period using a synthetic wastewater feed and reached an organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 g COD L^-1 day^-1 with a specific methane production (SMP) of 0.333 L CH4 g^-1 COD. When the feed was switched to WSW it was not possible to maintain the same loading rate as the SMP in all reactors fell sharply to less than 0.1 L CH4 g^-1 COD, with the AF affected more than the UASB. On reducing the OLR to 3 g COD L^-1 day^-1 the reactors recovered to produce 0.21 L CH4 g^-1 CODadded and gave 82% COD removal. A discrepancy between the COD consumed and the methane produced could be accounted for through increased maintenance energy requirement of the microbial community for osmo-regulation as K+ was found to accumulate in the sludge and in the UASB reached a concentration of 4.5 mg K g^-1 wet weight of granules.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, specific methane production, osmotic stress, chemical oxygen demand

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10 Established Novel Approach for Chemical Oxygen Demand Concentrations Measurement Based Mach-Zehner Interferometer Sensor

Authors: Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, Hamzah Arof, Su Sin Chong


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) plays a vital role determination of an appropriate strategy for wastewater treatment including the control of the quality of an effluent. In this study, a new sensing method was introduced for the first time and developed to investigate chemical oxygen demand (COD) using a Mach-Zehner Interferometer (MZI)-based dye sensor. The sensor is constructed by bridging two single mode fibres (SMF1 and SMF2) with a short section (~20 mm) of multimode fibre (MMF) and was formed by tapering the MMF to generate evanescent field which is sensitive to perturbation of sensing medium. When the COD concentration increase takes effect will induce changes in output intensity and effective refractive index between the microfiber and the sensing medium. The adequacy of decisions based on COD values relies on the quality of the measurements. Therefore, the dual output response can be applied to the analytical procedure enhance measurement quality. This work presents a detailed assessment of the determination of COD values in synthetic wastewaters. Detailed models of the measurement performance, including sensitivity, reversibility, stability, and uncertainty were successfully validated by proficiency tests where supported on sound and objective criteria. Comparison of the standard method with the new proposed method was also conducted. This proposed sensor is compact, reliable and feasible to investigate the COD value.

Keywords: Online monitoring, environmental sensing, chemical oxygen demand, Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor

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9 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager


In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: wastewater, ultrafiltration, chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor

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8 Application of Hydrogen Peroxide and Polialuminum Chloride to Treat Palm Oil Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation

Authors: M. Nasrullah, Lakhveer Singh, Siti Norsita, A. W. Zulrisam, Mimi Sakinah


The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and hydrogen peroxide on COD removal by electrocoagulation. The current density was varied between 30-80 mA cm−2, polyaluminum chloride (1-3 g L-1) as coagulant aid and 1 and 2 percent of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent. It has been shown that 86.67% of COD was removed by the iron electrode in 180 min while 81.11% of COD was removed by the aluminum electrode in 210 min which indicate that iron was more effective than aluminum. As much as 88.25% COD was removed by using 80 mA cm−2 as compared to 72.86% by using 30 mA cm−2 in 240 min. When PAC and H2O2 increased, the percent of COD removal was increasing as well. The highest removal efficiency of 95.08% was achieved by adding 2% of H2O2 in addition of 3 g L−1 PAC. The general results demonstrate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve more than 70% COD removal in 180 min at current density 30-80 mAcm-2 depending on the concentration of H2O2 and coagulant aid.

Keywords: Hydrogen Peroxide, palm oil mill effluent, chemical oxygen demand, electrocaogulation, polialuminum chloride

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7 Mixotropohic Growth of Chlorella sp. on Raw Food Processing Industrial Wastewater: Effect of COD Tolerance

Authors: R. A. Pandey, Suvidha Gupta, Sanjay Pawar


The effluents from various food processing industries are found with high BOD, COD, suspended solids, nitrate, and phosphate. Mixotrophic growth of microalgae using food processing industrial wastewater as an organic carbon source has emerged as more effective and energy intensive means for the nutrient removal and COD reduction. The present study details the treatment of non-sterilized unfiltered food processing industrial wastewater by microalgae for nutrient removal as well as to determine the tolerance to COD by taking different dilutions of wastewater. In addition, the effect of different inoculum percentages of microalgae on removal efficiency of the nutrients for given dilution has been studied. To see the effect of dilution and COD tolerance, the wastewater having initial COD 5000 mg/L (±5), nitrate 28 mg/L (±10), and phosphate 24 mg/L (±10) was diluted to get COD of 3000 mg/L and 1000 mg/L. The experiments were carried out in 1L conical flask by intermittent aeration with different inoculum percentage i.e. 10%, 20%, and 30% of Chlorella sp. isolated from nearby area of NEERI, Nagpur. The experiments were conducted for 6 days by providing 12:12 light- dark period and determined various parameters such as COD, TOC, NO3-- N, PO4-- P, and total solids on daily basis. Results revealed that, for 10% and 20% inoculum, over 90% COD and TOC reduction was obtained with wastewater containing COD of 3000 mg/L whereas over 80% COD and TOC reduction was obtained with wastewater containing COD of 1000 mg/L. Moreover, microalgae was found to tolerate wastewater containing COD 5000 mg/L and obtained over 60% and 80% reduction in COD and TOC respectively. The obtained results were found similar with 10% and 20% inoculum in all COD dilutions whereas for 30% inoculum over 60% COD and 70% TOC reduction was obtained. In case of nutrient removal, over 70% nitrate removal and 45% phosphate removal was obtained with 20% inoculum in all dilutions. The obtained results indicated that Microalgae assisted nutrient removal gives maximum COD and TOC reduction with 3000 mg/L COD and 20% inoculum. Hence, microalgae assisted wastewater treatment is not only effective for removal of nutrients but also can tolerate high COD up to 5000 mg/L and solid content.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, Chlorella sp, food processing industrial wastewater, mixotrophic growth

