Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Ceramics Related Abstracts

14 High-Temperature Tribological Characterization of Nano-Sized Silicon Nitride + 5% Boron Nitride Ceramic Composite

Authors: Mohammad Farooq Wani


Tribological studies on nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN were carried out in dry air at high temperatures to clarify the lack of consensus in the bibliographic data concerning the Tribological behavior of Si3N4 ceramics and effect of doped hexagonal boron nitride on coefficient of friction and wear coefficient at different loads and elevated temperatures. The composites were prepared via high energy mechanical milling and subsequent spark plasma sintering using Y2O3 and Al2O3 as sintering additives. After sintering, the average crystalline size of Si3N4 was observed to be 50 nm. Tribological tests were performed with temperature and Friction coefficients 0.16 to 1.183 and 0.54 to 0.71 were observed for Nano-sized ß-silicon nitride+5% BN composite under normal load of 10N-70 N and over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC respectively. Specific wear coefficients from 1.33x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 4.42x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 were observed for Nano-sized Si3N4 + 5% BN composite against Si3N4 ball as tribo-pair counterpart over high temperature range of 350 ºC-550 ºC while as under normal load of 10N to70N Specific wear coefficients of 6.91x 10-4 mm3N-1m-1 to 1.70x 10-4 were observed. The addition of BN to the Si3N4 composite resulted in a slight reduction of the friction coefficient and lower values of wear coefficient.

Keywords: Tribology, Ceramics, friction and wear, solid lubrication

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13 Effect of High-Energy Ball Milling on the Electrical and Piezoelectric Properties of (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics

Authors: K. Chandramani Singh, Chongtham Jiten, Radhapiyari Laishram


Nanocrystalline powders of the lead-free piezoelectric material, tantalum-substituted potassium sodium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)(Nb0.9Ta0.1)O3 (KNNT), were produced using a Retsch PM100 planetary ball mill by setting the milling time to 15h, 20h, 25h, 30h, 35h and 40h, at a fixed speed of 250rpm. The average particle size of the milled powders was found to decrease from 12nm to 3nm as the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, which is in agreement with the existing theoretical model. An anomalous increase to 98nm and then a drop to 3nm in the particle size were observed as the milling time further increases to 30h and 40h respectively. Various sizes of these starting KNNT powders were used to investigate the effect of milling time on the microstructure, dielectric properties, phase transitions and piezoelectric properties of the resulting KNNT ceramics. The particle size of starting KNNT was somewhat proportional to the grain size. As the milling time increases from 15h to 25h, the resulting ceramics exhibit enhancement in the values of relative density from 94.8% to 95.8%, room temperature dielectric constant (εRT) from 878 to 1213, and piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33) from 108pC/N to 128pC/N. For this range of ceramic samples, grain size refinement suppresses the maximum dielectric constant (εmax), shifts the Curie temperature (Tc) to a lower temperature and the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition (Tot) to a higher temperature. Further increase of milling time from 25h to 40h produces a gradual degradation in the values of relative density, εRT, and d33 of the resulting ceramics.

Keywords: Ceramics, perovskite, dielectric, high-energy milling

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12 Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of a Non-Symmetrical NiO-SDC/SDC Anode through a Microwave-Assisted Route

Authors: Mohadeseh Seyednezhad, Armin Rajabi, Andanastui Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu


This work investigates the electrical properties of NiO-SDC/SDC anode sintered at about 1200 ○C for 1h through a relatively new approach, namely the microwave method. Nano powders Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (SDC) and NiO were mixed by using a high-energy ball-mill and subsequent co-pressed at three different compaction pressures 200, 300 and 400 MPa. The novelty of this study consists in the effect of compaction pressure on the electrochemical performance of Ni-SDC/SDC anode, with no binder used between layers. The electrical behavior of the prepared anode has been studied by electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) in controlled atmospheres, operating at high temperatures (600-800 °C).

