Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Cerebral Palsy Related Abstracts

18 IMPERTIO: An Efficient Communication Interface for Cerebral Palsy Patients

Authors: M. Zaïgouche, A. Kouvahe, F. Stefanelli

Abstract:

IMPERTIO is a high technology based project aiming at offering efficient assistance help in communication for persons affected by Cerebral Palsy. The systems currently available are hardly used by these patients who are not satisfied by ergonomics and response time. The project rests upon the concept that, opposite to usual master-slave communication giving power to the entity with larger range of possibilities, providing conversely the mastery to the entity with smaller range of possibilities will allow a better understanding ground for both parties. Entirely customizable, the application developed from this idea gives full freedom to the user. Through pictograms (one button linked to a word or a sentence) and adapted keyboard, noticeable improvements are brought to the response time and ease to use ergonomics.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, virtual keyboard, master-slave relation, communication interface, word construction algorithm

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17 Ultrasonographic Manifestation of Periventricular Leukomalacia in Preterm Neonates at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Authors: P. P. Chandrasekera, P. B. Hewavithana, D. M. R. D. Mirihella, S. Rosairo, M. H. M. N. Herath

Abstract:

Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) is a White Matter Injury (WMI) of preterm neonatal brain. Objectives of the study were to assess the neuro-developmental outcome at one year of age and to determine a good protocol of cranial ultrasonography to detect PVL. Two hundred and sixty four preterm neonates were included in the study. Series of cranial ultrasound scans were done by using a dedicated neonatal head probe 4-10 MHz of Logic e portable ultrasound scanner. Clinical history of seizures, abnormal head growth (hydrocephalus or microcephaly) and developmental milestones were assessed and neurological examinations were done until one year of age. Among live neonates, 57% who had cystic PVL (Grades2 and 3) manifested as cerebral palsy. In conclusion cystic PVL has permanent neurological disabilities like cerebral palsy. Good protocol of real time cranial ultrasonography to detect PVL is to perform scans at least once a week until one month and at term (40 weeks of gestation).

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, cranial ultrasonography, Periventricular Leukomalacia, preterm neonates

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16 The 10,000 Fold Effect of Retrograde Neurotransmission: A New Concept for Cerebral Palsy Revival by the Use of Nitric Oxide Donars

Authors: M. Hussain, V. K. Tewari, H. K. D. Gupta

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Background: Nitric Oxide Donars (NODs) (intrathecal sodium nitroprusside (ITSNP) and oral tadalafil 20mg post ITSNP) has been studied in this context in cerebral palsy patients for fast recovery. This work proposes two mechanisms for acute cases and one mechanism for chronic cases, which are interrelated, for physiological recovery. a) Retrograde Neurotransmission (acute cases): 1) Normal excitatory impulse: at the synaptic level, glutamate activates NMDA receptors, with nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) on the postsynaptic membrane, for further propagation by the calcium-calmodulin complex. Nitric oxide (NO, produced by NOS) travels backward across the chemical synapse and binds the axon-terminal NO receptor/sGC of a presynaptic neuron, regulating anterograde neurotransmission (ANT) via retrograde neurotransmission (RNT). Heme is the ligand-binding site of the NO receptor/sGC. Heme exhibits > 10,000-fold higher affinity for NO than for oxygen (the 10,000-fold effect) and is completed in 20 msec. 2) Pathological conditions: normal synaptic activity, including both ANT and RNT, is absent. A NO donor (SNP) releases NO from NOS in the postsynaptic region. NO travels backward across a chemical synapse to bind to the heme of a NO receptor in the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron, generating an impulse, as under normal conditions. b) Vasopasm: (acute cases) Perforators show vasospastic activity. NO vasodilates the perforators via the NO-cAMP pathway. c) Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): (chronic cases) The NO–cGMP-pathway plays a role in LTP at many synapses throughout the CNS and at the neuromuscular junction. LTP has been reviewed both generally and with respect to brain regions specific for memory/learning. Aims/Study Design: The principles of “generation of impulses from the presynaptic region to the postsynaptic region by very potent RNT (10,000-fold effect)” and “vasodilation of arteriolar perforators” are the basis of the authors’ hypothesis to treat cerebral palsy cases. Case-control prospective study. Materials and Methods: The experimental population included 82 cerebral palsy patients (10 patients were given control treatments without NOD or with 5% dextrose superfusion, and 72 patients comprised the NOD group). The mean time for superfusion was 5 months post-cerebral palsy. Pre- and post-NOD status was monitored by Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy (GMFCS), MRI, and TCD studies. Results: After 7 days in the NOD group, the mean change in the GMFCS score was an increase of 1.2 points mean; after 3 months, there was an increase of 3.4 points mean, compared to the control-group increase of 0.1 points at 3 months. MRI and TCD documented the improvements. Conclusions: NOD (ITSNP boosts up the recovery and oral tadalafil maintains the recovery to a well-desired level) acts swiftly in the treatment of CP, acting within 7 days on 5 months post-cerebral palsy either of the three mechanisms.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, intrathecal sodium nitroprusside, perforators, retrograde transmission, the 10, oral tadalafil, vasodilations, long-term potantiation

