Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Cell migration Related Abstracts

6 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova

Abstract:

Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data (www.oncomine.org). The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Prostate Cancer, Meta-analysis, Cell migration, decoy receptor

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5 Study of the Combinatorial Impact of Substrate Properties on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Using Microfluidics

Authors: Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Chuah Yon Jin, Samantha Phey, Wu Yingnan, Zhang Ying, Vincent Chan, Kang Yuejun

Abstract:

Cell Migration is a vital phenomenon that the cells undergo in various physiological processes like wound healing, disease progression, embryogenesis, etc. Cell migration depends primarily on the chemical and physical cues available in the cellular environment. The chemical cue involves the chemokines secreted and gradients generated in the environment while physical cues indicate the impact of matrix properties like nanotopography and stiffness on the cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been shown to have a role wound healing in vivo and its migration to the site of the wound has been shown to have a therapeutic effect. In the field of stem cell based tissue regeneration of bones and cartilage, one approach has been to introduce scaffold laden with MSCs into the site of injury to enable tissue regeneration. In this work, we have studied the combinatorial impact of the substrate physical properties on MSC migration. A microfluidic in vitro model was created to perform the migration studies. The microfluidic model used is a three compartment device consisting of two cell seeding compartments and one migration compartment. Four different PDMS substrates with varying substrate roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity were created. Its surface roughness and stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while its hydrphobicity was measured from the water contact angle using an optical tensiometer. These PDMS substrates are sealed to the microfluidic chip following which the MSCs are seeded and the cell migration is studied over the period of a week. Cell migration was quantified using fluorescence imaging of the cytoskeleton (F-actin) to find out the area covered by the cells inside the migration compartment. The impact of adhesion proteins on cell migration was also quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). These results suggested that the optimal substrate for cell migration would be one with an intermediate level of roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity. A higher or lower value of these properties affected cell migration negatively. These observations have helped us in understanding that different substrate properties need to be considered in tandem, especially while designing scaffolds for tissue regeneration as cell migration is normally impacted by the combinatorial impact of the matrix. These observations may lead us to scaffold optimization in future tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Scaffold, Cell migration, in vitro model, stem cell migration, substrate properties

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4 Numerical Simulation of a Single Cell Passing through a Narrow Slit

Authors: Yang Liu, Lanlan Xiao, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu

Abstract:

Most cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis. Metastasis is a complex, multistep processes including the detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor and the migration to distant targeted organs through blood and/or lymphatic circulations. During hematogenous metastasis, the emigration of tumor cells from the blood stream through the vascular wall into the tissue involves arrest in the microvasculature, adhesion to the endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall and transmigration to the tissue through the endothelial barrier termed as extravasation. The narrow slit between endothelial cells that line the microvessel wall is the principal pathway for tumor cell extravasation to the surrounding tissue. To understand this crucial step for tumor hematogenous metastasis, we used Dissipative Particle Dynamics method to investigate an individual cell passing through a narrow slit numerically. The cell membrane was simulated by a spring-based network model which can separate the internal cytoplasm and surrounding fluid. The effects of the cell elasticity, cell shape and cell surface area increase, and slit size on the cell transmigration through the slit were investigated. Under a fixed driven force, the cell with higher elasticity can be elongated more and pass faster through the slit. When the slit width decreases to 2/3 of the cell diameter, the spherical cell becomes jammed despite reducing its elasticity modulus by 10 times. However, transforming the cell from a spherical to ellipsoidal shape and increasing the cell surface area only by 3% can enable the cell to pass the narrow slit. Therefore the cell shape and surface area increase play a more important role than the cell elasticity in cell passing through the narrow slit. In addition, the simulation results indicate that the cell migration velocity decreases during entry but increases during exit of the slit, which is qualitatively in agreement with the experimental observation.

