Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

causes Related Abstracts

10 Investigation of Stress and Its Effects on Health Workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria

Authors: Chisom N. Nwaigwe, Blessing N. Egbulefu, Angela Uwakwem


A study on Stress and its’ effect on the health of workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria is presented. The aim is to evaluate how much stress related hazards health workers in our tertiary health institutions are exposed to and to create awareness and reduce the rate at which stress affect the health of the working population in Nigeria, using workers in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia as a case study. The descriptive survey design was adopted with the aid of 100 questionnaires delivered to the respondents in order to obtain first-hand information. From the findings, the major causes of stress were identified as inadequate staffing, unresolved family problems and psychological/cultural factors like the return of a lactating mother to work after three months post-delivery. The effects of stress on the workers were identified as hypertension, poor job performances, depression, asthma, and peptic ulcers. The study recommended instituting counseling units for stress management, holding seminars on stress management and increasing the salary scale (remuneration) and proper roster planning as solutions to stress reduction in our hospitals. This study is important to management in planning staffing, roaster, and a rehabilitation programme for her staff.

Keywords: stress, Workers, effects, causes

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9 Low Students' Access to University Education in Nigeria: Causes and Remedy

Authors: Robert Ogbanje Okwori


The paper explained the causes low students’ access to university education in Nigeria and how it can be remedied. It is discovered that low students’ access to university education in Nigeria is evident despite these number of universities in the country. In 2006/2007 academic session, 806,089 sat for Joint Unified Matriculation Board Examination (JAMB) into Nigerian universities and only 123,626 (15.3%) were admitted while 2011/2012 academic session, a total of 1,493,604 candidates sat for Joint Unified Matriculation Board Examination (JAMB) into Nigerian universities and only 65,073 (43.57%) were admitted. This necessitates for the research. Therefore, the study posed the following research questions. What are causes of low students’ access to university education in Nigeria? What are the challenges of students’ access to university education in Nigeria? How can students’ access to university education in Nigeria be improved? Sample survey research design was adopted for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data for the study. Six hundred and eighty (680) respondents which comprised of 100 level university students; JAMB Officers and University administrators (Vice Chancellors, Registrars and Admission Officers) were used for the study. Stratified random sampling was applied for adequate representation of respondents from universities in the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Mean was used to answer research questions while Kuder-Richardson formula 20 was used to check the internal consistency of the instrument. The correlation coefficient of the instrument was 0.87. The major findings include the carrying capacity of each university contributes to low students’ access to university education and academic staff were inadequate. From the analysis of the study, it is concluded that the rate of access to university education is low, therefore, every university should establish distance learning programme to reduce university admission crisis. The training infrastructure in the universities should be improved upon by the owners to increase the carrying capacity of each university.

Keywords: Access, University, causes, low

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8 Asabiyyah Prejudice and Its Harmful Effects on Muslim Community

Authors: Lawal Abdulkareem


Asabiyyah prejudice is one of the causes of enmity, hatred and disharmony among Muslims. It is man’s supporting of his people to whom he belongs, whether they are right or wrong, oppressing or oppressed. This belonging can be due to kith and kin, ethnicity, color, birth place, citizenship, school of thought, or a group of people with common interest. The prejudice in its different forms and kinds is one of the deadly diseases that transformed the once unified, merciful, and cohesive Muslim community into differing, conflicting and warring entities. This has been witnessed within the Muslims from the earliest generations to the present. It is against this background that this research is undertaken to examine the major types of Asabiyyah prejudice and their harmful effects on Muslim community.

Keywords: causes, Asabiyyah, enmity, hatred

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7 Trend and Cuses of Decline in Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) Production in Enugu State, Nigeria: Implication for Food Security and Biodiversity Conservation

Authors: J. C. Iwuchukwu, K. C. Okwor


In recent time and in the study area, yam farmers are moving into less laborious and more economical crops and very few yam farmers are growing trifoliate yam. In yam markets, little or no bitter yam is displayed or sold. The work was therefore designed to ascertain trend and causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in Enugu state. Three agricultural zones, six blocks, eighteen circles and one hundred and eight trifoliate yam farmers that were purposively selected constituted sample for the study. An interview schedule was used to collect data while percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for data analysis. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents had no extension contact, Majority (90.7%) sourced information on trifoliate yam from neighbours/friends/relatives and produced mainly for consumption (67.6%) during rainy season (70.4%). Trifoliate yam was produced manually(71.3%) and organically (58.3%) in a mixture of other crops (87%) using indigenous/local varieties (73.1%). Mean size of land allocated to trifoliate yam production was relatively steady, mean cost of input and income were increasing while output was decreasing within the years under consideration (before 2001 to 2014). Poor/lack of finance(M=1.8) and drudgery associated with trifoliate yam product(M=1.72) were some of the causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in the area. The study recommended that more research and public enlightenment campaigns on the importance of trifoliate yam should be carried out to encourage and consolidate farmers and the masses effort in production and consumption of the crop so that it will not go extinct and then contribute to food security.

Keywords: Decline, trend, causes, trifoliate yam

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6 Causes and Effects of Delays in Construction Projects in Akure, Ondo State, South-West Nigeria

Authors: K.T Alade, A.F Lawal, A.A Omonori


Construction is an everlasting activity across the globe. Likewise, the problem of delay in the construction industry is a global phenomenon. Although there are several reasons that may be responsible for delay during construction, this may vary from place to place and can be reduced to the minimum when identified. This study considered the major causes and effects of delay in the execution of construction projects in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Using literatures, a total number of 30 causes of construction delays were identified. The convenient sampling technique was used to select sixty respondents for a survey. The respondents comprise twenty-two (22) clients, eighteen consultants (18) and twenty (20) contractors. The analyses of the primary data revealed that the three most important causes of delay in construction projects in Akure, Ondo State Nigeria are poor site management and supervision, inadequate contractors experience and client’s financial difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were given on how the causes and effects of delay in construction can be mitigated.

