Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Cell Culture Related Abstracts

11 Establishment and Aging Process Analysis in Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Authors: Yemima Dani Riani, Anggraini Barlian


Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of well known long-lived turtle. Its age can reach 100 years old. Senescence in green turtle is an interesting process to study because until now no clear explanation has been established about senescence at cellular or molecular level in this species. Since 1999, green turtle announced as an endangered species. Hence, establishment of fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtle may be material for future study of senescence. One common marker used for detecting senescence is telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity, the reverse transcriptase enzyme which adds TTAGGG DNA sequence to telomere end, may also cause senescence. The purpose of this research are establish and identify green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture and also compare telomere length and telomerase activity from passage 5 and 14. Primary cell culture made with primary explant method then cultured in Leibovitz-15 (Sigma) supplemented by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (Sigma) and 100 U/mL Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma) at 30 ± 1oC. Cells identified with Rabbit Anti-Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) and Goat Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) using confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 170). Telomere length obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay (Roche) while telomerase activity obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ElisaPlus (Roche). Primary cell culture from green turtle skin had fibroblastic morphology and immunocytochemistry test with vimentin antibody proved the culture was fibroblast cell. Measurement of telomere length and telomerase activity showed that telomere length and telomerase activity of passage 14 was greater than passage 5. However, based on morphology, green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture showed senescent morphology. Based on the analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity, suspected fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtles is not undergo aging through telomere shortening.

Keywords: Cell Culture, chelonia mydas, telomerase, telomere, senescence

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10 SEM Detection of Folate Receptor in a Murine Breast Cancer Model Using Secondary Antibody-Conjugated, Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Yasser A. Ahmed, Juleen M Dickson, Evan S. Krystofiak, Julie A. Oliver


Cancer cells urgently need folate to support their rapid division. Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including breast cancer cells. FR are distributed over the entire surface of cancer cells, but are polarized to the apical surface of normal cells. Targeting of cancer cells using specific surface molecules such as folate receptors may be one of the strategies used to kill cancer cells without hurting the neighing normal cells. The aim of the current study was to try a method of SEM detecting FR in a murine breast cancer cell model (4T1 cells) using secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles. 4T1 cells were suspended in RPMI medium witth FR antibody and incubated with secondary antibody for fluorescence microscopy. The cells were cultured on 30mm Thermanox coverslips for 18 hours, labeled with FR antibody then incubated with secondary antibody conjugated to gold or gold-coated magnetite nanoparticles and processed to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The fluorescence microscopy study showed strong punctate FR expression on 4T1 cell membrane. With SEM, the labeling with gold or gold-coated magnetite conjugates showed a similar pattern. Specific labeling occurred in nanoparticle clusters, which are clearly visualized in backscattered electron images. The 4T1 tumor cell model may be useful for the development of FR-targeted tumor therapy using gold-coated magnetite nano-particles.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cell Culture, Cancer Cell, SEM

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9 Effect of Ti, Nb, and Zr Additives on Biocompatibility of Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Busra Gundede, Ozal Mutlu, Nagihan Gulsoy


