Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

ceria Related Abstracts

8 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

Abstract:

A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: phosphotungstic acid, ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania

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7 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Thirasak Rirksomboon, Panumard Kaewmora, Vissanu Meeyoo

Abstract:

Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: Microwave, Steam reforming, Nickel, zirconia, ceria, acetic acid

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6 Structure-Activity Relationship of Gold Catalysts on Alumina Supported Cu-Ce Oxides for CO and Volatile Organic Compound Oxidation

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Tatyana T. Tabakova, Georgi V. Avdeev, Petya Cv. Petrova, Yordanka G. Karakirova

Abstract:

The catalytic oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is considered as one of the most efficient ways to reduce harmful emissions from various chemical industries. The effectiveness of gold-based catalysts for many reactions of environmental significance was proven during the past three decades. The aim of this work was to combine the favorable features of Au and Cu-Ce mixed oxides in the design of new catalytic materials of improved efficiency and economic viability for removal of air pollutants in waste gases from formaldehyde production. Supported oxides of copper and cerium with Cu: Ce molar ratio 2:1 and 1:5 were prepared by wet impregnation of g-alumina. Gold (2 wt.%) catalysts were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method. Catalysts characterization was carried out by texture measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in the oxidation of CO, CH3OH and (CH3)2O was measured using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed reactor. Both Cu-Ce/alumina samples demonstrated similar catalytic behavior. The addition of gold caused significant enhancement of CO and methanol oxidation activity (100 % degree of CO and CH3OH conversion at about 60 and 140 oC, respectively). The composition of Cu-Ce mixed oxides affected the performance of gold-based samples considerably. Gold catalyst on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 1:5 exhibited higher activity for CO and CH3OH oxidation in comparison with Au on Cu-Ce/γ-Al2O3 2:1. The better performance of Au/Cu-Ce 1:5 was related to the availability of highly dispersed gold particles and copper oxide clusters in close contact with ceria.

Keywords: copper oxide, ceria, CO and VOCs oxidation, gold catalysts

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5 Water Gas Shift Activity of PtBi/CeO₂ Catalysts for Hydrogen Production

Authors: N. Laosiripojana, P. Tepamatr

Abstract:

The influence of bismuth on the water gas shift activities of Pt on ceria was studied. The flow reactor was used to study the activity of the catalysts in temperature range 100-400°C. The feed gas composition contains 5%CO, 10% H₂O and balance N₂. The total flow rate was 100 mL/min. The outlet gas was analyzed by on-line gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector. The catalytic activities of bimetallic 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ catalyst were greatly enhanced when compared with the activities of monometallic 2%Pt/CeO₂ catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and surface area analysis. X-ray diffraction pattern of Pt/CeO₂ and PtBi/CeO₂ indicated slightly shift of diffraction angle when compared with pure ceria. This result was due to strong metal-support interaction between platinum and ceria solid solution, causing conversion of Ce⁴⁺ to larger Ce³⁺. The distortions inside ceria lattice structure generated strain into the oxide lattice and facilitated the formation of oxygen vacancies which help to increase water gas shift performance. The H₂-Temperature Programmed Reduction indicated that the reduction peak of surface oxygen of 1%Pt1%Bi/CeO₂ shifts to lower temperature than that of 2%Pt/CeO₂ causing the enhancement of the water gas shift activity of this catalyst. Pt played an important role in catalyzing the surface reduction of ceria and addition of Bi alter the reduction temperature of surface ceria resulting in the improvement of the water gas shift activity of Pt catalyst.

Keywords: Platinum, Bismuth, ceria, water gas shift

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4 Effect of Graphene on the Structural and Optical Properties of Ceria:Graphene Nanocomposites

Authors: David Contreras, R. Udayabhaskar, R. V. Mangalaraja, V. T. Perarasu, Saeed Farhang Sahlevani, B. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

Bandgap engineering of CeO₂ nanocrystals is of high interest for many research groups to meet the requirement of desired applications. The band gap of CeO₂ nanostructures can be modified by varying the particle size, morphology and dopants. Anchoring the metal oxide nanostructures on graphene sheets will result in composites with improved properties than the parent materials. The presence of graphene sheets will acts a support for the growth, influences the morphology and provides external paths for electronic transitions. Thus, the controllable synthesis of ceria:graphene composites with various morphologies and the understanding of the optical properties is highly important for the usage of these materials in various applications. The development of ceria and ceria:graphene composites with low cost, rapid synthesis with tunable optical properties is still desirable. By this work, we discuss the synthesis of pure ceria (nanospheres) and ceria:graphene composites (nano-rice like morphology) by using commercial microwave oven as a cost effective and environmentally friendly approach. The influence of the graphene on the crystallinity, morphology, band gap and luminescence of the synthesized samples were analyzed. The average crystallite size obtained by using Scherrer formula of the CeO₂ nanostructures showed a decreasing trend with increasing the graphene loading. The higher graphene loaded ceria composite clearly depicted morphology of nano-rice like in shape with the diameter below 10 nm and the length over 50 nm. The presence of graphene and ceria related vibrational modes (100-4000 cm⁻¹) confirmed the successful formation of composites. We observed an increase in band gap (blue shift) with increasing loading amount of graphene. Further, the luminescence related to various F-centers was quenched in the composites. The authors gratefully acknowledge the FONDECYT Project No.: 3160142 and BECA Conicyt National Doctorado2017 No. 21170851 Government of Chile, Santiago, for the financial assistance.

