Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Cervical Related Abstracts

5 The Effect of Normal Cervical Sagittal Configuration in the Management of Cervicogenic Dizziness: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Moustafa Ibrahim Moustafa


The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate and long term effects of a multimodal program, with the addition of cervical sagittal curve restoration and forward head correction, on severity of dizziness, disability, frequency of dizziness, and severity of cervical pain. 72 patients with cervicogenic dizziness, definite hypolordotic cervical spine, and forward head posture were randomized to experimental or a control group. Both groups received the multimodal program, additionally, the study group received the Denneroll cervical traction. All outcome measures were measured at three intervals. The general linear model indicated a significant group × time effects in favor of experimental group on measures of anterior head translation (F=329.4 P < .0005), cervical lordosis (F=293.7 P < .0005), severity of dizziness (F=262.1 P < .0005), disability (F=248.9 P < .0005), frequency of dizziness (F=53.9 P < .0005), and severity of cervical pain (F=350.1 P < .0005). The addition of Dennroll cervical traction to a multimodal program can positively affect dizziness management outcomes.

Keywords: Cervical, randomized controlled trial, traction, dizziness

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4 Utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Among HIV Infected Women in Nairobi, Kenya

Authors: E. Njuguna, S. Ilovi, P. Muiruri, K. Mutai, J. Kinuthia, P. Njoroge


Introduction: Cervical cancer is the commonest cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality among women in developing countries in Sub Saharan Africa. Screening for cervical cancer in all women regardless of HIV status is crucial for the early detection of cancer of the cervix when treatment is most effective in curing the disease. It is particularly more important to screen HIV infected women as they are more at risk of developing the disease and progressing faster once infected with HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). We aimed to determine the factors affecting the utilization of cervical cancer screenings among HIV infected women above 18 years of age at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Comprehensive Care Center (CCC). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional mixed quantitative and qualitative study involving randomly and purposefully selected HIV positive female respectively was conducted. Qualitative data collection involved 4 focus group discussions of eligible female participants while quantitative data were acquired by one to one interviewer administered structured questionnaires. The outcome variable was the utilization of cervical cancer screening. Data were entered into Access data base and analyzed using Stata version 11.1. Qualitative data were analyzed after coding for significant clauses and transcribing to determine themes arising. Results: We enrolled a total of 387 patients, mean age (IQ range) 40 years (36-44). Cervical cancer screening utilization was 46% despite a health care provider recommendation of 85%. The screening results were reported as normal in 72 of 81 (88.9%) and abnormal 7 of 81(8.6%) of the cases. Those who did not know their result were 2 of 81(2.5%). Patients were less likely to utilize the service with increasing number of years attending the clinic (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p-value 0.02), but more likely to utilize the service if recommendation by a staff was made (OR 10, 95% CI 4.2-23.9, p<0.001), and if cervical screening had been done before joining KNH CCC (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.9, p < 0.001). Similarly, they were more likely to rate the services on cervical cancer screening as good (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.7-3.4, p <0.001) and very good (OR 8.1, 95% CI 2.5-6.1, p<0.001) if they had utilized the service. The main barrier themes emerging from qualitative data included fear of screening due to excessive pain or bleeding, lack of proper communication on screening procedures and increased waiting time. Conclusions: Utilization of cervical cancer screening services was low despite health care recommendation. Patient socio-demographic characteristics did not influence whether or not they utilized the services, indicating the important role of the health care provider in the referral and provision of the service.

Keywords: Cancer, Women, HIV, Cervical, comprehensive care center

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3 Clinical Outcomes and Surgical Complications in Patients with Cervical Disk Degeneration

Authors: Mansouri Pejman, Mirzashahi Babak, Najafi Arvin, Farzan Mahmoud


Introduction: There are several surgical treatment choices for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes and surgical complications in patients with cervical disk degeneration (CDD) undergoing either anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or cervical laminectomy and fusion. Methods: This prospective case series study included 45 consecutive patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy between January 2010 and November 2014. There were 28 males and 17 females, with a mean age of 47 (range 37-68) years. The mean clinical follow-up was 14 months (range 3-24 months). The Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) neck and arm pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as the functional outcome measurements. All of the complications in our patients were recorded. Results: In our study group, 26 patients underwent only one or two level anterior cervical discectomy. Ten patients underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and nine cases underwent posterior laminectomy and fusion. We have found a statistically significant improvement between mean preoperative (29, range 19-43) and postoperative (7, range 0-12) NDI scores following surgery (P < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-operative VAS and SF-36 score (p < 0.05). There was a 7% overall complication rate (n = 3). The only complication in our patients was surgical site cellulitis which has been managed with oral antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Both anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion or posterior laminectomy and fusion are safe and efficacious treatment options for the management of CSM. The clinical outcomes seem to be fairly reproducible.