Background: Over the years, material research has led to the development of numerous metals and alloys for using in biomedical applications. One of the major tasks of biomaterial research is the functionalization of the material surface to improve the biocompatibility according to a specific application. 316L and 316L alloys are excellent for various bio-applications. This research was investigated the effect of titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and zirconium (Zr) additives on injection molded austenitic grade 316L stainless steels in vitro biocompatibility. For this purpose, cytotoxic tests were performed to evaluate the potential biocompatibility of the specimens. Materials and Methods: 3T3 fibroblast were cultivated in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and %1 penicillin-streptomycin at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 95%humidity. Trypsin/EDTA solution was used to remove cells from the culture flask. Cells were reseeded at a density of 1×105cell in 25T flasks. The medium change took place every 3 days. The trypan blue assay was used to determine cell viability. Cell viability is calculated as the number of viable cells divided by the total number of cells within the grids on the cell counter machine counted the number of blue staining cells and the number of total cells. Cell viability should be at least 95% for healthy log-phase cultures. MTT assay was assessed for 96-hours. Cells were cultivated in 6-well flask within 5 ml DMEM and incubated as same conditions. 0,5mg/ml MTT was added for 4-hours and then acid-isoprohanol was added for solubilize to formazan crystals. Cell morphology after 96h was investigated by SEM. The medium was removed, samples were washed with 0.15 M PBS buffer and fixed for 12h at 4- 8°C with %2,5 gluteraldehyte. Samples were treated with 1% osmium tetroxide. Samples were then dehydrated and dried, mounted on appropriate stubs with colloidal silver and sputter-coated with gold. Images were collected using a scanning electron microscope. ROS assay is a cell viability test for in vitro studies. Cells were grown for 96h, ROS solution added on cells in 6 well plate flask and incubated for 1h. Fluorescence signal indicates ROS generation by cells. Results: Trypan Blue exclusion assay results were 96%, 92%, 95%, 90%, 91% for negative control group, 316L, 316L-Ti, 316L-Nb and 316L-Zr, respectively. Results were found nearly similar to each other when compared with control group. Cell viability from MTT analysis was found to be 100%, 108%, 103%, 107%, and 105% for the control group, 316L, 316L-Ti, 316L-Nb and 316L-Zr, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated that all test groups were same as the control group in ROS assay. SEM images demonstrated that the attachment of 3T3 cells on biomaterials. Conclusion: We, therefore, concluded that Ti, Nb and Zr additives improved physical properties of 316L stainless. In our in vitro experiments showed that these new additives did not modify the cytocompatibility of stainless steel and these additives on 316L might be useful for biomedical applications.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Cell Culture

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8 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi


The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Molecular Docking, Dna, ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, DNA enzymes

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7 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu


Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Nanofibers, keratin, UV-reactive electrospinning

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6 Optimizing Cell Culture Performance in an Ambr15 Microbioreactor Using Dynamic Flux Balance and Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling

Authors: William Kelly, Sorelle Veigne, Xianhua Li, Zuyi Huang, Shyamsundar Subramanian, Eugene Schaefer


The ambr15™ bioreactor is a single-use microbioreactor for cell line development and process optimization. The ambr system offers fully automatic liquid handling with the possibility of fed-batch operation and automatic control of pH and oxygen delivery. With operating conditions for large scale biopharmaceutical production properly scaled down, micro bioreactors such as the ambr15™ can potentially be used to predict the effect of process changes such as modified media or different cell lines. In this study, gassing rates and dilution rates were varied for a semi-continuous cell culture system in the ambr15™ bioreactor. The corresponding changes to metabolite production and consumption, as well as cell growth rate and therapeutic protein production were measured. Conditions were identified in the ambr15™ bioreactor that produced metabolic shifts and specific metabolic and protein production rates also seen in the corresponding larger (5 liter) scale perfusion process. A Dynamic Flux Balance model was employed to understand and predict the metabolic changes observed. The DFB model-predicted trends observed experimentally, including lower specific glucose consumption when CO₂ was maintained at higher levels (i.e. 100 mm Hg) in the broth. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model of the ambr15™ was also developed, to understand transfer of O₂ and CO₂ to the liquid. This CFD model predicted gas-liquid flow in the bioreactor using the ANSYS software. The two-phase flow equations were solved via an Eulerian method, with population balance equations tracking the size of the gas bubbles resulting from breakage and coalescence. Reasonable results were obtained in that the Carbon Dioxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) and the air hold up increased with higher gas flow rate. Volume-averaged kLa values at 500 RPM increased as the gas flow rate was doubled and matched experimentally determined values. These results form a solid basis for optimizing the ambr15™, using both CFD and FBA modelling approaches together, for use in microscale simulations of larger scale cell culture processes.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cell Culture, microbioreactor, dynamic flux balance analysis

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5 Laser Based Microfabrication of a Microheater Chip for Cell Culture

Authors: Daniel Nieto, Ramiro Couceiro


Microfluidic chips have demonstrated their significant application potentials in microbiological processing and chemical reactions, with the goal of developing monolithic and compact chip-sized multifunctional systems. Heat generation and thermal control are critical in some of the biochemical processes. The paper presents a laser direct-write technique for rapid prototyping and manufacturing of microheater chips and its applicability for perfusion cell culture outside a cell incubator. The aim of the microheater is to take the role of conventional incubators for cell culture for facilitating microscopic observation or other online monitoring activities during cell culture and provides portability of cell culture operation. Microheaters (5 mm × 5 mm) have been successfully fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates covered with aluminum layer of thickness 120 nm. Experimental results show that the microheaters exhibit good performance in temperature rise and decay characteristics, with localized heating at targeted spatial domains. These microheaters were suitable for a maximum long-term operation temperature of 120ºC and validated for long-time operation at 37ºC. for 24 hours. Results demonstrated that the physiology of the cultured SW480 adenocarcinoma of the colon cell line on the developed microheater chip was consistent with that of an incubator.

