Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

CeO2 Related Abstracts

4 Enhanced Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Binary Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Azeem Ur Rehman, Asma Tayyaba

Abstract:

This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electro catalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physico chemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), electro catalyst, formic acid fuel cell

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3 Modification Effect of CeO2 on Pt-Pd Nano Sized Catalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

Authors: Ateeq Ur Rehman

Abstract:

This article deals with the promotional effects of CeO2 on PtPd/CeO2-OMC electrocatalysts. The synthesized catalysts are characterized using different physicochemical techniques and evaluated in a formic acid oxidation fuel cell. N2 adsorption/desorption analysis shows that CeO2 modification increases the surface area of OMC from 1005 m2/g to 1119 m2/g. SEM, XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the presence of CeO2 enhances the active metal(s) dispersion on the CeO2-OMC surface. The average particle size of the dispersed metal decreases with the increase of Pt/Pd ratio on CeO2-OMC support. Cyclic voltametry measurement of Pd/CeO2-OMC gives 12 % higher anodic current activity with 83 mV negative shift of the peak potential as compared to unmodified Pd/OMC. In bimetallic catalysts, the addition of Pt improves the activity and stability of the catalysts significantly. Among the bimetallic samples, Pd3Pt1/CeO2-OMC displays superior current density (74.6 mA/cm2), which is 28.3 times higher than that of Pt/CeO2-OMC. It also shows higher stability in extended period of runs with least indication of CO poisoning effects.

Keywords: nano particles, CeO2, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), formic acid fuel cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2 The Power of in situ Characterization Techniques in Heterogeneous Catalysis: A Case Study of Deacon Reaction

Authors: Ramzi Farra, Detre Teschner, Marc Willinger, Robert Schlögl

Abstract:

Introduction: The conventional approach of characterizing solid catalysts under static conditions, i.e., before and after reaction, does not provide sufficient knowledge on the physicochemical processes occurring under dynamic conditions at the molecular level. Hence, the necessity of improving new in situ characterizing techniques with the potential of being used under real catalytic reaction conditions is highly desirable. In situ Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) is a rapidly developing chemical analytical technique that enables us experimentally to assess the coverage of surface species under catalytic turnover and correlate these with the reactivity. The catalytic HCl oxidation (Deacon reaction) over bulk ceria will serve as our example. Furthermore, the in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy is a powerful technique that can contribute to the study of atmosphere and temperature induced morphological or compositional changes of a catalyst at atomic resolution. The application of such techniques (PGAA and TEM) will pave the way to a greater and deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of active catalysts. Experimental/Methodology: In situ Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) experiments were carried out to determine the Cl uptake and the degree of surface chlorination under reaction conditions by varying p(O2), p(HCl), p(Cl2), and the reaction temperature. The abundance and dynamic evolution of OH groups on working catalyst under various steady-state conditions were studied by means of in situ FTIR with a specially designed homemade transmission cell. For real in situ TEM we use a commercial in situ holder with a home built gas feeding system and gas analytics. Conclusions: Two complimentary in situ techniques, namely in situ PGAA and in situ FTIR were utilities to investigate the surface coverage of the two most abundant species (Cl and OH). The OH density and Cl uptake were followed under multiple steady-state conditions as a function of p(O2), p(HCl), p(Cl2), and temperature. These experiments have shown that, the OH density positively correlates with the reactivity whereas Cl negatively. The p(HCl) experiments give rise to increased activity accompanied by Cl-coverage increase (opposite trend to p(O2) and T). Cl2 strongly inhibits the reaction, but no measurable increase of the Cl uptake was found. After considering all previous observations we conclude that only a minority of the available adsorption sites contribute to the reactivity. In addition, the mechanism of the catalysed reaction was proposed. The chlorine-oxygen competition for the available active sites renders re-oxidation as the rate-determining step of the catalysed reaction. Further investigations using in situ TEM are planned and will be conducted in the near future. Such experiments allow us to monitor active catalysts at the atomic scale under the most realistic conditions of temperature and pressure. The talk will shed a light on the potential and limitations of in situ PGAA and in situ TEM in the study of catalyst dynamics.

Keywords: CeO2, deacon process, in situ PGAA, in situ TEM, in situ FTIR

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1 Photocatalytic Activity of Pure and Doped CeO2 Nanoparticles

Authors: Mohamed Khedr, Ahmed Farghali, Waleed El Rouby, Abdelrhman Hamdeldeen

Abstract:

Pure CeO2, Sm and Gd doped CeO2 were successfully prepared via hydrothermal method. The effect of hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and precursors were investigated. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman Spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The prepared pure and doped CeO2 nanoparticles were used as photo-catalyst for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Gd doped CeO2 nano-particles have the best catalytic degradation effect for MB under UV irradiation. The degradation pathways of MB were followed using liquid chromatography (LC/MS) and it was found that Gd doped CeO2 was able to oxidize MB dye with a complete mineralization of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur heteroatoms into CO2, NH4+, NO3- and SO42-.

Keywords: photocatalysis, methylene blue, CeO2, doped CeO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 182