Keywords: Construction Projects, delay, effects, causes, Akure

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5 The Rise of Halal Banking and Financial Products in Post-Soviet Central Asia: A Study of Causative Factors

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Malik


With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region saw a dramatic rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Today, many Central Asian Muslims demand, what Islam has termed legal (Halal) and, avoid what Islam has termed illegal (Haram). The process of Islamic resurgence kicked off very quickly soon after the integration of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and other similar organizations. This interaction proved to be a vital push factor to the already existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. As a result, along with many other requirements, Muslim customer demand emerged as navel trend in the market in general and in banking and financial sector in particular. To get this demand fulfilled, the governments of CIS states like Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan introduced Halal banking and financial products in the market. Firstly, the present paper would briefly discuss the core composition of Halal banking and financial products. Then, coming to its major theme, it would try to identify and analyze the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the Muslim majority Post-Soviet CIS States.

Keywords: Central Asia, causes, interest-free banking, Islamic Revival

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4 Investigating Causes of Pavement Deterioration in Khartoum State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi Mohamed Eltayeb Zumrawi


It is quite essential to investigate the causes of pavement deterioration in order to select the proper maintenance technique. The objective of this study was to identify factors cause deterioration of recently constructed roads in Khartoum state. A comprehensive literature concerning the factors of road deterioration, common road defects and their causes were reviewed. Three major road projects with different deterioration reasons were selected for this study. The investigation involved field survey and laboratory testing on those projects to examine the existing pavement conditions. The results revealed that the roads investigated experienced severe failures in the forms of cracks, potholes and rutting in the wheel path. The causes of those failures were found mainly linked to poor drainage, traffic overloading, expansive subgrade soils and the use of low quality materials in construction. Based on the results, recommendations were provided to help highway engineers in selecting the most effective repair techniques for specific kinds of distresses.

Keywords: Pavement, causes, deterioration, failures

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3 Dissatisfaction as a Cause of Social Uprisings: An Empirical Analysis Utilizing the Social Uprisings Composite Indicator

Authors: Sondos Shaheen


This paper employs a newly constructed composite indicator of social uprisings (SUCI) to analyze the causes of their occurrence. This empirical study is based on an unbalanced panel of 45 countries over the period of 1982–2007. The paper’s contribution to the literature is distinguishing between the causes of violent and nonviolent uprisings. The analysis shows that that certain variables have a significant impact on both violent and nonviolent uprisings in terms of relative SUCI values, for example, ethnic fractionalization and mountainous terrain. Nevertheless, differences between the causes of violent and nonviolent uprisings can be found. For example, life dissatisfaction is related to nonviolent social uprisings, but when life dissatisfaction is accompanied by democratic dissatisfaction, violent social uprisings are more likely.

Keywords: mobilization, causes, social uprisings, relative deprivation, dissatisfaction, anti-government movements

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2 The Challenges of Unemployment Situation and Trends in Nigeria

Authors: Simon Oga Egboja


In Africa, particularly in Nigeria, unemployment is a serious issue of concern to every citizen. Hence, this paper focuses on the employment situation and trends in Nigeria. It also investigated the causes why unemployment persists in the country. Prominent among them is the population explosion and rapid expansion of education opportunities all over the country without a corresponding increase in industrial establishment. The paper also discusses the way of reducing the rate of unemployment by encouraging graduates of tertiary institutions in Nigeria to read professional courses and also to indulge in the habit of establishing small-scale enterprises so that after them school they can be self-employed rather than relying solely on government for employment.

Keywords: Population, Unemployment, causes, remedy

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1 Cultural Analysis of Dowry System with Relation to Women Prestige in District Swabi

Authors: Ullah Aman


The practice of giving dowry was meant to assist a newly-wed couple to start their life together with ease; however, now it has turned into a commercial transaction in which monetary considerations receive priority over the personal merits of the bride. The present study was designed to explore the causes and consequences of dowry system and to measure the association between dowry and women prestige in district Swabi. A sample size of 378 household (female) Respondents was randomly selected through proportional allocation method. The data was interpreted into frequency and percentages while to measure the relationship between Dowry system and Women Prestige, Chi-Square statistic was applied. Result indicated that majority of the 316(83.6%) respondents stated that Family members are in favor of high dowry because high dowry is today’s women need which is disclosed by 302(79.9%) of the sample size. In addition to this, most 320(84.7%) of the respondents has opined that low dowry leads to broken families in the society. Moreover, a strong association (p=0.000) was determined between high dowry and women prestige. Similarly, a strong significant relation was found (p=0.000) between women prestige and low dowry mortifying women prestige in our society. The study concluded that dowry, deeply rooted in the society is an immorality which must be strictly banned in the country. It is a herculean task to completely eliminate dowry system from the nation but slowly and gradually efforts are being made in this direction. Dowry is a sure cause of promoting intense conflicts between the families, quarrels and inculcates greed in the society. Government and the builders of the social fabric should strictly work on it, banning this system for each and every class in Pakistan. Moreover, for curbing this mal practice we must put effort to bring social awareness to the society are some of the recommendation.

Keywords: Women, Prestige, causes, dowry

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