Keywords: Bioengineering, Cell Culture, laser microfabrication, microheater

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4 Shear Stress and Oxygen Concentration Manipulation in a Micropillars Microfluidic Bioreactor

Authors: Deybith Venegas-Rojas, Jens Budde, Dominik Nörz, Manfred Jücker, Hoc Khiem Trieu


Microfluidics is a promising approach for biomedicine cell culture experiments with microfluidic bioreactors (MBR), which can provide high precision in volume and time control over mass transport and microenvironments in small-scale studies. Nevertheless, shear stress and oxygen concentration are important factors that affect the microenvironment and then the cell culture. It is presented a novel MBR design in which differences in geometry, shear stress, and oxygen concentration were studied and optimized for cell culture. The aim is to mimic the in vivo condition with biocompatible materials and continuous perfusion of nutrients, a healthy shear stress, and oxygen concentration. The design consists of a capture system of PDMS micropillars which keep cells in place, so it is not necessary any hydrogel or complicated scaffolds for cells immobilization. Besides, the design allows continuous supply with nutrients or even any other chemical for cell experimentation. Finite element method simulations were used to study and optimize the effect of parameters such as flow rate, shear stress, oxygen concentration, micropillars shape, and dimensions. The micropillars device was fabricated with microsystem technology such as soft-lithography, deep reactive ion etching, self-assembled monolayer, replica molding, and oxygen plasma bonding. Eight different geometries were fabricated and tested, with different flow rates according to the simulations. During the experiments, it was observed the effect of micropillars size, shape, and configuration for stability and shear stress control when increasing flow rate. The device was tested with several successful HepG2 3D cell cultures. With this MBR, the aforementioned parameters can be controlled in order to keep a healthy microenvironment according to specific necessities of different cell types, with no need of hydrogels and can be used for a wide range of experiments with cells.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Cell Culture, shear stress, oxygen concentration, micro-bioreactor, micropillars

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3 A Facile One Step Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) via Smart Polymers for Biomicrofluidics

Authors: A. Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L. Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O. Berk Usta


Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most widely used materials in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. It is easily patterned and can replicate features down to nanometers. Its flexibility, gas permeability that allows oxygenation, and low cost also drive its wide adoption. However, a major drawback of PDMS is its hydrophobicity and fast hydrophobic recovery after surface hydrophilization. This results in significant non-specific adsorption of proteins as well as small hydrophobic molecules such as therapeutic drugs limiting the utility of PDMS in biomedical microfluidic circuitry. While silicon, glass, and thermoplastics have been used, they come with problems of their own such as rigidity, high cost, and special tooling needs, which limit their use to a smaller user base. Many strategies to alleviate these common problems with PDMS are lack of general practical applicability, or have limited shelf lives in terms of the modifications they achieve. This restricts large scale implementation and adoption by industrial and research communities. Accordingly, we aim to tailor biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a simple and one step bulk modification approach with novel smart materials to reduce non-specific molecular adsorption and to stabilize long-term cell analysis with PDMS substrates. Smart polymers that blended with PDMS during device manufacture, spontaneously segregate to surfaces when in contact with aqueous solutions and create a < 1 nm layer that reduces non-specific adsorption of organic and biomolecules. Our methods are fully compatible with existing PDMS device manufacture protocols without any additional processing steps. We have demonstrated that our modified PDMS microfluidic system is effective at blocking the adsorption of proteins while retaining the viability of primary rat hepatocytes and preserving the biocompatibility, oxygen permeability, and transparency of the material. We expect this work will enable the development of fouling-resistant biomedical materials from microfluidics to hospital surfaces and tubing.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Cell Culture, Smart Polymers, PDMS, non-specific protein adsorption

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2 Biochemical Effects of Low Dose Dimethyl Sulfoxide on HepG2 Liver Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Esra Sengul, R. G. Aktas, M. E. Sitar, H. Isan