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15 Neuron Point-of-Care Stem Cell Therapy: Intrathecal Transplant of Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: F. Ruiz-Navarro, M. Matzner, G. Kobinia

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Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses the largest group of childhood movement disorders, the patterns and severity varies widely. Today, the management focuses only on a rehabilitation therapy that tries to secure the functions remained and prevents complications. However the treatments are not aimed to cure the disease. Stem cells (SCs) transplant via intrathecal is a new approach to the disease. Method: Our aim was to performed a pilot study under the condition of unproven treatment on clinical practice to assessed the safety and efficacy of Neuron Point-of-care Stem cell Therapy (N-POCST), an ambulatory procedure of autologous bone marrow derived SCs (BM-SCs) harvested from the posterior superior iliac crest undergo an on-site cell separation for intrathecal infusion via lumbar puncture. Results: 82 patients were treated in a period of 28 months, with a follow-up after 6 months. They had a mean age of 6,2 years old and male predominance (65,9%). Our preliminary results show that: A. No patient had any major side effects, B. Only 20% presented mild headache due to LP, C. 53% of the patients had an improvement in spasticity, D. 61% improved the coordination abilities, 23% improved the motor function, 15% improved the speech, 23% reduced the number of convulsive events with the same doses or less doses of anti-convulsive medication and 94% of the patients report a subjective general improvement. Conclusions: These results support previous worldwide publications that described the safety and effectiveness of autologous BM-SCs transplant for patients wit CP.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, autologous transplant, point of care, childhood movement disorders

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14 Ambulatory Care Utilization of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in Taiwan- A Country with Universal Coverage and No Gatekeeper Regulation

Authors: Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Ming-Juei Chang, Hui-Ing Ma

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Introduction: Because of the advance of medical care (e.g., ventilation techniques and gastrostomy feeding), more and more children with CP can live to adulthood. However, little is known about the use of health care services from children to adults who have CP. The patterns of utilization of ambulatory care are heavily influenced by insurance coverage and primary care gatekeeper regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP in Taiwan, a country with universal coverage and no gatekeeper regulation. Methods: A representative sample of one million patients (about 1/23 of total population) covered by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance was used to analyze the ambulatory care utilization in individuals with CP. Data were analyzed by 3 different age groups (children, youth and adults) during 2000 to 2003. Participants were identified by the presence of CP diagnosis made by pediatricians or physicians of physical and rehabilitation medicine and stated at least three times in claims data. Results: Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 31680 for children, 16492 for youth, and 28617 for adults with CP (per 1000 persons). Individuals with CP received over 50% of their outpatient care from hospital outpatient department. Higher use of specialist physician services was found in children (54.7%) than in the other two age groups (28.4% in youth and 18.8% in adults). Diseases of respiratory system were the most frequent diagnoses for visits in both children and youth with CP. Diseases of the circulatory system were the main reasons (24.3%) that adults with CP visited hospital outpatient care department or clinics. Conclusion: This study showed different patterns of ambulatory care utilization among different age groups. It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex health issues and rely heavily on the health care system. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors which influence ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP.