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6 Zn-, Mg- and Ni-Al-NO₃ Layered Double Hydroxides Intercalated by Nitrate Anions for Treatment of Textile Wastewater

Authors: Fatima Zahra Mahjoubi, Abderrahim Khalidi, Noureddine Barka, Mohamed Abdennouri, Omar Cherkaoui


Industrial effluents are one of the major causes of environmental pollution, especially effluents discharged from various dyestuff manufactures, plastic, and paper making industries. These effluents can give rise to certain hazards and environmental problems for their highly colored suspended organic solid. Dye effluents are not only aesthetic pollutants, but coloration of water by the dyes may affect photochemical activities in aquatic systems by reducing light penetration. It has been also reported that several commonly used dyes are carcinogenic and mutagenic for aquatic organisms. Therefore, removing dyes from effluents is of significant importance. Many adsorbent materials have been prepared in the removal of dyes from wastewater, including anionic clay or layered double hydroxyde. The zinc/aluminium (Zn-AlNO₃), magnesium/aluminium (Mg-AlNO₃) and nickel/aluminium (Ni-AlNO₃) layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were successfully synthesized via coprecipitation method. Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA/DTA, TEM and pHPZC analysis. XRD patterns showed a basal spacing increase in the order of Zn-AlNO₃ (8.85Å)> Mg-AlNO₃ (7.95Å)> Ni-AlNO₃ (7.82Å). FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of nitrate anions in the LDHs interlayer. The TEM images indicated that the Zn-AlNO3 presents circular to shaped particles with an average particle size of approximately 30 to 40 nm. Small plates assigned to sheets with hexagonal form were observed in the case of Mg-AlNO₃. Ni-AlNO₃ display nanostructured sphere in diameter between 5 and 10 nm. The LDHs were used as adsorbents for the removal of methyl orange (MO), as a model dye and for the treatment of an effluent generated by a textile factory. Adsorption experiments for MO were carried out as function of solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration. Maximum adsorption was occurred at acidic solution pH. Kinetic data were tested using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The best fit was obtained with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data were correlated to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The best conditions for color and COD removal from textile effluent sample were obtained at lower values of pH. Total color removal was obtained with Mg-AlNO₃ and Ni-AlNO₃ LDHs. Reduction of COD to limits authorized by Moroccan standards was obtained with 0.5g/l LDHs dose.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, color removal, layered double hydroxides, textile wastewater treatment

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5 Treatment of High Concentration Cutting Fluid Wastewater by Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray, Kai-Shiang Chang


In recent years, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have been widely utilized as it can effectively replace conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is found to be more effective technology compared to other conventional activated sludge process and advanced membrane separation technique. Additionally, as far as the MBR is concerned, it is having excellent control of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) and conducive to the retention of high concentration of sludge biomass. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can effectively reduce footprint in terms of area and omit the secondary processing procedures in the conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Currently, as per the membrane technology, the ceramic membrane is found to have highly strong anti-acid-base properties, and it is more suitable than polymeric membrane while using for backwash and chemical cleaning. This study is based upon the treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater, as the Cutting Fluid is widely used in the cutting equipment. However, the Cutting Fluid wastewater is very difficult to treat. In this study, the ceramic membrane was used and combine with of MBR system to treat the Cutting Fluid wastewater. In this present study, different kind of chemical coagulants have been utilized for pretreatment purpose in order to get the supernatant and simultaneously this wastewater (supernatant) was treated by MBR process. Nevertheless, ceramic membrane has three advantages such as high mechanical strength, drug resistance and reuse. During the experiment, the backwash technique was used for every interval of 10 minutes in order to avoid fouling of the membrane. In this study, during pretreatment the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was found to be 71-86% and oil removal efficiency was analyzed to be 83-92%. This pretreatment study suggests that it is quiet effective methodology to reduce COD and oil concentration. Finally, In the MBR system when the HRT is more than 7.5 hour, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 87-93% and could achieve 100% oil removal efficiency. Coagulation test series were seen in Refs coagulants for the treatment of wastewater containing cutting oil with better oil and COD removal efficiency. The results also showed that the oil removal efficiency in the MBR system could reduce the oil content to less than 1 mg / L when the oil quality was 126 mg / L. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of membrane bioreactor by utilizing ceramic membrane has been demonstrated for treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater.