Keywords: Nanostructures, sintering, Ceramics, Impedance spectroscopy, Fuel Cell, Electrical Conductivity

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11 Experimental Optimization in Diamond Lapping of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings

Authors: S. Gowri, K. Narayanasamy, R. Krishnamurthy


Plasma spraying, from the point of value engineering, is considered as a cost-effective technique to deposit high performance ceramic coatings on ferrous substrates for use in the aero,automobile,electronics and semiconductor industries. High-performance ceramics such as Alumina, Zirconia, and titania-based ceramics have become a key part of turbine blades,automotive cylinder liners,microelectronic and semiconductor components due to their ability to insulate and distribute heat. However, as the industries continue to advance, improved methods are needed to increase both the flexibility and speed of ceramic processing in these applications. The ceramics mentioned were individually coated on structural steel substrate with NiCr bond coat of 50-70 micron thickness with the final thickness in the range of 150 to 200 microns. Optimal spray parameters were selected based on bond strength and porosity. The 'optimal' processed specimens were super finished by lapping using diamond and green SiC abrasives. Interesting results could be observed as follows: The green SiC could improve the surface finish of lapped surfaces almost as that by diamond in case of alumina and titania based ceramics but the diamond abrasives could improve the surface finish of PSZ better than that by green SiC. The conventional random scratches could be absent in alumina and titania ceramics but in PS those marks were found to be less. However, the flatness accuracy could be improved unto 60 to 85%. The surface finish and geometrical accuracy were measured and modeled. The abrasives in the midrange of their particle size could improve the surface quality faster and better than the particles of size in low and high ranges. From the experimental investigations after lapping process, the optimal lapping time, abrasive size, lapping pressure etc could be evaluated.

Keywords: Optimization, Ceramics, lapping, atmospheric plasma spraying, surface qulaity

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10 Predicting Depth of Penetration in Abrasive Waterjet Cutting of Polycrystalline Ceramics

Authors: S. Srinivas, N. Ramesh Babu


This paper presents a model to predict the depth of penetration in polycrystalline ceramic material cut by abrasive waterjet. The proposed model considered the interaction of cylindrical jet with target material in upper region and neglected the role of threshold velocity in lower region. The results predicted with the proposed model are validated with the experimental results obtained with Silicon Carbide (SiC) blocks.

Keywords: Ceramics, Analytical Modeling, abrasive waterjet cutting, micro-cutting and inter-grannular cracking

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9 Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic

Authors: K. Chandramani Singh, Chongtham Jiten, Radhapiyari Laishram


Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.

Keywords: sintering, Ceramics, Thermal Stability, dielectric properties, ferroelectric properties, lead-free

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8 Preparation and Conductivity Measurements of LSM/YSZ Composite Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Anode Materials

Authors: Rinlee Butch M. Cervera, Christian C. Vaso


One of the most promising anode materials for solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) application is the Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) which is known to have a high electronic conductivity but low ionic conductivity. To increase the ionic conductivity or diffusion of ions through the anode, Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), which has good ionic conductivity, is proposed to be combined with LSM to create a composite electrode and to obtain a high mixed ionic and electronic conducting anode. In this study, composite of lanthanum strontium manganite and YSZ oxide, La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/Zr0.92Y0.08O2 (LSM/YSZ), with different wt.% compositions of LSM and YSZ were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The obtained prepared composite samples of 60, 50, and 40 wt.% LSM with remaining wt.% of 40, 50, and 60, respectively for YSZ were fully characterized for its microstructure by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscope/Energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses. Surface morphology of the samples via SEM analysis revealed a well-sintered and densified pure LSM, while a more porous composite sample of LSM/YSZ was obtained. Electrochemical impedance measurements at intermediate temperature range (500-700 °C) of the synthesized samples were also performed which revealed that the 50 wt.% LSM with 50 wt.% YSZ (L50Y50) sample showed the highest total conductivity of 8.27x10-1 S/cm at 600 oC with 0.22 eV activation energy.