Keywords: Dissipative particle dynamics, Cell migration, deformability, surface area increase

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3 Assessment of Platelet and Lymphocyte Interaction in Autoimmune Hyperthyroidism

Authors: Małgorzata Tomczyńska, Joanna Saluk-Bijak

Abstract:

Background: Graves’ disease is a frequent organ-specific autoimmune thyroid disease, which characterized by the presence of different kind autoantibodies, that, in most cases, act as agonists of the thyrotropin receptor, leading to hyperthyroidism. Role of platelets and lymphocytes can be modulated in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Interference in the physiology of platelets can lead to enhanced activity of these cells. Activated platelets can bind to circulating lymphocytes and to affect lymphocyte adhesion. Platelets and lymphocytes can regulate mutual functions. Therefore, the activation of T lymphocytes, as well as blood platelets, is associated with the development of inflammation and oxidative stress within the target tissue. The present study was performed to investigate a platelet-lymphocyte relation by assessing the degree of their mutual aggregation in whole blood of patients with Graves’ disease. Also, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of platelet interaction on lymphocyte migration capacity. Methods: 30 patients with Graves’ disease were recruited in the study. The matched 30 healthy subjects were served as the control group. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was carried out by flow cytometry method. A CytoSelect™ Cell Migration Assay Kit was used to evaluate lymphocyte migration and adhesion to blood platelets. Visual assessment of lymphocyte-platelet aggregate morphology was done using confocal microscope after magnetic cell isolation by Miltenyi Biotec. Results: The migration and functional responses of lymphocytes to blood platelets were greater in the group of Graves’ disease patients compared with healthy controls. The group of Graves’ disease patients exhibited a reduced T lymphocyte and a higher B cell count compared with controls. Based on microscopic analysis, more platelet-lymphocyte aggregates were found in patients than in control. Conclusions: Studies have shown that in Graves' disease, lymphocytes show increased platelet affinity, more strongly migrating toward them, and forming mutual cellular conglomerates. This may be due to the increased activation of blood platelets in this disease.

Keywords: Cell migration, Lymphocytes, Graves’ disease, blood platelets, lymphocyte-platelet aggregates

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2 Chemotactic Behaviour of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Silicate Substituted Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Dinara Ikramova, Karin A. Hing, Simon C. F. Rawlinson

Abstract:

Silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) has been shown to enhance bone regeneration in vivo compared with phase pure stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Evidence suggests that substrate chemistry dependent formation of a permissive protein layer on the surface of synthetic bone graft substitute materials is key for bioactivity and cell attachment. However, little information is available on whether the substrate chemistry may affect cell migration and recruitment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) exhibit a chemotactic response to SiHA porous granules and if it can be linked to either the ion exchange or protein sequestering and enrichment on the surface of the material. 150mg of SiHA granules with 80% total porosity and 20% strut porosity were incubated in 1ml of either Serum Free Media (SFM) or 10% Serum Containing Media (SCM) under static cell culture conditions (37°C, 5% CO2) in absence of cells. Protein sequestering and exchange of calcium, phosphate and silicate ions were analysed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours with n=12 per time point. Migration of hMSCs in the presence of 150mg of SiHA granules was assessed over 24 hours using a modified transwell migration system in either SFM or SCM (n=6) with 30% serum containing media acting as a positive control. At 24 hours protein sequestering and ionic exchange were analysed, and the number of cells was quantified using a high throughput confocal microscope (IN Cell Analyser 6000). In acellular condition, both calcium and phosphate ion concentrations in media showed a decrease at 24 hours which was greater in SFM than in SCM. This suggests possible formation and precipitation of a bone like apatite on the surface of SiHA. Reduction in this activity observed in SCM indicates that the presence of serum proteins is interfering with the ion exchange at the material and media interface. Adsorbed protein levels showed fluctuation over time followed by sharp decrease at 24 hours, suggesting a possible protein rearrangement on the surface of the material. The ion analysis performed on SFM and SCM after 24-hour incubation with cells in the presence of granules showed a greater reduction in phosphate concentration in both SFM and SCM compared to phosphate levels in acellular condition. Silicate concentration in SCM increased from 1.6mM (absence of cells) to 5.1mM (presence of cells). This indicates that the cells are promoting the uptake of phosphate and release of silicate ions. No significant change was seen in levels of adsorbed proteins in the presence and absence of cells. Further analysis is required to determine whether the species of these proteins change over time. The analysis of cell migration after 24-hour incubation showed more cells migrating towards the granules, 12.7% in SFM and 8.3% in SCM, than in positive control, 4.5% in SFM and 3.6% in SCM respectively. These results suggest that SiHA has a chemotactic activity independent of serum proteins. A property which has not previously been demonstrated for a synthetic bone graft material.

