Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Cell Therapy Related Abstracts

7 Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber Modification for Regulating Astrocyte Activity via Simple Heat Treatment

Authors: Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin, Sang-Myung Jung, Jeong Hyun Ju

Abstract:

Central nervous system (CNS) consists of neuronal cell and supporting cells. Astrocytes are the most common supporting cells and play roles in metabolism between neurons and blood vessel. For this function, engineered astrocytes have been studied as a therapeutic source for CNS injury. In neural tissue engineering, nanofiber has been suggested as an effective scaffold for providing structure and mechanical properties influencing physiology. Cellulose acetate (CA) has been investigated for material to fabricate scaffold because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and fine thermal stability. In this research, CA nanofiber was modified via heat treatment and its effect on astrocyte activity was evaluated. Adhesion and viability of astrocyte were increased in proportion to stiffness. Additionally, expression of GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation, was increased via stiffness of scaffold. This research suggests a simple modification method to change stiffness of CA nanofiber and shows cellular behavior affecting stiffness of three-dimensional scaffold independently. For the results, we highlight that the stiffness is a factor to regulate astrocyte activity.

Keywords: Cell Therapy, astrocyte, cellulose acetate, stiffness of scaffold

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6 Assessment of Barriers to the Clinical Adoption of Cell-Based Therapeutics

Authors: David Pettitt, Benjamin Davies, Georg Holländer, David Brindley

Abstract:

Cellular based therapies, whose origins can be traced from the intertwined concepts of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have the potential to transform the current medical landscape and offer an approach to managing what were once considered untreatable diseases. However, despite a large increase in basic science activity in the cell therapy arena alongside a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use correlates poorly with such a magnitude of activity, with the number of cell-based therapeutics in mainstream use remaining comparatively low. This research serves to quantitatively assess the barriers to the clinical adoption of cell-based therapeutics through identification of unique barriers, specific challenges and opportunities facing the development and adoption of such therapies.

Keywords: Translation, Cell Therapy, Commercialization, clinical adoption

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5 Biomolecules Based Microarray for Screening Human Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Adel Dalilottojari, Bahman Delalat, Frances J. Harding, Michaelia P. Cockshell, Claudine S. Bonder, Nicolas H. Voelcker

Abstract:

Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) based therapies continue to be of interest to treat ischemic events based on their proven role to promote blood vessel formation and thus tissue re-vascularisation. Current strategies for the production of clinical-grade EPCs requires the in vitro isolation of EPCs from peripheral blood followed by cell expansion to provide sufficient quantities EPCs for cell therapy. This study aims to examine the use of different biomolecules to significantly improve the current strategy of EPC capture and expansion on collagen type I (Col I). In this study, four different biomolecules were immobilised on a surface and then investigated for their capacity to support EPC capture and proliferation. First, a cell microarray platform was fabricated by coating a glass surface with epoxy functional allyl glycidyl ether plasma polymer (AGEpp) to mediate biomolecule binding. The four candidate biomolecules tested were Col I, collagen type II (Col II), collagen type IV (Col IV) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), which were arrayed on the epoxy-functionalised surface using a non-contact printer. The surrounding area between the printed biomolecules was passivated with polyethylene glycol-bisamine (A-PEG) to prevent non-specific cell attachment. EPCs were seeded onto the microarray platform and cell numbers quantified after 1 h (to determine capture) and 72 h (to determine proliferation). All of the extracellular matrix (ECM) biomolecules printed demonstrated an ability to capture EPCs within 1 h of cell seeding with Col II exhibiting the highest level of attachment when compared to the other biomolecules. Interestingly, Col IV exhibited the highest increase in EPC expansion after 72 h when compared to Col I, Col II and VEGF-A. These results provide information for significant improvement in the capture and expansion of human EPC for further application.

