Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

cellulosic ethanol Related Abstracts

3 High Titer Cellulosic Ethanol Production Achieved by Fed-Batch Prehydrolysis Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Sulfite Pretreated Softwood

Authors: Chengyu Dong, Shao-Yuan Leu


Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel, mitigate climate change, and stimulate rural economic development. The relative low ethanol production (60 g/L) limits the economic viable of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. The ethanol production can be increased up to 80 g/L by removing nearly all the non-cellulosic materials, while the capital of the pretreatment process increased significantly. In this study, a fed-batch prehydrolysis simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process (PSSF) was designed to converse the sulfite pretreated softwood (~30% residual lignin) to high concentrations of ethanol (80 g/L). The liquefaction time of hydrolysis process was shortened down to 24 h by employing the fed-batch strategy. Washing out the spent liquor with water could eliminate the inhibition of the pretreatment spent liquor. However, the ethanol yield of lignocellulose was reduced as the fermentable sugars were also lost during the process. Fed-batch prehydrolyzing the while slurry (i.e. liquid plus solid fraction) pretreated softwood for 24 h followed by simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process at 28 °C can generate 80 g/L ethanol production. Fed-batch strategy is very effectively to eliminate the “solid effect” of the high gravity saccharification, so concentrating the cellulose to nearly 90% by the pretreatment process is not a necessary step to get high ethanol production. Detoxification of the pretreatment spent liquor caused the loss of sugar and reduced the ethanol yield consequently. The tolerance of yeast to inhibitors was better at 28 °C, therefore, reducing the temperature of the following fermentation process is a simple and valid method to produce high ethanol production.

Keywords: temperature, cellulosic ethanol, sulfite pretreatment, Fed batch PSSF

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2 The Potential of Sown Pastures as Feedstock for Biofuels in Brazil

Authors: Danilo G. De Quadros


Biofuels are a priority in the renewable energy agenda. The utilization of tropical grasses to ethanol production is a real opportunity to Brazil reaches the world’s leadership in biofuels production because there are 100 million hectares of sown pastures, which represent 20% of all land and 80% of agricultural areas. Basically, nowadays tropical grasses are used to raise livestock. The results obtained in this research could bring tremendous advance not only to national technology and economy but also to improve social and environmental aspects. Thus, the objective of this work was to estimate, through well-established international models, the potential of biofuels production using sown tropical pastures as feedstocks and to compare the results with sugarcane ethanol, considering state-of-art of conversion technology, advantages and limitations factors. There were used data from national and international literature about forage yield and biochemical conversion yield. Some scenarios were studied to evaluate potential advantages and limitations for cellulosic ethanol production, since non-food feedstock appeal to conversion strategies, passing through harvest, densification, logistics, environmental impacts (carbon and water cycles, nutrient recycling and biodiversity), and social aspects. If Brazil used only 1% of sown pastures to ethanol production by biochemical pathway, with average dry matter yield of 15 metric tons per hectare per year (there are results of 40 tons), resulted annually in 721 billion liters, that represents 10 times more than sugarcane ethanol projected by the Government in 2030. However, more research is necessary to take the results to commercial scale with competitive costs, considering many strategies and methods applied in ethanol production using cellulosic feedstock.

Keywords: biofuels, Sustainability, cellulosic ethanol, biochemical pathway

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1 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano


In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: genome sequencing, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cellulosic ethanol, xylose consumption

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