Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

CBD Related Abstracts

7 Study Of Cu Doped Zns Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: H. Merzouka, D. T. Talantikitea, S. Fettouchib, L. Nessarkb


Recently New nanosized materials studies are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made in design and control fabrication of nano-structured semiconductors such as zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Cu doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and copper acetate as Cu ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuK radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1. The transmittance is more than 70 % is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Cu doping.

Keywords: Thin Films, Nanostructured, FTIR, XRD, Cu doped ZnS, CBD

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6 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by CBD at Different Bath pH

Authors: Lynda Beddek, Nadhir Attaf, Mohamed Salah Aida


PbS thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precursor aqueous bath contained 1 mole of lead nitrate, 1 mole of Thiourea and complexing agents (triethanolamine (TEA) and NaOH). Bath temperature and deposition time were fixed at 60°C and 3 hours, respectively. However, the PH of bath was varied from 10.5 to 12.5. Structural properties of the deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The preferred direction was revealed to be along (111) and the PbS crystal structure was confirmed. Strains and grains sizes were also calculated. Optical studies showed that films thicknesses do not exceed 600nm. Energy band gap values of films decreases with increase in pH and reached a value ~ 0.4eV at pH equal 12.5. The small value of the energy band gap makes PbS one of the most interesting candidate for solar energy conversion near the infrared ray.

Keywords: Thin Films, X-Ray Diffraction, Pbs, CBD

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5 Biodiversity and Biotechnology: Some Considerations about the International Regulation of Agriculture and the International Legal System on Access to Genetic Resources

Authors: Leandro Moura da Silva


The international community has strived to create legal mechanisms to protect their biodiversity, but this can represent, sometimes, particularly in the case of regulatory regime on access to genetic resources, an excessive nationalism which transforms itself into a significant obstacle to scientific progress causing damages to the country and to local farmers. Although it has been poorly publicized in the media, the international legal system was marked, in 2014, by the entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol, which regulates the access and benefit sharing of genetic resources of the States Party to that legal instrument. However, it’s not reasonable to think of regulating access to genetic resources without reflecting on the links of this important subject with other related issues, such as family farming and agribusiness, food safety, food security, intellectual property rights (on seeds, genetic material, new plant varieties, etc.), environmental sustainability, biodiversity, and biosafety.

Keywords: Sustainability, International Law, CBD, Nagoya protocol, regulation on agriculture, agronomy techniques, genetic resources and new crop varieties, ITPGRFA

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4 Cd1−xMnxSe Thin Films Preparation by Cbd: Aspect on Optical and Electrical Properties

Authors: Jaiprakash Dargad


CdMnSe dilute semiconductor or semimagnetic semiconductors have become the focus of intense research due to their interesting combination of magnetic and semiconducting properties, and are employed in a variety of devices including solar cells, gas sensors etc. A series of thin films of this material, Cd1−xMnxSe (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5), were therefore synthesized onto precleaned amorphous glass substrates using a solution growth technique. The sources of cadmium (Cd2+) and manganese (Mn2+) were aqueous solutions of cadmium sulphate and manganese sulphate, and selenium (Se2−) was extracted from a reflux of sodium selenosulphite. The different deposition parameters such as temperature, time of deposition, speed of mechanical churning, pH of the reaction mixture etc were optimized to yield good quality deposits. The as-grown samples were thin, relatively uniform, smooth and tightly adherent to the substrate support. The colour of the deposits changed from deep red-orange to yellowish-orange as the composition parameter, x, was varied from 0 to 0.5. The terminal layer thickness decreased with increasing value of, x. The optical energy gap decreased from 1.84 eV to 1.34 eV for the change of x from 0 to 0.5. The coefficient of optical absorption is of the order of 10-4 - 10-5 cm−1 and the type of transition (m = 0.5) is of the band-to-band direct type. The dc electrical conductivities were measured at room temperature and in the temperature range 300 K - 500 K. It was observed that the room temperature electrical conductivity increased with the composition parameter x up to 0.1, gradually decreasing thereafter. The thermo power measurements showed n-type conduction in these films.

Keywords: thin film, CBD, Reflux, dilute semiconductor

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3 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman


Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CdTe, CDS, CBD, CSS

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2 A Parking Demand Forecasting Method for Making Parking Policy in the Center of Kabul City

Authors: Shoshi Mizokami, Roien Qiam


Parking demand in the Central Business District (CBD) has enlarged with the increase of the number of private vehicles due to rapid economic growth, lack of an efficient public transport and traffic management system. This has resulted in low mobility, poor accessibility, serious congestion, high rates of traffic accident fatalities and injuries and air pollution, mainly because people have to drive slowly around to find a vacant spot. With parking pricing and enforcement policy, considerable advancement could be found, and on-street parking spaces could be managed efficiently and effectively. To evaluate parking demand and making parking policy, it is required to understand the current parking condition and driver’s behavior, understand how drivers choose their parking type and location as well as their behavior toward finding a vacant parking spot under parking charges and search times. This study illustrates the result from an observational, revealed and stated preference surveys and experiment. Attained data shows that there is a gap between supply and demand in parking and it has maximized. For the modeling of the parking decision, a choice model was constructed based on discrete choice modeling theory and multinomial logit model estimated by using SP survey data; the model represents the choice of an alternative among different alternatives which are priced on-street, off-street, and illegal parking. Individuals choose a parking type based on their preference concerning parking charges, searching times, access times and waiting times. The parking assignment model was obtained directly from behavioral model and is used in parking simulation. The study concludes with an evaluation of parking policy.

Keywords: CBD, parking demand forecast, parking policy, parking choice model

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1 Role of Vigilante in Crime Control in Bodija Market

Authors: Obadiah Nwabueze


Bodija market is classified as Central Business District (CBD) of Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State (Nigeria) because of socio economic activities, so Crime is a peculiar social issue that causes insecurity. The law enforcement agencies tasked with crime prevention and control such as the Nigerian Police have insufficient manpower, and a resultant effect is the emergence of Vigilante groups as citizen’s response to crime control and prevention (self-help). The research design adopted for this study is a case study design exploring Vigilante activities in Bodija Market. The study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative approach, sources of data includes primary and secondary sources. A sample of 127 respondents randomly picked from the 4 sections of Bodija Market through questionnaire, comprising of 50 male and 77 females which alienates issues of gender bias in addition to the 4 in-depth interview, making a total of 131 respondents. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. The descriptive statistics of simple frequency, percentage, charts and graphs were computed for the analysis. Finding in the study shows that the market vigilante is able to deter and disrupt criminal activities through strategic spiritual intelligence (SSI), use of charm and juju, physical presence in strategic locations vulnerable to crime occurrence. Findings in the study also show that vigilantes collaborate with the police by assisting them in surveillance, tracking down criminals, identifying black spots, acting as informants to the police, arrest and handover criminal to police. Their challenges include poor equipment, motivation, unhealthy rivalry between the vigilante and the police. The study recommends that the government should support vigilantes with logistics and training, including patrol vehicle and radio communication. The study also recommends the integration of the informal mechanism (juju and charm) of crime detection and prevention into the formal policing strategy, an office should be created in the force commands for use of SSI.

Keywords: central business district, CBD, juju, SSI, charm, strategic spiritual intelligence

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