Keywords: Biomolecules, Cell Therapy, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, high throughput screening, cell microarray platform

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4 Ageing Gingiva: A New Hope for Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Ankush M. Dewle, Suditi Bhattacharya, Prachi R. Abhang, Savita Datar, Ajay J. Jog, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Geetanjali Tomar

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from ageing gingival tissues, in order to suggest their potential role in autologous stem cell therapy for old individuals. Methods: MSCs were isolated from gingival tissues of young (18-45 years) and old (above 45 years) donors by enzymatic digestion. MSCs were analysed for cfu-f, surface marker expression by flow-cytometry and multilineage differentiation potential. The angiogenic potential was compared in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane model. The aging and differentiation markers including SA-β-galactosidase and p21 respectively were analysed by staining and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, osteogenic markers such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured by flow-cytometry and RT-qPCR was performed for quantification of osteogenic gene expression. Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also quantitated. Results: Gingival MSCs (GMSCs) from both the age groups were similar in their morphology and displayed cfu-f. They had similar expression of MSC surface markers and p21, comparable rate of proliferation and differentiated to all the four lineages. GMSCs from young donors had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential as compared to the old GMSCs. Moreover, these cells did not display a significant difference in ALP activity probably due to comparable expression of GR, VDR, and osteogenic genes. Conclusions: Ageing of GMSCs occurs at a much slower rate than stem cells from other sources. Thus we suggest GMSCs as an excellent candidate for autologous stem cell therapy in degenerative diseases of elderly individuals. Clinical Significance: GMSCs could help overcome the setbacks in clinical implementation of autologous stem cell therapy for regenerative medicine in all age group of patient.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Cell Therapy, Bone Regeneration, senescence

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3 Expression of Fibrogenesis Markers after Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy for Experimental Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Tatsiana Ihnatovich, Darya Nizheharodava, Mikalai Halabarodzka, Tatsiana Savitskaya, Marina Zafranskaya

Abstract:

Liver fibrosis is a complex of histological changes resulting from chronic liver disease accompanied by an excessive production and deposition of extracellular matrix components in the hepatic parenchyma. Liver fibrosis is a serious medical and social problem. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) make a significant contribution to the extracellular matrix deposition due to liver injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a pronounced anti-inflammatory, regenerative and immunomodulatory effect; they are able to differentiate into hepatocytes and induce apoptosis of activated HSCs that opens the prospect of their use for preventing the excessive fibro-formation and the development of liver cirrhosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of MSCs therapy on the expression of fibrogenesis markers genes in liver tissue and HSCs cultures of rats with experimental liver cirrhosis (ELC). Materials and methods: ELC was induced by the common bile duct ligation (CBDL) in female Wistar rats (n = 19) with an average body weight of 250 (220 ÷ 270) g. Animals from the control group (n = 10) were sham-operated. On the 56th day after the CBDL, the rats of the experimental (n = 12) and the control (n = 5) groups received intraportal MSCs in concentration of 1×106 cells/animal (previously obtained from rat’s bone marrow) or saline, respectively. The animals were taken out of the experiment on the 21st day. HSCs were isolated by sequential liver perfusion in situ with following disaggregation, enzymatic treatment and centrifugation of cell suspension on a two-stage density gradient. The expression of collagen type I (Col1a1) and type III (Col3a1), matrix metalloproteinase type 2 (MMP2) and type 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 1 (TIMP1), transforming growth factor β type 1 (TGFβ1) and type 3 (TGFβ3) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. Results: In ELC rats compared to sham-operated animals, a significant increase of all studied markers expression was observed. The administration of MSCs led to a significant decrease of all detectable markers in the experimental group compared to rats without cell therapy. In ELC rats, an increased MMP9/TIMP1 ratio after cell therapy was also detected. The infusion of MSCs in the sham-operated animals did not lead to any changes. In the HSCs from ELC animals, the expression of Col1a1 and Col3a1 exceeded the similar parameters of the control group (p <0.05) and statistically decreased after the MSCs administration. The correlation between Col3a1 (Rs = 0.51, p <0.05), TGFβ1 (Rs = 0.6, p <0.01), and TGFβ3 (Rs = 0.75, p <0.001) expression in HSCs cultures and liver tissue has been found. Conclusion: Intraportal administration of MSCs to rats with ELC leads to a decreased Col1a1 and Col3a1, MMP2 and MMP9, TIMP1, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 expression. The correlation between the expression of Col3a1, TGFβ1 and TGFβ3 in liver tissue and in HSCs cultures indicates the involvement of activated HSCs in the fibrogenesis that allows considering HSCs to be the main cell therapy target in ELC.

