Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

cerebellum Related Abstracts

4 Difference in the Expression of CIRBP, RBM3 and HSP70 in the Myocardium and Cerebellum after Death by Hypothermi a and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Lisa Wingenfeld, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

Abstract:

We studied the expression of hypoxia-related antigens (e.g., cold-inducible antigens and apoptotic antigens) in the myocardium and the cerebellumthat were obtained from individuals after death by carbon monoxide or hypothermia. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that expression of cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP) and RNA-binding protein 3 (RBM3) may be associated with hpyothermic and the hypoxic conditions. The expression of CIRBP and RBM3 in the myocardium was different from their expression in the cerebellum, especially in the Purkinje cells. The results indicate that agonal duration influences antigen expression. In the hypothermic condition, the myocardium uses more ATP since the force of the excitation-contraction coupling of the myocardium increases by more than 400% when the experimental temperature is reduced from 35°C to 25°C. The results obtained in this study indicate that physicians should pay attention to the myocardium when cooling the patient’s body to protect the brain.

Keywords: carbon monoxide death, cerebellum, CIRBP, hypothermic death, myocardium, RBM3

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3 Cerebrum Maturity Damage Induced by Fluoride in Suckling Mice

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz, Françoise Croute, Najiba Zeghal

Abstract:

In order to investigate the toxic effects of fluoride on cerebrum maturity of suckling mice, we treated adult female mice of Swiss Albinos strain by 500 ppm NaF in their drinking water from the 15th day of pregnancy until the day 14 after delivery. All mice were sacrificed on day 14 after parturition. During treatment, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, the marker of lipid peroxidation extend, increased, while the activities of the antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase and the level of glutathione decreased significantly in cerebellum compared with those of the control group. These results suggested that fluoride enhanced oxidative stress, thereby disturbing the antioxidant defense of nursing pups. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activity in cerebellum was inhibited after treatment with fluoride. In cerebellum of mice, migration of neurons from the external granular layer to the internal granular layer occurred postnatally. Key guidance signals to these migrating neurons were provided by laminin, an extracellular matrix protein fixed to the surface of astrocytes. In the present study, we examined the expression and distribution of laminin in cerebellum of 14-day-old mice. Immunoreactive laminin was disappeared by postnatal day 14 in cerebellum parenchyma of control pups and was restricted to vasculature despite the continued presence of granular cells in the external granular layer. In contrast, in cerebellum of NaF treated pups, laminin was deposited in organised punctuate clusters in the molecular layer. These data indicated that the disruption of laminin distribution might play a major role in the profound derangement of neuronal migration observed in cerebellum of NaF treated pups.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, cerebellum, acetylcholinesterase activity, laminin, suckling mice

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2 Role of Maternal Astaxanthin Supplementation on Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Spatial Learning Behavior in Wistar Rat Offspring’s

Authors: K. M. Damodara Gowda

Abstract:

Background: Maternal health and nutrition are considered as the predominant factors influencing brain functional development. If the mother is free of illness and genetic defects, maternal nutrition would be one of the most critical factors affecting the brain development. Calorie restrictions cause significant impairment in spatial learning ability and the levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in rats. But, the mechanism by which the prenatal under-nutrition leads to impairment in brain learning and memory function is still unclear. In the present study, prenatal Astaxanthin supplementation on BDNF level, spatial learning and memory performance in the offspring’s of normal, calorie restricted and Astaxanthin supplemented rats was investigated. Methodology: The rats were administered with 6mg and 12 mg of astaxanthin /kg bw for 21 days following which acquisition and retention of spatial memory was tested in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The BDNF level in different regions of the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) was estimated by ELISA method. Results: Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin made significantly more correct choices (P < 0.05), and fewer reference memory errors (P < 0.05) on the tenth day of training compared to offsprings of calorie restricted animals. Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin also made significantly higher correct choices (P < 0.001) than untreated calorie restricted animals in a retention test 10 days after the training period. The mean BDNF level in cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and cerebellum in Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin didnot show significant variation from that of control animals. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicated that memory and learning was impaired in the offspring’s of calorie restricted rats which was effectively modulated by astaxanthin at the dosage of 12 mg/kg body weight. In the same way the BDNF level at cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum was also declined in the offspring’s of calorie restricted animals, which was also found to be effectively normalized by astaxanthin.

Keywords: Learning, Memory, Hippocampus, cerebellum, astaxanthin, BDNF, calorie restiction, Cerebral cortex

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1 Leveraging Multimodal Neuroimaging Techniques to in vivo Address Compensatory and Disintegration Patterns in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Evidence from Cortico-Cerebellar Connections in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Efstratios Karavasilis, Foteini Christidi, Georgios Velonakis, Agapi Plousi, Kalliopi Platoni, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Efstathios Efstathopoulos

Abstract:

Introduction: Advanced structural and functional neuroimaging techniques contribute to the study of anatomical and functional brain connectivity and its role in the pathophysiology and symptoms’ heterogeneity in several neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Aim: In the present study, we applied multiparametric neuroimaging techniques to investigate the structural and functional cortico-cerebellar changes in MS patients. Material: We included 51 MS patients (28 with clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 31 with relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS]) and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) who underwent MRI in a 3.0T MRI scanner. Methodology: The acquisition protocol included high-resolution 3D T1 weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging and echo planar imaging sequences for the analysis of volumetric, tractography and functional resting state data, respectively. We performed between-group comparisons (CIS, RRMS, HC) using CAT12 and CONN16 MATLAB toolboxes for the analysis of volumetric (cerebellar gray matter density) and functional (cortico-cerebellar resting-state functional connectivity) data, respectively. Brainance suite was used for the analysis of tractography data (cortico-cerebellar white matter integrity; fractional anisotropy [FA]; axial and radial diffusivity [AD; RD]) to reconstruct the cerebellum tracts. Results: Patients with CIS did not show significant gray matter (GM) density differences compared with HC. However, they showed decreased FA and increased diffusivity measures in cortico-cerebellar tracts, and increased cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity. Patients with RRMS showed decreased GM density in cerebellar regions, decreased FA and increased diffusivity measures in cortico-cerebellar WM tracts, as well as a pattern of increased and mostly decreased functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity compared to HC. The comparison between CIS and RRMS patients revealed significant GM density difference, reduced FA and increased diffusivity measures in WM cortico-cerebellar tracts and increased/decreased functional connectivity. The identification of decreased WM integrity and increased functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity without GM changes in CIS and the pattern of decreased GM density decreased WM integrity and mostly decreased functional connectivity in RRMS patients emphasizes the role of compensatory mechanisms in early disease stages and the disintegration of structural and functional networks with disease progression. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study highlights the added value of multimodal neuroimaging techniques for the in vivo investigation of cortico-cerebellar brain changes in neurodegenerative disorders. An extension and future opportunity to leverage multimodal neuroimaging data inevitably remain the integration of such data in the recently-applied mathematical approaches of machine learning algorithms to more accurately classify and predict patients’ disease course.

Keywords: MRI, Multiple Sclerosis, cerebellum, advanced neuroimaging techniques

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