Keywords: Health services, Cerebral Palsy, lifespan, universal coverage

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13 Validating the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CPQOL-Child) Questionnaire for Use in Sri Lanka

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi, Gopi Kitnasamy

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Background: The potentially high level of physical need and dependency experienced by children with cerebral palsy could affect the quality of life (QOL) of the child, the caregiver and his/her family. Poor QOL in children with cerebral palsy is associated with the parent-child relationship, limited opportunities for social participation, limited access to healthcare services, psychological well-being and the child's physical functioning. Given that children experiencing disabilities have little access to remedial support with an inequitable service across districts in Sri Lanka, and given the impact of culture and societal stigma, there may be differing viewpoints across respondents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Tamil version of the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life for Children (CPQOL-Child) Questionnaire. Design: An instrument development and validation study. Methods: Forward and backward translations of the CPQOL-Child were undertaken by a team comprised of a physiotherapist, speech and language therapist and two linguists for the primary caregiver form and the child self-report form. As part of a pilot phase, the Tamil version of the CPQOL was completed by 45 primary caregivers with children with cerebral palsy and 15 children with cerebral palsy (GMFCS level 3-4). In addition, the primary caregivers commented on the process of filling in the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity were undertaken. Results: The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were high. A significant association (p < 0.001) was found between limited motor skills and poor QOL. The Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire was at 0.95.Similarities and divergences were found between the two groups of respondents. The child respondents identified limited motor skills as associated with physical well-being and autonomy. Akin to this, the primary caregivers associated the severity of motor function with limitations of physical well-being and autonomy. The trend observed was that QOL was not related to the level of impairment but connected to environmental factors by the child respondents. In addition to this, the main concern among primary caregivers about the child's future and on the child's lack of independence was not fully captured by the QOL questionnaire employed. Conclusions: Although the initial results of the CPQOL questionnaire show high test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the instrument, it does not fully reflect the socio-cultural realities and primary concerns of the caregivers. The current findings highlight the need to take child and caregiver perceptions of QOL into account in clinical practice and research. It strongly indicates the need for culture-specific measures of QOL.

Keywords: Culture, Quality of Life, Cerebral Palsy, CPQOL

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12 Stress among Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Priyanka Tiwari, Uma Devi Ranjit, Ritesh Thapa

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Background and Significance: Cerebral Palsy (CP) influences not only the child's everyday functioning but also the functioning of whole family. Application of study findings can be used in clinical or community setting to screen the parents of children with cerebral palsy in order to identify the compromised domain of stress which in turn will help to improve the interaction between parent and child with disability and thus ultimately affect the progress that a child makes in his or her therapeutic or educational programs. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the level of stress in mothers of children with CP by adopting mixed method design. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted in the quantitative design where Parental Stress Scale (PSS) was utilized to collect data from a convenient sample of 40 mothers of children with CP who were under regular follow-up by home visitor of Self-help Group for Cerebral Palsy while embedded qualitative design was used to explore the stress of mothers of CP affected children. From the parent population of quantitative sample 4 mothers were chosen for in-depth exploration, regarding their stress by means of case study method. Descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, mean, median, standard deviation, correlation and inferential statistics like Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to describe and assess relationship between variables. Findings: The mean stress experienced by mothers of children with cerebral palsy was 53.62±9.53 with 15% percent of the mothers experiencing severe stress. There was significant association between age group of mother and total stress score and negative themes of stress. Similarly, signification association was found between educational status of the mother and positive themes of stress which was convergent with the qualitative finding as well, where literate mothers had more positive view of their child's disability which could be attributed to their educational level as education provides us with a broad perspective to look at a situation. Conclusions: Still one-sixth of the mothers experienced severe stress so if we want to ensure the well-being of the children affected by cerebral palsy, then parents caring for them need to be looked after as well.

