Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

cauliflower Related Abstracts

6 The Effects of Blanching, Boiling and Steaming on Ascorbic Acid Content, Total Phenolic Content, and Colour in Cauliflowers (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis)

Authors: Huei Lin Lee, Wee Sim Choo

Abstract:

The effects of blanching, boiling and steaming on the ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content and colour in cauliflower (Brassica oleraceavar. Botrytis) was investigated. It was found that blanching was the best thermal processing to be applied on cauliflower compared to boiling and steaming processes. Blanching and steaming processes on cauliflower retained most of the ascorbic acid content (AAC) compared to those of boiling. As for the total phenolic content (TPC), blanching process retained a higher TPC in cauliflower compared to those of boiling and steaming processes. There were no significant differences between the TPC of boiled and steamed cauliflowers. As for the colour measurement, there were no significant differences in the colour of the cauliflower at different lead time (after processing to the point of consumption) of 30 minutes interval up to 3 hours but there were slight variations in L*, a*, and b* values among the thermal processed cauliflowers (blanched, boiled and steamed). The cauliflowers in this study were found to give a desirable white colour (L* value in the range of 77-83) in all the three thermal processes (blanching, boiling and steaming). There was no significant difference on the effect of lead time (30-minutes interval up to 3 hours) in raw and all the three thermal processed (blanched, boiled and steamed) cauliflowers.

Keywords: Colour, ascorbic acid, phenolics, cauliflower

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5 Effect of Biostimulants Application on Quali-Quantitative Characteristics of Cauliflower, Pepper, and Fennel Crops Under Organic and Conventional Fertilization

Authors: G. Disciglio, G. Gatta, A. Tarantino, E. Tarantino, L. Frabboni, A. Libutti, A. Gagliaridi

Abstract:

Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. In the recent years, the use of organic fertilizers or bio stimulants, that can be applied in agriculture in order to improve the quanti-qualitative crop yields, has encountered an increasing interest. The bio stimulants are gaining importance also for their possible use in organic and sustainable agriculture, avoiding excessive fertilizer applications. Consecutive experimental trials were carried out in Apulia region (southern Italy) on three herbaceous crops (cauliflower, pepper and fennel), grown in pots, under conventional and organic fertilization, with and without bio stimulants application, to verify the effects of several bio stimulants (Siapton®10L, Micotech L and Lysodin Alga-Fert) on quanti-qualitative yield characteristics. At the harvest, the quanti-qualitative yield characteristics of each crop were determined. All experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and, when significant effects were detected, the mean values were compared using Tukey’s test. Results showed great differences of yield characteristics between conventional and organic crops, particularly highlighting a higher yield in the conventional one. Variable results were generally observed when bio stimulants were applied. In this contest no effect were noted on quantitative yield, whereas a light positive effect of bio stimulants on qualitative characteristic, related to the higher dry matter content of cauliflower and the higher soluble solid content of pepper, was observed. Moreover, an evident positive effect of bio stimulants was noted in the fennel due to the lower nitrate content. The latter results are according with most of published literature obtained on other herbaceous crops.

Keywords: Biostimulants, cauliflower, pepper, fennel

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4 The Effect of Different Concentrations of Trichoderma harzianum Fungus on the Phytochemical and Antioxidative Parameters of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea convar.botrytisl) in Soils Contaminated with Lead

Authors: Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Mohammad Javad Shakori, Vajihe Esmaili

Abstract:

Today, the increasing contamination is an environmental concern. There is relationship between plants and microorganisms many years ago. In this regard, an experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of lead across three levels ‘zero, 50, and 100 mg/L’ and Trichoderma Harzanium fungus across three levels ‘5, 10, and 15%’ in a factorial design in the form of fully randomized blocks in three replications under form conditions in the climatic conditions of Shahroud in Dehlama Village. This research was performed in 2014-2015 on cauliflower. In this experiment, chlorophyll a, b, total, cartenoid, phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant properties of cauliflowers were measured. The results indicated that the greatest level of chlorophyll a (75.723 mg/wet weight), chlorophyll b (27.378 mg/wet weight), and total chlorophyll (109.074 mg/wet weight) was related to the interactive effects of 5% treatment of Trichoderma fungus and 0mg/L lead. The results also indicated that the greatest amount of antioxidant (79.88% of free radical) and flavonoides (22.889 mg of coercetin/g of dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 50 mg/L and the treatment of Trichoderma fungus 5%. Further, the greatest level of phenol (21.33 mg of Gaelic acid/ dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 100 mg/L and Trichoderma fungus 5% . As carotenoids are a type of antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, with the development of alignment effect with other antioxidants such as the total phenol, flavonoid, achieved desirable levels of antioxidant.

Keywords: flavonoid, antioxidant, chlorophyll, lead, cauliflower

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3 Promotive Role of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Chromium-Induced Morphological, Photosynthetic and Oxidative Changes in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea Botrytis L.)

