Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

cesium Related Abstracts

4 Growth of Nitella in Response to Cesium Exposure: Implication for Phytoremediation

Authors: Harun Rashid, Keerthi S. S. Atapaththu, Takashi Asaeda

Abstract:

Cesium (Cs) induced growth and stress response of Nitella were studied after exposure to four concentration of the metal; i.e. 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm Cs in growth media. Each treatment with three replicates were randomly allocated to 12 glass beakers in a complete randomize design and the experiment was continued for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, shoot length, cesium content, total chlorophyll, and plant stress response were compared. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities (peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase) and the concentration of H2O2 were measured to check plant stress. The longest shoot was found in control treatment (0 ppm Cs) and the shoot length of plants exposed to 0.001 ppm was statistically similar to that of control. Concentration of cesium in plants grown at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm were significantly higher than those in control treatments. The antioxidant enzymes activities of plants exposed to cesium were significantly higher than those grown without any Cs (control). An elevated level of H2O2 concentration was also observed in former groups of plants. Further, the reduction in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence in response to cesium exposure indicated the chronically damaged photosynthetic efficiency in cesium stressed Nitella.

Keywords: Growth, Oxidative Stress, antioxidant enzymes, cesium, Nitella

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3 Sorption of Cesium Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Zinc Hexacyanoferrate

Authors: J. H. Kim, S. W. Lee, H. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, W. Z. Oh, S. J. Choi

Abstract:

In recent years, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely employed as a sorbent for the removal of various metal ions from water due to their unique properties such as large surface area, light mass density, high porous and hollow structure, and strong interaction between the pollutant molecules and CNTs. To apply CNTs to the sorption of Cs+ from aqueous solutions, they must first be functionalized to increase their hydrophilicity and therefore, enhance their applicability to the sorption of polar and relatively low-molecular-weight species. The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of magnetically separable multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-m) as a sorbents for the removal of Cs+ from aqueous solutions. The MWCNTs-m was prepared using pristine MWCNTs and iron precursor Fe(acac)3. For the selective removal of Cs+ from aqueous solutions, the MWCNTs-m was functionalized with zinc hexacyanoferrate (MWCNTs-m-ZnFC). The physicochemical properties of the synthesized sorbents were characterized with various techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analysis, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometer. The MWCNTs-m-ZnFC was found to be easily separated from aqueous solutions by using magnetic field. The MWCNTs-m-ZnFC exhibited a high capacity for sorbing Cs+ from aqueous solutions because of their strong affinity for Cs+ and specific surface area. The sorption ability of the MWCNTs-m-ZnFC for Cs+ was maintained even in the presence of co-existing ions (Na+). Considering these results, the CNT-m-ZnFCs have great potential for use as an effective sorbent for the selective removal of radioactive Cs+ ions from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Magnetic Materials, Sorption, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, cesium, zinc hexacyanoferrate

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2 Solvent Extraction of Rb and Cs from Jarosite Slag Using t-BAMBP

Authors: Zhang Haiyan, Su Zujun, Zhao Fengqi

Abstract:

Lepidolite after extraction of Lithium by sulfate produced many jarosite slag which contains a lot of Rb and Cs.The separation and recovery of Rubidium(Rb) and Cesium(Cs) can make full of use of Lithium mica. XRF analysis showed that the slag mainly including K Rb Cs Al and etc. Fractional solvent extraction tests were carried out; the results show that using20% t-BAMBP plus 80% sulfonated kerosene, the separation of Rb and Cs can be achieved by adjusting the alkalinity. Extraction is the order of Cs Rb, ratio of Cs to Rb and ratio of Rb to K can reach above 1500 and 2500 respectively.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cesium, jarosite slag, rubidium, t-BAMBP

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1 Regeneration of Cesium-Exhausted Activated Carbons by Microwave Irradiation

Authors: Pietro P. Falciglia, Erica Gagliano, Vincenza Brancato, Alfio Catalfo, Guglielmo Finocchiaro, Guido De Guidi, Stefano Romano, Paolo Roccaro, Federico G. A. Vagliasindi

Abstract:

Cesium-137 (¹³⁷Cs) is a major radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel processing, and it represents the most important cause of contamination related to nuclear accidents. Cesium-137 has long-term radiological effects representing a major concern for the human health. Several physico-chemical methods have been proposed for ¹³⁷Cs removal from impacted water: ion-exchange, adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane process, coagulation, and electrochemical. However, these methods can be limited by ionic selectivity and efficiency, or they present very restricted full-scale application due to equipment and chemical high costs. On the other hand, adsorption is considered a more cost-effective solution, and activated carbons (ACs) are known as a low-cost and effective adsorbent for a wide range of pollutants among which radionuclides. However, adsorption of Cs onto ACs has been investigated in very few and not exhaustive studies. In addition, exhausted activated carbons are generally discarded in landfill, that is not an eco-friendly and economic solution. Consequently, the regeneration of exhausted ACs must be considered a preferable choice. Several alternatives, including conventional thermal-, solvent-, biological- and electrochemical-regeneration, are available but are affected by several economic or environmental concerns. Microwave (MW) irradiation has been widely used in industrial and environmental applications and it has attracted many attentions to regenerating activated carbons. The growing interest in MW irradiation is based on the passive ability of the irradiated medium to convert a low power irradiation energy into a rapid and large temperature increase if the media presents good dielectric features. ACs are excellent MW-absorbers, with a high mechanical strength and a good resistance towards heating process. This work investigates the feasibility of MW irradiation for the regeneration of Cs-exhausted ACs. Adsorption batch experiments were carried out using commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC), then Cs-saturated AC samples were treated using a controllable bench-scale 2.45-GHz MW oven and investigating different adsorption-regeneration cycles. The regeneration efficiency (RE), weight loss percentage, and textural properties of the AC samples during the adsorption-regeneration cycles were also assessed. Main results demonstrated a relatively low adsorption capacity for Cs, although the feasibility of ACs was strictly linked to their dielectric nature, which allows a very efficient thermal regeneration by MW irradiation. The weight loss percentage was found less than 2%, and an increase in RE after three cycles was also observed. Furthermore, MW regeneration preserved the pore structure of the regenerated ACs. For a deeper exploration of the full-scale applicability of MW regeneration, further investigations on more adsorption-regeneration cycles or using fixed-bed columns are required.

Keywords: cesium, adsorption mechanisms, granular activated carbons, microwave regeneration

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