Keywords: stress, Cerebral Palsy, Mothers, mixed method

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11 Hand Motion Tracking as a Human Computer Interation for People with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Ana Teixeira, Joao Orvalho

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This paper describes experiments using Scratch games, to check the feasibility of employing cerebral palsy users gestures as an alternative of interaction with a computer carried out by students of Master Human Computer Interaction (HCI) of IPC Coimbra. The main focus of this work is to study the usability of a Web Camera as a motion tracking device to achieve a virtual human-computer interaction used by individuals with CP. An approach for Human-computer Interaction (HCI) is present, where individuals with cerebral palsy react and interact with a scratch game through the use of a webcam as an external interaction device. Motion tracking interaction is an emerging technology that is becoming more useful, effective and affordable. However, it raises new questions from the HCI viewpoint, for example, which environments are most suitable for interaction by users with disabilities. In our case, we put emphasis on the accessibility and usability aspects of such interaction devices to meet the special needs of people with disabilities, and specifically people with CP. Despite the fact that our work has just started, preliminary results show that, in general, computer vision interaction systems are very useful; in some cases, these systems are the only way by which some people can interact with a computer. The purpose of the experiments was to verify two hypothesis: 1) people with cerebral palsy can interact with a computer using their natural gestures, 2) scratch games can be a research tool in experiments with disabled young people. A game in Scratch with three levels is created to be played through the use of a webcam. This device permits the detection of certain key points of the user’s body, which allows to assume the head, arms and specially the hands as the most important aspects of recognition. Tests with 5 individuals of different age and gender were made throughout 3 days through periods of 30 minutes with each participant. For a more extensive and reliable statistical analysis, the number of both participants and repetitions in further investigations should be increased. However, already at this stage of research, it is possible to draw some conclusions. First, and the most important, is that simple scratch games on the computer can be a research tool that allows investigating the interaction with computer performed by young persons with CP using intentional gestures. Measurements performed with the assistance of games are attractive for young disabled users. The second important conclusion is that they are able to play scratch games using their gestures. Therefore, the proposed interaction method is promising for them as a human-computer interface. In the future, we plan to include the development of multimodal interfaces that combine various computer vision devices with other input devices improvements in the existing systems to accommodate more the special needs of individuals, in addition, to perform experiments on a larger number of participants.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, HCI, Cerebral Palsy, motion tracking

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10 Long-Term Outcomes of Dysphagia in Children with Severe Cerebral Palsy Using Videofluoroscopic Evaluation

Authors: Eun Jae Ko, In Young Sung, Eui Soo Joeng

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Oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent in children with cerebral palsy (CP). There are many studies concerning this problem, however, studies examining long term outcomes of dysphagia using videofluoroscopic study (VFSS) are very rare. The Aim of this study is to investigate long-term outcomes of dysphagia in children with severe CP using initial VFSS. It was a retrospective study and chart review was done from January 2000 to December 2013. Thirty one patients under 18 years who have been diagnosed as CP in outpatient clinic of Rehabilitation Medicine, and who did VFSS were included. Long-term outcomes such as feeding method, height percentile, weight percentile, and body mass index (BMI) were tracked up for at least 3 years by medical records. Significant differences between initial and follow-up datas were investigated. The patients consisted of 18 males and 13 females, and the mean age was 31.0±18.0 months old. 64.5% of patients were doing oral diet, and 25.8% of patients were doing non-oral diet. When comparing VFSS findings among oral feeding patients, oral and non-oral feeding patients, and non-oral feeding patients at initial period, dysphagia severity, supraglottic penetration, and subglottic aspiration showed significant differences. Most of the patients who could feed orally at initial period were found to have the same feeding method at follow-up. But among eight patients who required non-oral feeding initially, three patients became possible to feed orally, and one patient was doing oral and non-oral feeding method together at follow-up. Follow up feeding method showed correlation with dysphagia severity by initial VFSS. Weight percentile was decreased in patients with GMFCS level V at follow up, which may represent poor nutritional status due to severe dysphagia compared to other patients. Initial VFSS severity would play a significant role in making an assumption about future diet in children with severe CP. Patients with GMFCS level V seem to have serious dysphagia at follow up and have nutritional deficiency over time, therefore, more careful nutritional support is needed in children with severe CP are suggested.