Keywords: Fusion, Cervical, myelopathy, discectomy, laminectomy

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2 A Mother’s Silent Adversary: A Case of Pregnant Woman with Cervical Cancer

Authors: Paola Millare, Nelinda Catherine Pangilinan


Background and Aim: Cervical cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecological malignancy during pregnancy. Owing to the rarity of the disease, and the complexity of all factors that have to be taken into consideration, standardization of treatment is very difficult. Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy among women. The treatment of cancer during pregnancy is most challenging in the case of cervical cancer, since the pregnant uterus itself is affected. This report aims to present a case of cervical cancer in a pregnant woman and how to manage this case and several issues accompanied with it. Methods: This is a case of a 28 year-old, Gravida 4 Para 2 (1111), who presented with watery to mucoid, whitish, non-foul smelling and increasing in amount. Internal examination revealed normal external genitalia, parous outlet, cervix was transformed into a fungating mass measuring 5x4 cm, with left parametrial involvement, body of uterus was enlarged to 24 weeks size, no adnexal mass or tenderness. She had cervical punch biopsy, which revealed, adenocarcinoma, well-differentiated cervical tissue. Standard management for cases with stage 2B cervical carcinoma was to start radiation or radical hysterectomy. In the case of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and currently pregnant, these kind of management will result to fetal loss. The patient still declined the said management and opted to delay the treatment and wait for her baby to reach at least term and proceed to cesarean section as route of delivery. Results: The patient underwent an elective cesarean section at 37th weeks age of gestation, with an outcome of a term, live baby boy APGAR score 7,9 birthweight 2600 grams. One month postpartum, the patient followed up and completed radiotherapy, chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was advised to go back after 6 months for monitoring. On her last check up, an internal examination was done which revealed normal external genitalia, vagina admits 2 fingers with ease, there is a palpable fungating mass at the cervix measuring 2x2 cm. A repeat gynecologic oncologic ultrasound was done revealing cervical mass, endophytic, grade 1 color score with stromal invasion 35% post radiation reactive lymph nodes with intact paracolpium, pericervical, and parametrial involvement. The patient was then advised to undergo pelvic boost and for close monitoring of the cervical mass. Conclusion: Cervical cancer in pregnancy is rare but is a dilemma for women and their physicians. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and individualized following careful counseling. In this case, the treatment was clearly on the side of preventing the progression of cervical cancer while she is pregnant, however due to ethical reasons, the management deviates on the right of the patient to decide for her own health and her unborn child. The collaborative collection of data relating to treatment and outcome is strongly encouraged.

Keywords: Cancer, pregnancy, Cervical, Ethical

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1 Exploring Attitudes and Experiences of the Cervical Screening Programme in Brighton, United Kingdom

Authors: Kirsty Biggs, Peter Larsen-Disney


Background: The UK cervical screening programme significantly reduces cancer mortality through the early detection of abnormal cells. Despite this, over a quarter of eligible women choose not to attend their appointment. Objective: To qualitatively explore patients’ barriers to attending cervical smear appointments and identify key trends of cervical screening behaviour, knowledge, and attitudes in primary and secondary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate smear services in Brighton and Hove using questionnaires in general practice and colposcopy. 226 patients participated in the voluntary questionnaire between 10/11/2017 and 02/02/2018. 118 patients were recruited from general practice surgeries and 108 from the colposcopy department. Women were asked about their smear knowledge, self-perceived risks factors, prior experiences and reasons for non-attendance. Demographic data was also collected. Results: Approximately a third of women did not engage in smear testing services. This was consistent across primary and secondary care groups. Over 90% were aware of the role of the screening process in relation to cervical cancer; however, over two thirds believed the smear was also a tool to screen for other pathologies. The most commonly cited reasons for non-attendance were negative emotions or previous experiences. Inconvenient appointment times were also commonly described. In a comparison of attenders versus non-attenders previous negative experiences (p < 0.01) and number of identified risk factors (p = 0.02) were statistically significant with non-attenders describing more prior negative smears and identifying more risk factors. Smear knowledge, risk perception and perceived importance of screening were not significant. Negative previous experiences were described in relation to poor bedside manner, pain, embarrassment and staff competency. Conclusions: In contrary to the literature, our white Caucasian cohort experienced significant barriers to accessing smear services. Women’s prior negative experiences are overriding their perceived importance to attend the screening programme; therefore, efforts need to focus on improving clinical experiences through auditing tools, training and providing a supportive appointment setting. Positive changes can also be expected by improving appointment availabilities with extended hours and self-booking systems.

Keywords: Cervical, Screening, barriers, smear, Papanicolaou

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