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hepatocellular tumor commonly found on the surface of the chronic liver. HepG2 is the most commonly used cell type in HCC studies. The main proteins remaining in the blood serum after separation of plasma fibrinogen are albumin and globulin. The fact that the albumin showed hepatocellular damage and reflect the synthesis capacity of the liver was the main reason for our use. Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an albumin-like structural embryonic globulin found in the embryonic cortex, cord blood, and fetal liver. It has been used as a marker in the follow-up of tumor growth in various malign tumors and in the efficacy of surgical-medical treatments, so it is a good protein to look at with albumins. We have seen the morphological changes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on HepG2 and decided to investigate its biochemical effects. We examined the effects of DMSO, which is used in cell cultures, on albumin, AFP and total protein at low doses. Material Method: Cell Culture: Medium was prepared in cell culture using Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Media (DMEM), Fetal Bovine Serum Dulbecco's (FBS), Phosphate Buffered Saline and trypsin maintained at -20 ° C. Fixation of Cells: HepG2 cells, which have been appropriately developed at the end of the first week, were fixed with acetone. We stored our cells in PBS at + 4 ° C until the fixation was completed. Area Calculation: The areas of the cells are calculated in the ImageJ (IJ). Microscope examination: The examination was performed with a Zeiss Inverted Microscope. Daytime photographs were taken at 40x, 100x 200x and 400x. Biochemical Tests: Protein (Total): Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Albumin: Serum sample was analyzed by a spectrophotometric method in autoanalyzer. Alpha-fetoprotein: Serum sample was analyzed by ECLIA method. Results: When liver cancer cells were cultured in medium with 1% DMSO for 4 weeks, a significant difference was observed when compared with the control group. As a result, we have seen that DMSO can be used as an important agent in the treatment of liver cancer. Cell areas were reduced in the DMSO group compared to the control group and the confluency ratio increased. The ability to form spheroids was also significantly higher in the DMSO group. Alpha-fetoprotein was lower than the values of an ordinary liver cancer patient and the total protein amount increased to the reference range of the normal individual. Because the albumin sample was below the specimen value, the numerical results could not be obtained on biochemical examinations. We interpret all these results as making DMSO a caretaking aid. Since each one was not enough alone we used 3 parameters and the results were positive when we refer to the values of a normal healthy individual in parallel. We hope to extend the study further by adding new parameters and genetic analyzes, by increasing the number of samples, and by using DMSO as an adjunct agent in the treatment of liver cancer.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, ELISA, hepG2, dimethyl sulfoxide

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1 Effect of Locally Injected Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bone Regeneration of Rat Calvaria Defects

Authors: Gileade P. Freitas, Helena B. Lopes, Alann T. P. Souza, Paula G. F. P. Oliveira, Adriana L. G. Almeida, Paulo G. Coelho, Marcio M. Beloti, Adalberto L. Rosa


Bone tissue presents great capacity to regenerate when injured by trauma, infectious processes, or neoplasia. However, the extent of injury may exceed the inherent tissue regeneration capability demanding some kind of additional intervention. In this scenario, cell therapy has emerged as a promising alternative to treat challenging bone defects. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of local injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) on bone regeneration of rat calvaria defects. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were isolated and characterized by expression of surface markers; cell viability was evaluated after injection through a 21G needle. Defects of 5 mm in diameter were created in calvaria and after two weeks a single injection of BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs or vehicle-PBS without cells (Control) was carried out. Cells were tracked by bioluminescence and at 4 weeks post-injection bone formation was evaluated by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histology, nanoindentation, and through gene expression of bone remodeling markers. The data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (p≤0.05). BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs presented characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, kept viability after passing through a 21G needle and remained in the defects until day 14. In general, injection of both BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs resulted in higher bone formation compared to Control. Additionally, this bone tissue displayed elastic modulus and hardness similar to the pristine calvaria bone. The expression of all evaluated genes involved in bone formation was upregulated in bone tissue formed by BM-MSCs compared to AT-MSCs while genes involved in bone resorption were upregulated in AT-MSCs-formed bone. We show that cell therapy based on the local injection of BM-MSCs or AT-MSCs is effective in delivering viable cells that displayed local engraftment and induced a significant improvement in bone healing. Despite differences in the molecular cues observed between BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs, both cells were capable of forming bone tissue at comparable amounts and properties. These findings may drive cell therapy approaches toward the complete bone regeneration of challenging sites.

Keywords: Cell Culture, Cell Therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, bone repair

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