Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Cell Cycle Related Abstracts

9 Promotion of Lipid Syntheses of Microalgae by Microfluidic-Assisted Membrane Distortion

Authors: Seul Ki Min, Gwang Heum Yoon, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Cellular membrane distortion is known as a factor to change intracellular signaling. However, progress of relevant studies is difficult because there are no facilities that can control membrane distortion finely. In this study, we developed microfluidic device which can inflict mechanical stress on cell membrane of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using regular height of the channels. And cellular physiological changes were analyzed from cells cultured in the device. Excessive calcium ion influx through into cytoplasm was induced from mechanical stress. The results revealed that compressed cells had up-regulated Mat3 mRNA which regulates cell size and cell cycle from a prolonged G1 phase. Additionally, TAG used for the production of biodiesel was raised rapidly from 4 h after compression. Taken together, membrane distortion can be considered as an attractive inducer for biofuel production.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, mechanical stress, Lipid Metabolism, membrane distortion, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, deflagellation

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8 Satureja bachtiarica Bunge Induce Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Intrinsic Pathway and G1 Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Hamed Karimian, Noraziah Nordin, Mohamad Ibrahim Noordin, Syam Mohan, Mahboubeh Razavi, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Happipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Satureja bachtiarica Bunge is a perennial medicinal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family and endemic species in Iran. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge with the local name of Marzeh koohi is edible vegetable use as flavoring agent, anti-bacterial and to relieve cough and indigestion. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge on the MDA-MB-231 cell line as an Breast cancer cell model has been analyzed for the first time. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge was extracted using different solvents in the order of increasing polarity. Cytotoxicity activity of hexane extract of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge (SBHE) was observed using MTT assay. Acridine orange/Propidium iodide staining was used to detect early apoptosis; Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS), with Annexin-Vserving as a marker for apoptotic cells. Caspase 3/7, 8 and-9 assays showed significantly activation of caspase-9 where lead intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Bcl-2/Bax expressions and cell cycle arrest were also investigated. SBHE had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 Cell line compare to other cell lines. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed by fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with SBHE encouraged apoptosis, by down-regulating Bcl-2 and up-regulating Bax, which lead the activation of caspase 9. Moreover, SBHE treatment significantly arrested MDA-MB-231 cells in the G1 phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that SBHE inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells, leading cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death, which was confirmed to be through the mitochondrial pathway.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cell Cycle, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, MDA-MB-231, annexin-V

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7 New Quinazoline Derivative Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect agaisnt MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

The new quinazoline Schiff bases have been synthesized through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The compound was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. It demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41±0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with compound subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cell Cycle, acute toxicity, MCF-7, Quinazoline Schiff base, caspase

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6 TNF Modulation of Cancer Stem Cells in Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Rafia S. Al-lamki, Jun Wang, Simon Pacey, Jordan Pober, John R. Bradley

Abstract:

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), signaling through TNFR2, may act an autocrine growth factor for renal tubular epithelial cells. Clear cell renal carcinomas (ccRCC) contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) that give rise to progeny which form the bulk of the tumor. CSCs are rarely in cell cycle and, as non-proliferating cells, resist most chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, recurrence after chemotherapy may result from the survival of CSCs. Therapeutic targeting of both CSCs and the more differentiated bulk tumor populations may provide a more effective strategy for treatment of RCC. In this study, we hypothesized that TNFR2 signaling will induce CSCs in ccRCC to enter cell cycle so that treatment with ligands that engage TNFR2 will render CSCs susceptible to chemotherapy. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized wild-type TNF (wtTNF) or specific muteins selective for TNFR1 (R1TNF) or TNFR2 (R2TNF) to treat either short-term organ cultures of ccRCC and adjacent normal kidney (NK) tissue or cultures of CD133+ cells isolated from ccRCC and adjacent NK, hereafter referred to as stem cell-like cells (SCLCs). The effect of cyclophosphamide (CP), currently an effective anticancer agent, was tested on CD133+SCLCs from ccRCC and NK before and after R2TNF treatment. Responses to TNF were assessed by flow cytometry (FACS), immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR, TUNEL, and cell viability assays. Cytotoxic effect of CP was analyzed by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining with FACS. In addition, we assessed the effect of TNF on isolated SCLCs differentiation using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Clinical samples of ccRCC contain a greater number SCLCs compared to NK and the number of SCSC increases with higher tumor grade. Isolated SCLCs show expression of stemness markers (oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28) but not differentiation markers (cytokeratin, CD31, CD45, and EpCAM). In ccRCC organ cultures, wtTNF and R2TNF increase CD133 and TNFR2 expression and promote cell cycle entry whereas wtTNF and R1TNF increase TNFR1 expression and promote cell death of SCLCs. Similar findings are observed in SCLCs isolated from NK but the effect was greater in SCLCs isolated from ccRCC. Application of CP distinctly triggered apoptotic and necrotic cell death in SLCSs pre-treatment with R2TNF as compared to CP treatment alone, with SCLCs from ccRCC more sensitive to CP compared to SLCS from NK. Furthermore, TNF promotes differentiation of SCLCs to an epithelial phenotype in 3D cultures, confirmed by cytokeratin expression and loss of stemness markers Nanog and Sox2. The differentiated cells show positive expression of TNF and TNFR2. These findings provide evidence that selective engagement of TNFR2 drive CSCs to cell proliferation/differentiation, and targeting of cycling cells with TNFR2 agonist in combination with anti-cancer agents may be a potential therapy for RCC.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, Cancer Stem Cells, cell death, TNF, ccRCC, TNFR1, TNFR2, CD133