Keywords: Cell Therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, hepatic stellate cells, experimental liver cirrhosis

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2 In vitro Regeneration of Neural Cells Using Human Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Urvi Panwar, Kanchan Mishra, Kanjaksha Ghosh, ShankerLal Kothari

Abstract:

Background: Day-by-day the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases have become a global issue to manage them by medical sciences. The adult neural stem cells are rare and require an invasive and painful procedure to obtain it from central nervous system. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapies have shown remarkable application in treatment of various cell injuries and cell loss. MSCs can be derived from various sources like adult tissues, human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and cord tissue. MSCs have similar proliferation and differentiation capability, but the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are proved to be more beneficial with respect to cell procurement, differentiation to other cells, preservation, and transplantation. Material and method: Human umbilical cord is easily obtainable and non-controversial comparative to bone marrow and other adult tissues. The umbilical cord can be collected after delivery of baby, and its tissue can be cultured using explant culture method. Cell culture medium such as DMEMF12+10% FBS and DMEMF12+Neural growth factors (bFGF, human noggin, B27) with antibiotics (Streptomycin/Gentamycin) were used to culture and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells, respectively. The characterisations of MSCs were done with Flow Cytometer for surface markers CD90, CD73 and CD105 and colony forming unit assay. The differentiated various neural cells will be characterised by fluorescence markers for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; quantitative PCR for genes Nestin and NeuroD1 and Western blotting technique for gap43 protein. Result and discussion: The high quality and number of MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord via explant culture method. The obtained MSCs were differentiated into neural cells like neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The differentiated neural cells can be used to treat neural injuries and neural cell loss by delivering cells by non-invasive administration via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. Moreover, the MSCs can also be directly delivered to different injured sites where they differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, human umbilical cord is demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easily available source for MSCs. Moreover, the hUCMSCs can be a potential source for neural cell therapies and neural cell regeneration for neural cell injuries and neural cell loss. This new way of research will be helpful to treat and manage neural cell damages and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Still the study has a long way to go but it is a promising approach for many neural disorders for which at present no satisfactory management is available.

Keywords: Neurodegenerative Diseases, Cell Therapy, Regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow, neuroprotective, human umbilical cord, explant culture method, flow cytometer

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1 Effect of Locally Injected Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bone Regeneration of Rat Calvaria Defects

Authors: Gileade P. Freitas, Helena B. Lopes, Alann T. P. Souza, Paula G. F. P. Oliveira, Adriana L. G. Almeida, Paulo G. Coelho, Marcio M. Beloti, Adalberto L. Rosa

Abstract:

Bone tissue presents great capacity to regenerate when injured by trauma, infectious processes, or neoplasia. However, the extent of injury may exceed the inherent tissue regeneration capability demanding some kind of additional intervention. In this scenario, cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to treat challenging bone defects. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of local injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on bone regeneration of rat calvaria defects. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were isolated and characterized by expression of surface markers; cell viability was evaluated after injection through a 21G needle. Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in calvaria and after two weeks a single injection of BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs or vehicle-PBS without cells (Control) was carried out. Cells were tracked by bioluminescence and at 4 weeks post-injection bone formation was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histology, nanoindentation, and through gene expression of bone remodeling markers. The data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (p≤0.05). BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs presented characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, kept viability after passing through a 21G needle and remained in the defects until day 14. In general, injection of both BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs resulted in higher bone formation compared to Control. Additionally, this bone tissue displayed elastic modulus and hardness similar to the pristine calvaria bone. The expression of all evaluated genes involved in bone formation was upregulated in bone tissue formed by BM-MSCs compared to AT-MSCs while genes involved in bone resorption were upregulated in AT-MSCs-formed bone. We show that cell therapy based on the local injection of BM-MSCs or AT-MSCs is effective in delivering viable cells that displayed local engraftment and induced a significant improvement in bone healing. Despite differences in the molecular cues observed between BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs, both cells were capable of forming bone tissue at comparable amounts and properties. These findings may drive cell therapy approaches toward the complete bone regeneration of challenging sites.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Cell Therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, bone repair

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