Keywords: Cell migration, hMSCs, SiHA, transwell migration system

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1 Targeting Tumour Survival and Angiogenic Migration after Radiosensitization with an Estrone Analogue in an in vitro Bone Metastasis Model

Authors: Annie M. Joubert, Roy Lakier, Jolene M. Helena, Peace Mabeta, Magdalena Coetzee, Anne E. Mercier

Abstract:

Targeting the distant tumour and its microenvironment whilst preserving bone density is important in improving the outcomes of patients with bone metastases. 2-Ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra1,3,5(10)16-tetraene (ESE-16) is an in-silico-designed 2- methoxyestradiol analogue which aimed at enhancing the parent compound’s cytotoxicity and providing a more favourable pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, the potential radiosensitization effects of ESE-16 were investigated in an in vitro bone metastasis model consisting of murine pre-osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) and pre-osteoclastic (RAW 264.7) bone cells, metastatic prostate (DU 145) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells, as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity studies were conducted on all cell lines via spectrophotometric quantification of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The experimental set-up consisted of flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptosis detection (Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate) to determine the lowest ESE-16 and radiation doses to induce apoptosis and significantly reduce cell viability. Subsequent experiments entailed a 24-hour low-dose ESE-16-exposure followed by a single dose of radiation. Termination proceeded 2, 24 or 48 hours thereafter. The effect of the combination treatment was investigated on osteoclasts via tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity- and actin ring formation assays. Tumour cell experiments included investigation of mitotic indices via haematoxylin and eosin staining; pro-apoptotic signalling via spectrophotometric quantification of caspase 3; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage via micronuclei analysis and histone H2A.X phosphorylation (γ-H2A.X); and Western blot analyses of bone morphogenetic protein-7 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. HUVEC experiments included flow cytometric quantification of cell cycle progression and free radical production; fluorescent examination of cytoskeletal morphology; invasion and migration studies on an xCELLigence platform; and Western blot analyses of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2. Tumour cells yielded half-maximal growth inhibitory concentration (GI50) values in the nanomolar range. ESE-16 concentrations of 235 nM (DU 145) and 176 nM (MDA-MB-231) and a radiation dose of 4 Gy were found to be significant in cell cycle and apoptosis experiments. Bone and endothelial cells were exposed to the same doses as DU 145 cells. Cytotoxicity studies on bone cells reported that RAW 264.7 cells were more sensitive to the combination treatment than MC3T3-E1 cells. Mature osteoclasts were more sensitive than pre-osteoclasts with respect to TRAP activity. However, actin ring morphology was retained. The mitotic arrest was evident in tumour and endothelial cells in the mitotic index and cell cycle experiments. Increased caspase 3 activity and superoxide production indicated pro-apoptotic signalling in tumour and endothelial cells. Increased micronuclei numbers and γ-H2A.X foci indicated increased DNA damage in tumour cells. Compromised actin and tubulin morphologies and decreased invasion and migration were observed in endothelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed reduced metastatic and angiogenic signalling. ESE-16-induced radiosensitization inhibits metastatic signalling and tumour cell survival whilst preferentially preserving bone cells. This low-dose combination treatment strategy may promote the quality of life of patients with metastatic bone disease. Future studies will include 3-dimensional in-vitro and murine in-vivo models.

Keywords: Cancer, apoptosis, angiogenesis, DNA damage, Cell migration, cytoskeleton, radiosensitization, bone metastasis, ESE-16

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