Keywords: Child, Cerebral Palsy, dysphagia, videofluoroscopic study

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9 The Lived Experiences of Fathers with Children Who Have Cerebral Palsy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Authors: Krizette Ladera

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Fathers are there not only to provide the financial stability of a family but a father is also there to provide the love and support that usually people would see as the mother’s responsibility. To describe the lived experiences and how fathers make sense of their lived experiences with their children who have cerebral palsy is the main objective of the study. A qualitative research using a thematic analysis was used for the study. The qualitative research focused on the personal narratives, self-report and expression of the participant’s memory in terms of how they tell their stories. The interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to focus on the experience of the participants on how they will describe their experiences, and to also add on that the IPA will also attempt to describe and explain the meaning of human experiences using interview, specifically on the father who have a child that suffers from cerebral palsy. For the sampling technique, the snowball technique was used to gather participants from the referral of other participants. The five non-randomly selected fathers will be served as the participants for the research. A self-made interview with an open-ended question was used as the research instrument; it includes profiling of the respondent as well as their experiences in taking care of their child that suffers from cerebral palsy. In analyzing a data, the researcher used the thematic analysis where in the interview was made into a transcript, then it was organized and divided themes. After that, the relations of each themes, was identified and it was later documented and translated into written text format using thematic grouping. Finally, the researcher analyzed each data according to its themes and put it in a table to be presented in the result section of the study And as for the result of the study, the researcher was able to come up with the four (4) main themes that most of the participants experienced and those are: The experiences in finding out about the condition of the Child, disclosing the condition of the child to the family and its emotional effect, The experiences of living the day of day realities in providing the physical, financial, emotional and a well balanced environment to the child, and the religious perspectives of the fathers. Along with those four (4) themes comes the subtheme which explains the themes in a more detailed explanation.

Keywords: Children, Cerebral Palsy, lived experiences, fathers

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8 Predictors of Social Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Primary Schools in Czech Republic

Authors: Marija Zulić, Vanda Hájková, Nina Brkić-Jovanović, Linda Rathousová, Sanja Tomić

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Cerebral palsy is primarily reflected in the disorder of the development of movement and posture, which may be accompanied by sensory disturbances, disturbances of perception, cognition and communication, behavioural disorders and epilepsy. According to current inclusive attitudes towards people with disabilities implies that full social participation of children with cerebral palsy means inclusion in all activities in family, peer, school and leisure environments in the same scope and to the same extent as is the case with the children of proper development and without physical difficulties. Due to the fact that it has been established that the quality of children's participation in primary school is directly related to their social inclusion in future life, the aim of the paper is to identify predictors of social participation, respectively, and in particular, factors that could to improve the quality of social participation of children with cerebral palsy, in the primary school environment in Czech Republic. The study includes children with cerebral palsy (n = 75) in the Czech Republic, aged between six and 12 years who attend mainstream or special primary schools to the sixth grade. The main instrument used was the first and third part of the School function assessment questionnaire. It will also take into account the type of damage assessed according to a scale the Gross motor function classification system, five–level classification system for cerebral palsy. The research results will provide detailed insight into the degree of social participation of children with cerebral palsy and the factors that would be a potential cause of their levels of participation, in regular and special primary schools, in different socioeconomic environments in Czech Republic.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, Czech Republic, social participation, the school function assessment

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7 Effects of External and Internal Focus of Attention in Motor Learning of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Morteza Pourazar, Fatemeh Mirakhori, Fazlolah Bagherzadeh, Rasool Hemayattalab