Keywords: Oil, membrane bioreactor, chemical oxygen demand, cutting fluid

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4 A Study on the Effect of Cod to Sulphate Ratio on Performance of Lab Scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

Authors: Ahmad Saadiq, Neeraj Sahu


Anaerobic sulphate reduction has the potential for being effective and economically viable over conventional treatment methods for the treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater. However, a major challenge in anaerobic sulphate reduction is the diversion of a fraction of organic carbon towards methane production and some minor problem such as odour problems, corrosion, and increase of effluent chemical oxygen demand. A high-rate anaerobic technology has encouraged researchers to extend its application to the treatment of complex wastewaters with relatively low cost and energy consumption compared to physicochemical methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio on the performance of lab scale UASB reactor. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated for 170 days. In which first 60 days, for successful start-up with acclimation under methanogenesis and sulphidogenesis at COD/SO₄²⁻ of 18 and were operated at COD/SO₄²⁻ ratios of 12, 8, 4 and 1 to evaluate the effects of the presence of sulfate on the reactor performance. The reactor achieved maximum COD removal efficiency and biogas evolution at the end of acclimation (control). This phase lasted 53 days with 89.5% efficiency. The biogas was 0.6 L/d at (OLR) of 1.0 kg COD/m³d when it was treating synthetic wastewater with effective volume of reactor as 2.8 L. When COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio changed from 12 to 1, slight decrease in COD removal efficiencies (76.8–87.4%) was observed, biogas production decreased from 0.58 to 0.32 L/d, while the sulfate removal efficiency increased from 42.5% to 72.7%.

Keywords: sulphate, chemical oxygen demand, anaerobic, organic loading rate, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

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3 Greywater Treatment Using Activated Biochar Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Pascal Mwenge


The increase in urbanisation in South Africa has led to an increase in water demand and a decline in freshwater supply. Despite this, poor water usage is still a major challenge in South Africa, for instance, freshwater is still used for non-drinking applications. The freshwater shortage can be alleviated by using other sources of water for non-portable purposes such as greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste. The success of activated biochar produced from agricultural waste to treat greywater can be both economically and environmentally beneficial. Greywater treated with activated biochar produced from agricultural waste is considered a cost-effective wastewater treatment.  This work was aimed at determining the ability of activated biochar to remove Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Ammonium (NH4-N), Nitrate (NO3-N), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from greywater. The experiments were carried out in 800 ml laboratory plastic cylinders used as filter columns. 2.5 cm layer of gravel was used at the bottom and top of the column to sandwich the activated biochar material. Activated biochar (200 g and 400 g) was loaded in a column and used as a filter medium for greywater. Samples were collected after a week and sent for analysis. Four types of greywater were treated: Kitchen, floor cleaning water, shower and laundry water. The findings showed: 95% removal of TSS, 76% of NO3-N and 63% of COD on kitchen greywater and 85% removal of NH4-N on bathroom greywater, as highest removal of efficiency of the studied pollutants. The results showed that activated biochar produced from agricultural waste reduces a certain amount of pollutants from greywater. The results also indicated the ability of activated biochar to treat greywater for onsite non-potable reuse purposes.

Keywords: COD, greywater, nitrate, TSS, chemical oxygen demand, ammonium, activated biochar produced from agriculture waste, NH₄-N, NO₃-N, total suspended solids

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2 Photocatalytic Degradation of Bisphenol A Using ZnO Nanoparticles as Catalyst under UV/Solar Light: Effect of Different Parameters and Kinetic Studies

Authors: Farida Kaouah, Chahida Oussalah, Wassila Hachi, Salim Boumaza, Mohamed Trari


A catalyst of ZnO nanoparticles was used in the photocatalytic process of treatment for potential use towards bisphenol A (BPA) degradation in an aqueous solution. To achieve this study, the effect of parameters such as the catalyst dose, initial concentration of BPA and pH on the photocatalytic degradation of BPA was studied. The results reveal that the maximum degradation (more than 93%) of BPA occurred with ZnO catalyst in 120 min of stirring at natural pH (7.1) under solar light irradiation. It was found that chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction takes place at a faster rate under solar light as compared to that of UV light. The kinetic studies were achieved and revealed that the photocatalytic degradation process obeyed a Langmuir–Hinshelwood model and followed a pseudo-first order rate expression. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of bisphenol A from wastewater.

Keywords: zinc oxide, bisphenol A, sunlight, chemical oxygen demand, photocatalytic degradation, Langmuir–Hinshelwood model

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1 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge


Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

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