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Rehan Ahmad, Muhammad Rizwan

Abstract:

Chromium (Cr) is one of the most toxic pollutants among heavy metals that adversely affect living organisms and physiological processes in plants. The present study investigated the effect of without and with 15 mg L-1 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on morpho-physiological attributes of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis L.) under different Cr concentrations (0, 10, 100 and 200 μM) in the growth medium. Results showed that Cr stress decreased the plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Chromium stress enhanced the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and caused oxidative stress, as observed by increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), electrolyte leakage (EL), in both leaves and roots of cauliflower. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake increased in roots, stem and leaves of plants with increasing Cr levels in the growth medium. Foliar application of ALA increased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange characteristics under Cr stress as compared to without ALA application. As compared to Cr stress alone, ALA application decreased the levels of MDA, H2O2 and EL while further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in both leaves and roots. Chromium concentrations and total Cr uptake decreased by the ALA application as compared to without ALA. These results showed that foliar application of ALA might be effective in reducing Cr uptake and toxicity in cauliflower.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Chromium, Hydrogen Peroxide, antioxidant enzymes, cauliflower, ALA, electrolyte leakage

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2 Evaluation of Feasibility of Ecological Sanitation in Central Nepal

Authors: K. C. Sharda

Abstract:

Introduction: In the world, almost half of the population are lacking proper access to improved sanitation services. In Nepal, large number of people are living without access to any sanitation facility. Ecological sanitation toilet which is defined as water conserving and nutrient recycling system for use of human urine and excreta in agriculture would count a lot to utilize locally available resources, to regenerate soil fertility, to save national currency and to achieve the goal of elimination open defecation in country like Nepal. The objectives of the research were to test the efficacy of human urine for improving crop performance and to evaluate the feasibility of ecological sanitation in rural area of Central Nepal. Materials and Methods: The field investigation was carried out at Palung Village Development Committee (VDC) of Makawanpur District, Nepal from March – August, 2016. Five eco-san toilets in two villages (Angare and Bhot Khoriya) were constructed and questionnaire survey was carried out. During the questionnaire survey, respondents were asked about socio-economic parameters, farming practices, awareness of ecological sanitation and fertilizer value of human urine and excreta in agriculture. In prior to a field experiment, soil was sampled for analysis of basic characteristics. In the field experiment, cauliflower was cultivated for a month in the two sites to compare the fertilizer value of urine with chemical fertilizer and no fertilizer with three replications. The harvested plant samples were analyzed to understand the nutrient content in plant with different treatments. Results and Discussion: Eighty three percent respondents were engaged in agriculture growing mainly vegetables, which may raise the feasibility of ecological sanitation. In the study area, water deficiencies in dry season, high demand of chemical fertilizer, lack of sanitation awareness were found to be solved. The soil at Angare has sandier texture and lower nitrogen content compared to that in Bhot Khoriya. While the field experiment in Angare showed that the aboveground biomass of cauliflower in the urine fertilized plot were similar with that in the chemically fertilized plot and higher than those in the non-fertilized plots, no significant difference among the treatments were found in Bhot Khoriya. The more distinctive response of crop growth to the three treatments in the former might be attributed to the poorer soil productivity, which in turn could be caused by the poorer inherent soil fertility and the poorer past management by the farmer in Angare. Thus, use of urine as fertilizer could help poor farmers with low quality soil. The significantly different content of nitrogen and potassium in the plant samples among three treatments in Bhot Khoriya would require further investigation. When urine is utilized as a fertilizer, the productivity could be increased and the money to buy chemical fertilizer would be utilized in other livelihood activities. Ecological sanitation is feasible in the area with similar socio-economic parameter.

Keywords: Ecological Sanitation, urine, Nepal, cauliflower, chemical fertilizer

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1 Biology and Life Fertility of the Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L) on Cauliflower Cultivars

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, K. C. Sharma, P. L. Sharma, R. S. Chandel

Abstract:

Cauliflower is an important vegetable crop grown throughout the world and is attacked by a large number of insect pests at various stages of the crop growth. Amongst them, the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important insect pest. Continued feeding by both nymphs and adults of this aphid causes yellowing, wilting and stunting of plants. Amongst various management practices, the use of resistant cultivars is important and can be an effective method of reducing the population of this aphid. So it is imperative to know the complete record on various biological parameters and life table on specific cultivars. The biology and life fertility of the cabbage aphid were studied on five cauliflower cultivars viz. Megha, Shweta, K-1, PSB-1 and PSBK-25 under controlled temperature conditions of 20 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity and 16:8 h (Light: Dark) photoperiods. For studying biology; apterous viviparous adults were picked up from the laboratory culture of all five cauliflower cultivars after rearing them at least for two generations and placed individually on the desired plants of cauliflower cultivars grown in pots with ten replicates of each. Daily record on the duration of nymphal period, adult longevity, mortality in each stage and the total number of progeny produced per female was made. This biological data were further used to construct life fertility table on each cultivar. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference ( P  < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. The maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Shweta and Megha (at par with K-1) cultivars, respectively. The maximum number of nymphs were laid on Shweta cultivar (26.40 nymphs per female) and minimum on Megha (at par with K-1) cultivar (15.20 nymphs per female). The true intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was found to be maximum on Shweta (0.233 nymphs/female/day) followed by PSB K-25 (0.207 nymphs/female/day), PSB-1 (0.203 nymphs/female/day), Megha (0.166 nymphs/female/day) and K-1 (0.153 nymphs/female/day). The finite rate of natural increase (λ) was also found to be in the order: K-1 < Megha < PSB-1 < PSBK-25 < Shweta whereas the doubling time (DT) was in the order of K-1 >Megha> PSB-1 >PSBk-25> Shweta. The aphids reared on the K-1 cultivar had the lowest values of rm & λ and the highest value of DT whereas on Shweta cultivar the values of rm & λ were the highest and the lowest value of DT. So on the basis of these studies, K-1 cultivar was found to be the least suitable and the Shweta cultivar was the most suitable for the cabbage aphid population growth. Although the cauliflower cultivars used in different parts of the world may be different yet the results of the present studies indicated that the application of cultivars affecting multiplication rate and reproductive parameters could be a good solution for the management of the cabbage aphid.

Keywords: Biology, Fertility, cauliflower, cultivars

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