Keywords: Fuel Cells, Microstructure, Ceramics, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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7 Microstructural and Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon Coated Nanograined LiFePO4 as Cathode Material for Li-Batteries

Authors: Rinlee Butch M. Cervera, Princess Stephanie P. Llanos


Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) is a potential cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its promising characteristics. In this study, pure LiFePO4 (LFP) and carbon-coated nanograined LiFePO4 (LFP-C) is synthesized and characterized for its microstructural properties. X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized samples can be indexed to an orthorhombic LFP structure with about 63 nm crystallite size as calculated by using Scherrer’s equation. Agglomerated particles that range from 200 nm to 300 nm are observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Transmission electron microscopy images confirm the crystalline structure of LFP and coating of amorphous carbon layer. Elemental mapping using energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed the homogeneous dispersion of the compositional elements. In addition, galvanostatic charge and discharge measurements were investigated for the cathode performance of the synthesized LFP and LFP-C samples. The results showed that the carbon-coated sample demonstrated the highest capacity of about 140 mAhg-1 as compared to non-coated and micrograined sized commercial LFP.

Keywords: energy storage, Ceramics, electrochemical measurements, transmission electron microscope

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6 Dielectric Properties of La2MoO6 Ceramics at Microwave Frequency

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yu-Cheng You


The microwave dielectric properties of La2MoO6 ceramics were investigated with a view to their application in mobile communication. La2MoO6 ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method with various sintering conditions. The X-ray diffraction peaks of La2MoO6 ceramic did not vary significantly with sintering conditions. The average grain size of La2MoO6 ceramics increased as the temperature and time of sintering increased. A maximum density of 5.67 g/cm3, a dielectric constants (εr) of 14.1, a quality factor (Q×f) of 68,000 GHz, and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) of -56 ppm/℃ were obtained when La2MoO6 ceramics that were sintered at 1300 ℃ for 4h.

Keywords: sintering, Ceramics, microwave dielectric properties, La2MoO6

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5 Interfacial Investigation and Chemical Bonding in Graphene Reinforced Alumina Ceramic Nanocomposites

Authors: Iftikhar Ahmad, Mohammad Islam


Thermally exfoliated graphene nanomaterial was reinforced into Al2O3 ceramic and the nanocomposites were consolidated using rapid high-frequency induction heat sintering route. The resulting nanocomposites demonstrated higher mechanical properties due to efficient GNS incorporation and chemical interaction with the Al2O3 matrix grains. The enhancement in mechanical properties is attributed to (i) uniformly-dispersed GNS in the consolidated structure (ii) ability of GNS to decorate Al2O3 nanoparticles and (iii) strong GNS/Al2O3 chemical interaction during colloidal mixing and pullout/crack bridging toughening mechanisms during mechanical testing. The GNS/Al2O3 interaction during different processing stages was thoroughly examined by thermal and structural investigation of the interfacial area. The formation of an intermediate aluminum oxycarbide phase (Al2OC) via a confined carbothermal reduction reaction at the GNS/Al2O3 interface was observed using advanced electron microscopes. The GNS surface roughness improves GNS/Al2O3 mechanical locking and chemical compatibility. The sturdy interface phase facilitates efficient load transfer and delayed failure through impediment of crack propagation. The resulting nanocomposites, therefore, offer superior toughness.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Nanostructures, interfaces, Electron Microscopy, Ceramics, Al2O3

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4 Clay Palm Press: A Technique of Hand Building in Ceramics for Developing Conceptual Forms

Authors: Okewu E. Jonathan


There are several techniques of production in the field of ceramics. These different techniques overtime have been categorised under three methods of production which includes; casting, throwing and hand building. Hand building method of production is further broken down into other techniques and they include coiling, slabbing and pinching. Ceramic artists find the different hand building techniques to be very interesting, practicable and rewarding. This has encouraged ceramic artist in their various studios at different levels to experiment for further hand building techniques that could be unique and unusual. The art of “Clay Palm Press” is a development from studio experiment in a quest for uniqueness in conceptual ceramic practise. Clay palm press is a technique that requires no formal tutelage but at the same time, it is not easily comprehensible when viewed. It is a practice of putting semi-solid clay in the palm and inserting a closed fist pressure so as to take the imprint of the human palm. This clay production from the palm when dried, fired and explored into an art, work reveals an absolute awesomeness of what the palm imprint could result in.