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The purpose of study was to examine the effects of external and internal focus of attention in the motor learning of children with cerebral palsy. The study involved 30 boys (7 to 12 years old) with CP type 1 who practiced throwing beanbags. The participants were randomly assigned to the internal focus, external focus, and control groups, and performed six blocks of 10-trial with attentional focus reminders during a practice phase and no reminders during retention and transfer tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The results show that significant main effects were found for time and group. However, the interaction of time and group was not significant. Retention scores were significantly higher for the external focus group. The external focus group performed better than other groups; however, the internal focus and control groups’ performance did not differ. The study concluded that motor skills in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) children could be enhanced by external attention.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, external attention, internal attention, throwing task

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6 Social Support and Quality of Life of Youth Suffering from Cerebral Palsy Temporarily Orphaned Due to Emigration of a Parent

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

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The article is concerned in the issue of social support and quality of life of youth suffering from cerebral palsy, who are temporarily orphaned due to the emigration of a parent. Migration causes multi-aspect consequences in various spheres of life. They are particularly severe for the functioning of families. Temporal parting of parents and children, especially the disabled, is a difficult situation. In this case, the family structure is changed, as well as the quality of life of its members. Children can handle migration parting in a better or worse way; these can be divided into properly functioning and manifesting behaviour disorders. In conditions of the progressing phenomenon of labour migration of Poles and a wide spectrum of consequences for the whole social life, it is essential to undertake actions aimed at support of migrants and their families. This article focuses mainly on social support and quality of families members, of which, are the labour migrants perceived by youth suffering from cerebral palsy. The quantitative method was used in this study. In the study, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener, was used. The analysed group consisted of 50 persons (37 girls and 13 boys), aged 16 years to 18 years, whose parents are labour migrants. The results indicate that the quality of life and social support for youth suffering from cerebral palsy who are temporarily orphaned is at a low and average level.

Keywords: Migration, Quality of Life, Social Support, Cerebral Palsy

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5 Speech Disorders as Predictors of Social Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy in the Primary Schools of the Czech Republic

Authors: Marija Zulić, Vanda Hájková, Sanja Tomić, Nina Brkić–Jovanović, Srećko Potić

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The name cerebral palsy comes from the word cerebrum, which means the brain and the word palsy, which means seizure, and essentially refers to the movement disorder. In the clinical picture of cerebral palsy, basic neuromotor disorders are associated with other various disorders: behavioural, intellectual, speech, sensory, epileptic seizures, and bone and joint deformities. Motor speech disorders are among the most common difficulties present in people with cerebral palsy. Social participation represents an interaction between an individual and their social environment. Quality of social participation of the students with cerebral palsy at school is an important indicator of their successful participation in adulthood. One of the most important skills for the undisturbed social participation is ability of good communication. The aim of the study was to determine relation between social participation of students with cerebral palsy and presence of their speech impairment in primary schools in the Czech Republic. The study was performed in the Czech Republic in mainstream schools and schools established for the pupils with special education needs. We analysed 75 children with cerebral palsy aged between six and twelve years attending up to sixth grade by using the first and the third part of the school function assessment questionnaire as the main instrument. The other instrument we used in the research is the Gross motor function classification system–five–level classification system, which measures degree of motor functions of children and youth with cerebral palsy. Funding for this study was provided by the Grant Agency of Charles University in Prague.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, social participation, the school function assessment, speech disorders, The Czech Republic

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4 Effects of Occupational Therapy on Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Sedef Şahin, Meral Huri