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5 Following the Modulation of Transcriptional Activity of Genes by Chromatin Modifications during the Cell Cycle in Living Cells

Authors: Sharon Yunger, Liat Altman, Yuval Garini, Yaron Shav-Tal

Abstract:

Understanding the dynamics of transcription in living cells has improved since the development of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging techniques. We established a method for following transcription from a single copy gene in living cells. A gene tagged with MS2 repeats, used for mRNA tagging, in its 3' UTR was integrated into a single genomic locus. The actively transcribing gene was detected and analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and live-cell imaging. Several cell clones were created that differed in the promoter regulating the gene. Thus, comparative analysis could be obtained without the risk of different position effects at each integration site. Cells in S/G2 phases could be detected exhibiting two adjacent transcription sites on sister chromatids. A sharp reduction in the transcription levels was observed as cells progressed along the cell cycle. We hypothesized that a change in chromatin structure acts as a general mechanism during the cell cycle leading to down-regulation in the activity of some genes. We addressed this question by treating the cells with chromatin decondensing agents. Quantifying and imaging the treated cells suggests that chromatin structure plays a role both in regulating transcriptional levels along the cell cycle, as well as in limiting an active gene from reaching its maximum transcription potential at any given time. These results contribute to understanding the role of chromatin as a regulator of gene expression.

Keywords: Transcription, Cell Cycle, nucleus, living cells

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4 Camptothecin Promotes ROS-Mediated G2/M Phase Cell Cycle Arrest, Resulting from Autophagy-Mediated Cytoprotection

Authors: Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Yung Hyun Choi, Gi-Young Kim

Abstract:

Camptothecin (CPT) is a quinolone alkaloid which inhibits DNA topoisomerase I that induces cytotoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines. We previously showed that CPT effectively inhibited invasion of prostate cancer cells and also combined treatment with subtoxic doses of CPT and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) potentially enhanced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner in hepatoma cancer cells. Here, we found that treatment with CPT caused an irreversible cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. CPT-induced cell cycle arrest was associated with a decrease in protein levels of cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) and increased the level of cyclin B and p21. The CPT-induced decrease in Cdc25C was blocked in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, thus reversed the cell cycle arrest. In addition to that treatment of CPT-increased phosphorylation of Cdc25C was the resulted of activation of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), which was associated with phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated. Interestingly CPT induced G2/M phase of the cell cycle arrest is reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent where ROS inhibitors NAC and GSH reversed the CPT-induced cell cycle arrest. These results further confirm by using transient knockdown of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) since it regulates the production of ROS. Our data reveal that treatment of siNrf2 increased the ROS level as well as further increased the CPT induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Our data also indicate CPT-enhanced cell cycle arrest through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Inhibitors of ERK and JNK more decreased the Cdc25C expression and protein expression of p21 and cyclin B. These findings indicate that Chk2-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc25C plays a major role in G2/M arrest by CPT.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, reactive oxygen species, camptothecin, checkpoint kinase 2, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2

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3 A Comparison of Sulfur Mustard Cytotoxic Effects on the Two Human Lung Origin Cell Lines

Authors: P. Jost, L. Muckova, M. Matula, J. Pejchal, D. Jun, R. Stetina

Abstract:

Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide) is highly toxic, chemical warfare agent that has been used in the past in several armed conflicts. Except for the skin, respiratory tract is one of the important routes of exposure. The elucidation and understanding of the mechanism of toxicity of SM have been effort intensive research. The multiple targets character of SM caused cellular damage resulted in activation of many different mechanisms which contribute to cellular response and participate in the final cytopathology effect. In our present work, we compared time-dependent changes in sulfur mustard exposed adult human lung fibroblasts NHLF and lung epithelial alveolar cell line A-549. Cell viability (MTT assay, Calcein-AM assay, and xCELLigence - real-time cell analysis), apoptosis (flow cytometry), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, flow cytometry), reactive oxygen species induction (DC and cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry) were studied. We observed significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequent induction of apoptosis correlating with decreased cellular viability in the sulfur mustard exposed cells. In low concentrations, sulfur mustard-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest, on the other hand, high concentrations, cell cycle phase distribution of sulfur mustard exposed cells resembled cell cycle phase distribution of control group, which implies nonspecific cell cycle inhibition. Epithelial cells A-549 was found as more sensible to sulfur mustard toxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cell Cycle, Cytotoxicity, sulfur mustard

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2 Cdk1 Gates Cell Cycle-Dependent tRNA Synthesis by Regulating RNA Polymerase III Activity

Authors: Maricarmen Herrera, Pierre Chymkowitch, Joe Robertson, Jens Eriksson, Jorrit Enserink

Abstract:

tRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. During recent years, it has become clear that tDNA transcription fluctuates during the cell cycle. However, the mechanism by which the cell cycle controls the amplitude of tDNA transcription remains unknown. We found that the cyclin Clb5 recruits the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 to tRNA genes to sharply increase tRNA synthesis during a brief interval in the cell cycle. We show that Cdk1 promotes the interaction of TFIIIB with TFIIIC, that it stimulates the recruitment of TFIIIC to tRNA genes, that it prevents the formation of an overly stable TFIIIB-tDNA complex and that it augments the dynamics of RNA polymerase III. Furthermore, we identify Bdp1 as a novel Cdk1 substrate, and phosphorylation of Bdp1 is required for the cell cycle-dependent increase in tDNA transcription. In addition, we show that phosphorylation of the Cdk1 substrate Nup60 mediates formation of a Nup60-Nup2 complex at tRNA genes, which is also required for cell cycle-dependent tDNA transcription. Together, our findings indicate that Cdk1 activity gates tRNA synthesis by regulating the dynamics of the TFIIIB-TFIIIC-RNAPIII complex, and that it may promote the formation of a nuclear pore microenvironment conducive to efficient tDNA transcription.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, Cdk1, RNAPIII machinery, tRNA

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1 Analysis of Cell Cycle Status in Radiation Non-Targeted Hepatoma Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Evidence of Dose Dependent Response

Authors: Sharmi Mukherjee, Anindita Chakraborty

Abstract:

Cellular irradiation incites complex responses including arrest of cell cycle progression. This article accentuates the effects of radiation on cell cycle status of radiation non-targeted cells. Human Hepatoma HepG2 cells were exposed to increasing doses of γ radiations (1, 2, 4, 6 Gy) and their cell culture media was transferred to non-targeted HepG2 cells cultured in other Petri plates. These radiation non-targeted cells cultured in the ICCM (Irradiated cell conditioned media) were the bystander cells on which cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. An apparent decrease in the distribution of bystander cells at G0/G1 phase was observed with increased radiation doses upto 4 Gy representing a linear relationship. This was accompanied by a gradual increase in cellular distribution at G2/M phase. Interestingly the number of cells in G2/M phase at 1 and 2 Gy irradiation was not significantly different from each other. However, the percentage of G2 phase cells at 4 and 6 Gy doses were significantly higher than 2 Gy dose indicating the IC50 dose to be between 2 and 4 Gy. Cell cycle arrest is an indirect indicator of genotoxic damage in cells. In this study, bystander stress signals through the cell culture media of irradiated cells disseminated the radiation induced DNA damages in the non-targeted cells which resulted in arrest of the cell cycle progression at G2/M phase checkpoint. This implies that actual radiation biological effects represent a penumbra with effects encompassing a larger area than the actual beam. This article highlights the existence of genotoxic damages as bystander effects of γ rays in human Hepatoma cells by cell cycle analysis and opens up avenues for appraisal of bystander stress communications between tumor cells. Contemplation of underlying signaling mechanisms can be manipulated to maximize damaging effects of radiation with minimum dose and thus has therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Cell Cycle, bystander effect, genotoxic damage, hepatoma

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