Keywords: Ceramics, Technique, clay palm press, conceptual forms, hand building

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3 Accurate and Repeatable Pressure Control for Critical Testing of Advanced Ceramics Using Proportional and Derivative Controller

Authors: Benchalak Muangmeesri


The purpose of this paper is to discuss how to test the best control performance of a ceramics. Hydraulic press machine (HPM) is the most common shaping of advanced ceramic with products, dimensions, and ceramic products mainly from synthetic powders. A microcontroller can be achieved to control process and has set high standards in the shaping of raw materials in powder form. HPM was proposed to develop a position control system that linked to the embedded controller PIC16F877 via Proportional and Derivative (PD) controller. The model is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the best control performance of an HPM. Finally, PD controller results, showing the best performance as it had the smallest overshoot and highest quality using a microcontroller control.

Keywords: Ceramics, microcontroller, PD controller, hydraulic press

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2 Use of Slab Method, Throwing and Press Mold in Making Ceramic Holders for Offices

Authors: E. P. Doku-Asare, A. Essuman


The materials used for the production of holders are mainly metals and plastic, and these materials are difficult and expensive to process; therefore, the need to explore other materials such as clay for the production of holders. Clay is a viable material for the production of holders due to its plastic nature. Using ceramic materials as a medium for the production of holders does not only serve its purpose but also economically cheaper since the material is mined in Ghana. The study also examines the aesthetic nature of the holders due to the properties found in the material used. Six holders were chosen and were made in a manner that would not take a lot of space. They are Pin holders, Paper holders, Penholders, Paperweight and Umbrella holders. The production technique employed in the execution of this project were the slab method, throwing, and press mold. Results indicated that ceramic holders are durable and long-lasting and can serve the purpose of metallic and plastic holders. The study also found that clay holders are durable due to the fact that clay is from a natural source which ensures permanence and resistance to stress. It is recommended that press molds be used in the production of holders. Clay holders last longer due to the useful properties of clay including very high hardness and strength.

Keywords: Ceramics, Interior Design, Ghana, production technique

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1 Realization and Characterizations of Conducting Ceramics Based on ZnO Doped by TiO₂, Al₂O₃ and MgO

Authors: Abdelhadi Kassiba, Qianying Sun, Guorong Li


ZnO with wurtzite structure is a well-known semiconducting oxide (SCO), being applied in thermoelectric devices, varistors, gas sensors, transparent electrodes, solar cells, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric and electro-optical devices. Intrinsically, ZnO is weakly n-type SCO due to native defects (Znⱼ, Vₒ). However, the substitutional doping by metallic elements as (Al, Ti) gives rise to a high n-type conductivity ensured by donor centers. Under CO+N₂ sintering atmosphere, Schottky barriers of ZnO ceramics will be suppressed by lowering the concentration of acceptors at grain boundaries and then inducing a large increase in the Hall mobility, thereby increasing the conductivity. The presented work concerns ZnO based ceramics, which are fabricated with doping by TiO₂ (0.50mol%), Al₂O₃ (0.25mol%) and MgO (1.00mol%) and sintering in different atmospheres (Air (A), N₂ (N), CO+N₂(C)). We obtained uniform, dense ceramics with ZnO as the main phase and Zn₂TiO₄ spinel as a secondary and minor phase. An important increase of the conductivity was shown for the samples A, N, and C which were sintered under different atmospheres. The highest conductivity (σ = 1.52×10⁵ S·m⁻¹) was obtained under the reducing atmosphere (CO). The role of doping was investigated with the aim to identify the local environment and valence states of the doping elements. Thus, Electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) determines the concentration of defects and the effects of charge carriers in ZnO ceramics as a function of the sintering atmospheres. The relation between conductivity and defects concentration shows the opposite behavior between these parameters suggesting that defects act as traps for charge carriers. For Al ions, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique was used to identify the involved local coordination of these ions. Beyond the six and forth coordinated Al, an additional NMR signature of ZnO based TCO requires analysis taking into account the grain boundaries and the conductivity through the Knight shift effects. From the thermal evolution of the conductivity as a function of the sintering atmosphere, we succeed in defining the conditions to realize ZnO based TCO ceramics with an important thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) which is promising for electrical safety of devices.

Keywords: Ceramics, Defects, Conductivity, ZnO, TCO

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