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Cerebral Palsy (CP) represents the most frequent cause of physical disability in children with a rate of 2,9 per 1000 live births. The activity-focused intervention is known to improve function and reduce activity limitations and barriers to participation of children with disabilities. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of occupational therapy on level of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction in children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Twenty-two children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (mean age: 9,3 ± 2.1years; Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS) level from I to V (I = 54%, II = 23%, III = 14%, IV= 9%, V= 0%), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level from I to V (I = 40%, II = 32%, III = 14%, IV= 10%, V= 4%), were assigned to occupational therapy program for 6 weeks.Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for intensity of the fatigue they experienced at the time on a 10 point Likert scale (1-10).Activity performance and satisfaction were measured with Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM).A client-centered occupational therapy intervention was designed according to results of COPM. The results were compared with nonparametric Wilcoxon test before and after the intervention. Thirteen of the children were right-handed, whereas nine of the children were left handed.Six weeks of intervention showed statistically significant differences in level of fatigue, compared to first assessment(p<0,05). The mean score of first and the second activity performance scores were 4.51 ± 1.70 and 7.35 ± 2.51 respectively. Statistically significant difference between performance scores were found (p<0.01). The mean scores of first and second activity satisfaction scores were of 2.30± 1.05 and 5.51 ± 2.26 respectively. Statistically significant difference between satisfaction assessments were found (p<0.01). Occupational therapy is an evidence-based approach and occupational therapy interventions implemented by therapists were clinically effective on severity of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction if implemented individually during 6 weeks.

Keywords: Occupational therapy, Fatigue, Cerebral Palsy, activity performance

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3 The Effects of a Hippotherapy Simulator in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Canan Gunay Yazici, Zubeyir Sarı, Devrim Tarakci

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Background: Hippotherapy considered as global techniques used in rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, balance and gross motor skills development but it encounters some problems (such as the excess of the cost of horses' care, nutrition, housing). Hippotherapy simulator is being developed in recent years to overcome these problems. These devices aim to create the effects of hippotherapy made with a real horse on patients by simulating the movements of a real horse. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hippotherapy simulator on gross motor functions, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP, aged 6–15 years, seven with a diagnosis of spastic hemiplegia, five of diplegia, two of triplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III. The Horse Riding Simulator (HRS), including four-speed program (warm-up, level 1-2-3), was used for hippotherapy simulator. Firstly, each child received Neurodevelopmental Therapy (NDT; 45min twice weekly eight weeks). Subsequently, the same children completed HRS+NDT (30min and 15min respectively, twice weekly eight weeks). Children were assessed pre-treatment, at the end of 8th and 16th week. Gross motor function, sitting postural control, dynamic sitting and standing balance were evaluated by Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88, Dimension B, D, E and Total Score), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Pedalo® Sensamove Balance Test and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) respectively. Unit of Scientific Research Project of Marmara University supported our study. Results: All measured variables were a significant increase compared to baseline values after both intervention (NDT and HRS+NDT), except for dynamic sitting balance evaluated by Pedalo®. Especially HRS+NDT, increase in the measured variables was considerably higher than NDT. After NDT, the Total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline 62,2 ± 23,5; mean NDT: 66,6 ± 22,2; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 12,1 ± 3; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 39,6 ± 12,9; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 92,3 ± 5,2; p > 0,05) and Pedalo® standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 82,5 ± 11,5; p < 0,05) increased by 7,1%, 2%, 3,9%, 5,2% and 6 % respectively. After HRS+NDT treatment, the total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline: 62,2 ± 23,5; mean HRS+NDT: 71,6 ± 21,4; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 15,6 ± 2,9; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 42,5 ± 12; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 93,8 ± 3,7; p > 0,05) and standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 86,2 ± 5,6; p < 0,05) increased by 15,2%, 6%, 7,3%, 6,4%, and 11,9%, respectively, compared to the initial values. Conclusion: Neurodevelopmental therapy provided significant improvements in gross motor functions, sitting postural control, sitting and standing balance of children with CP. When the hippotherapy simulator added to the treatment program, it was observed that these functions were further developed (especially with gross motor functions and dynamic balance). As a result, this pilot study showed that the hippotherapy simulator could be a useful alternative to neurodevelopmental therapy for the improvement of gross motor function, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with CP.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Cerebral Palsy, Balance, hippotherapy

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2 Clinical Profile of Oral Sensory Abilities in Developmental Dysarthria

Authors: Deepthy Ann Joy, Swapna N.