Keywords: Graphene, Luminescence, ceria, blue shift, band gap widening

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3 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh, Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh

Abstract:

Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: Corrosion, Coating, PTFE, ceria, polytetrafluoroethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
2 Hydrogen Production from Auto-Thermal Reforming of Ethanol Catalyzed by Tri-Metallic Catalyst

Authors: Sebastiano Candamano, Patrizia Frontera, Anastasia Macario, Fortunato Crea, Pierluigi Antonucci

Abstract:

The increasing of the world energy demand makes today biomass an attractive energy source, based on the minimizing of CO2 emission and on the global warming reduction purposes. Recently, COP-21, the international meeting on global climate change, defined the roadmap for sustainable worldwide development, based on low-carbon containing fuel. Hydrogen is an energy vector able to substitute the conventional fuels from petroleum. Ethanol for hydrogen production represents a valid alternative to the fossil sources due to its low toxicity, low production costs, high biodegradability, high H2 content and renewability. Ethanol conversion to generate hydrogen by a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions is generally called auto-thermal reforming (ATR). The ATR process is advantageous due to the low energy requirements and to the reduced carbonaceous deposits formation. Catalyst plays a pivotal role in the ATR process, especially towards the process selectivity and the carbonaceous deposits formation. Bimetallic or trimetallic catalysts, as well as catalysts with doped-promoters supports, may exhibit high activity, selectivity and deactivation resistance with respect to the corresponding monometallic ones. In this work, NiMoCo/GDC, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC (where GDC is Gadolinia Doped Ceria support and the metal composition is 60:30:10 for all catalyst) have been prepared by impregnation method. The support, Gadolinia 0.2 Doped Ceria 0.8, was impregnated by metal precursors solubilized in aqueous ethanol solution (50%) at room temperature for 6 hours. After this, the catalysts were dried at 100°C for 8 hours and, subsequently, calcined at 600°C in order to have the metal oxides. Finally, active catalysts were obtained by reduction procedure (H2 atmosphere at 500°C for 6 hours). All sample were characterized by different analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, CHNS, H2-TPR and Raman Spectorscopy). Catalytic experiments (auto-thermal reforming of ethanol) were carried out in the temperature range 500-800°C under atmospheric pressure, using a continuous fixed-bed microreactor. Effluent gases from the reactor were analyzed by two Varian CP4900 chromarographs with a TCD detector. The analytical investigation focused on the preventing of the coke deposition, the metals sintering effect and the sulfur poisoning. Hydrogen productivity, ethanol conversion and products distribution were measured and analyzed. At 600°C, all tri-metallic catalysts show the best performance: H2 + CO reaching almost the 77 vol.% in the final gases. While NiMoCo/GDC catalyst shows the best selectivity to hydrogen whit respect to the other tri-metallic catalysts (41 vol.% at 600°C). On the other hand, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC demonstrated high sulfur poisoning resistance (up to 200 cc/min) with respect to the NiMoCo/GDC catalyst. The correlation among catalytic results and surface properties of the catalysts will be discussed.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Ethanol, Catalysts, Nickel, ceria, gadolinia

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1 Apatite-Forming Ability of Doped-Ceria Coatings for Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Ayda Khosravanihaghighi, Pramod Koshy, Bill Walsh, Vedran Lovric, Charles Christopher Sorrell

Abstract:

There is an increasing demand for orthopedic implants owing to the increasing numbers of the aging population. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is a common material used for orthopedic implants owing to its advantageous properties in terms of good corrosion resistance, minimal elastic modulus mismatch with bone, bio-inertness, and high mechanical strength. However, it is important to improve the bioactivity and osseointegration of the titanium alloy and this can be achieved by coating the implant surface with suitable ceramic materials. In the present work, pure and doped-ceria (CeO₂) coatings were deposited by spin coating on the titanium alloy surface in order to enhance the biological interactions between the surface of the implant and the surrounding tissue. In order to examine the bone-binding ability of an implant, simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted in order to assess the capability of apatite layer formation on the surface and thus predict in vivo bone bioactivity. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to determine the extent of apatite formation. Preliminary tests showed that the CeO₂ coatings were biocompatible and that the extent of apatite formation and its characteristics can be enhanced by doping with suitable metal ions.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, ceria, apatite layer, orthopaedic implant, SBF, spin coater, Ti-implant

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