Abstract:

One of the major causes of communication disorders in pediatric population is Motor speech disorders. These disorders which affect the motor aspects of speech articulators can have an adverse effect on the communication abilities of children in their developmental period. The motor aspects are dependent on the sensory abilities of children with motor speech disorders. Hence, oral sensorimotor evaluation is an important component in the assessment of children with motor speech disorders. To our knowledge, the importance of oral motor examination has been well established, yet the sensory assessment of the oral structures has received less focus. One of the most common motor speech disorders seen in children is developmental dysarthria. The present study aimed to assess the orosensory aspects in children with developmental dysarthria (CDD). The control group consisted of 240 children in the age range of four and eight years which was divided into four subgroups (4-4.11, 5-5.11, 6-6.11 and 7-7.11 years). The experimental group consisted of 15 children who were diagnosed with developmental dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy who belonged in the age range of four and eight years. The oro-sensory aspects such as response to touch, temperature, taste, texture, and orofacial sensitivity were evaluated and profiled. For this purpose, the authors used the ‘Oral Sensorimotor Evaluation Protocol- Children’ which was developed by the authors. The oro-sensory section of the protocol was administered and the clinical profile of oro-sensory abilities of typically developing children and CDD was obtained for each of the sensory abilities. The oro-sensory abilities of speech articulators such as lips, tongue, palate, jaw, and cheeks were assessed in detail and scored. The results indicated that experimental group had poorer scores on oro-sensory aspects such as light static touch, kinetic touch, deep pressure, vibration and double simultaneous touch. However, it was also found that the experimental group performed similar to control group on few aspects like temperature, taste, texture and orofacial sensitivity. Apart from the oro-motor abilities which has received utmost interest, the variation in the oro-sensory abilities of experimental and control group is highlighted and discussed in the present study. This emphasizes the need for assessing the oro-sensory abilities in children with developmental dysarthria in addition to oro-motor abilities.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, touch, developmental dysarthria, orosensory assessment

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1 The Effects on Hand Function with Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Hsin-Chieh Lee, Fen-Ling Kuo, Jui-Chi Lin, Han-Yun Hsiao

Abstract:

Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) usually suffered from mild to maximum upper limb dysfunction such as having difficulty in reaching and picking up objects, which profoundly affects their participation in activities of daily living (ADLs). Robot-assisted rehabilitation provides intensive physical training in improving sensorimotor function of the hand. Many researchers have extensively studied the effects of robot-assisted therapy (RT) for the paretic upper limb in patients with stroke in recent years. However, few studies have examined the effect of RT on hand function in children with CP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Gloreha Sinfonia, a robotic device with a dynamic arm support system mainly focus on distal upper-limb training, on improvements of hand function and ADLs in children with CP. Methods: Seven children with moderate CP were recruited in this case series study. RT using Gloreha Sinfonia was performed 2 sessions per week, 60 min per session for 6 consecutive weeks, with 12 times in total. Outcome measures included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE), the Box and Block Test, the electromyography activity of the extensor digitorum communis muscle (EDC) and brachioradialis (BR), a grip dynamometer for motor evaluation, and the ABILHAND-Kids for measuring manual ability to manage daily activities, were performed at baseline, after 12 sessions (end of treatment) and at the 1-month follow-up. Results: After 6 weeks of robot-assisted treatment of hand function, there were significant increases in FMA-UE shoulder/elbow scores (p=0.002), FMA-UE wrist/hand scores (p=0.002), and FMA-UE total scores (p=0.002). There were also significant improvements in the BR mean value (p = 0.015) and electrical agonist-antagonist muscle ratio (p=0.041) in grasping a 1-inch cube task. These gains were maintained for a month after the end of the intervention. Conclusion: RT using Gloreha Sinfonia for hand function training may contribute toward the improvement of upper extremity function and efficacy in recruiting BR muscle in children with CP. The results were maintained at one month after intervention.

Keywords: Cerebral Palsy, activities of daily living, hand function, robotic rehabilitation

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