Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Catalysts Related Abstracts

10 Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Keywords: Catalysts, pressure drop, catalytic muffler, perforated inlet cone, perforated pipe, flow uniformity

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9 The Impact of Surface Roughness and PTFE/TiF3/FeF3 Additives in Plain ZDDP Oil on the Friction and Wear Behavior Using Thermal and Tribological Analysis under Extreme Pressure Condition

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme, Saeed Ghalambor

Abstract:

The use of titanium fluoride and iron fluoride (TiF3/FeF3) catalysts in combination with polutetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in plain zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil is important for the study of engine tribocomponents and is increasingly a strategy to improve the formation of tribofilm and to provide low friction and excellent wear protection in reduced phosphorus plain ZDDP oil. The influence of surface roughness and the concentration of TiF3/FeF3/PTFE were investigated using bearing steel samples dipped in lubricant solution @100°C for two different heating time durations. This paper addresses the effects of water drop contact angle using different surface finishes after treating them with different lubricant combination. The calculated water drop contact angles were analyzed using Design of Experiment software (DOE) and it was determined that a 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness would provide an excellent TiF3/FeF3/PTFE coating for antiwear resistance as reflected in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the tribological testing under extreme pressure conditions. Both friction and wear performance depend greatly on the PTFE/and catalysts in plain ZDDP oil with 0.05% phosphorous and on the surface finish of bearing steel. The friction and wear reducing effects, which was observed in the tribological tests, indicated a better micro lubrication effect of the 0.05 μm Ra surface roughness treated at 100°C for 24 hours when compared to the 0.1 μm Ra surface roughness with the same treatment.

Keywords: Catalysts, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Wear, PTFE, friction, ZDDP

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8 Direct Synthesis of Composite Materials Type MCM-41/ZSM-5 by Hydrothermal at Atmospheric Pressure in Sealed Pyrex Tubes

Authors: Zoubida Lounis, Naouel Boumesla, Abd El Kader Bengueddach

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to synthesize a composite materials by direct synthesis at atmospheric pression having the MFI structure and MCM-41 by using double structuring. In the first part of this work we are interested in the study of the synthesis parameters, in addition to temperature, the crystallization time and pH. The second part of this work is to vary the ratio of the concentrations of both structuring C9 [C9H19(CH3)3NBr] and C16 [C16H33(CH3)3NBr] and determining the area of formation of the two materials (microporous and mesoporous at same time), for this reason we performed a battery of experiments ranging from 0 to 100% for both structural. To enhance the economic purposes of this study, the experiments were carried out by using very cheap and simple process, the pyrex tubes were used instead of the reactors, and the synthesis were done at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperature. The final products (composite materials) were obtained at high and pure quality.

Keywords: Composite Materials, mesoporous materials, microporous materials, Catalysts, syntheisis

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7 Women as Catalysts for the Rehabilitation of the Traditional System of Governance in Nigeria

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

Abstract:

Before the advent of Colonialists on the shores of Nigeria between the 16th and 17th Centuries, there existed the traditional systems of governance which was successful with Women as active participants. However, the current state of politics in Nigeria reveals an obvious absence of women in the Country’s governance. Being that the economy rests on the quality of leaders and their constructive contribution to the plight of the masses, it becomes pertinent to exhaust all the avenues that may be open to good governance-women inclusive. It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts to compare the machinery that were in place in pre-colonial Nigerian governance that aided the womenfolk to successfully reign or assist in leadership with the seeming lack of interest by women in present times. Factors that militate against the women will also be highlighted. Furthermore, suggestions are made on how to revive these successful traditional systems of governance. The paper concludes by emphasising the role of women as the needed catalysts for this aforementioned rehabilitation of traditional systems and the impact of media in achieving this feat.

Keywords: Governance, Media, Rehabilitation, Catalysts

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6 Influence of Carbon Addition on the Activity of Silica Supported Copper and Cobalt Catalysts in NO Reduction with CO

Authors: N. Stoeva, I. Spassova, R. Nickolov, M. Khristova

Abstract:

Exhaust gases from stationary and mobile combustion sources contain nitrogen oxides that cause a variety of environmentally harmful effects. The most common approach of their elimination is the catalytic reaction in the exhaust using various reduction agents such as NH3, CO and hydrocarbons. Transition metals (Co, Ni, Cu, etc.) are the most widely used as active components for deposition on various supports. However, since the interaction between different catalyst components have been extensively studied in different types of reaction systems, the possible cooperation between active components and the support material and the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated. The support structure may affect how these materials maintain an active phase. The objective is to investigate the addition of carbonaceous materials with different nature and texture characteristics on the properties of the resulting silica-carbon support and how it influences of the catalytic properties of the supported copper and cobalt catalysts for reduction of NO with CO. The versatility of the physico-chemical properties of the composites and the supported copper and cobalt catalysts are discussed with an emphasis on the relationship of the properties with the catalytic performance. The catalysts were prepared by sol-gel process and were characterized by XRD, XPS, AAS and BET analysis. The catalytic experiments were carried out in catalytic flow apparatus with isothermal flow reactor in the temperature range 20–300оС. After the catalytic test temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) was carried out. The transient response method was used to study the interaction of the gas phase with the catalyst surface. The role of the interaction between the support and the active phase on the catalyst’s activity in the studied reaction was discussed. We suppose the carbon particles with small sizes to participate in the formation of the active sites for the reduction of NO with CO along with their effect on the kind of deposited metal oxide phase. The existence of micropore texture for some of composites also influences by mass-transfer limitations.

Keywords: Composites, Catalysts, no reduction, bet analysis

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5 Preparation and Characterization of Mixed Cu-Ag-Pd Oxide Supported Catalysts for Complete Catalytic Oxidation of Methane

Authors: Ts. Lazarova, V. Tumbalev, S. Atanacova-Vladimirova, G. Ivanov, A. Naydenov, D. Kovacheva

Abstract:

Methane is a major Greenhouse Gas (GHG) that accounts for 14% of the world’s total amount of GHG emissions, originating mainly from agriculture, Coal mines, land fields, wastewater and oil and gas facilities. Nowadays the problem caused by the methane emissions has been a subject of an increased concern. One of the methods for neutralization of the methane emissions is it's complete catalytic oxidation. The efforts of the researchers are focused on the development of new types of catalysts and optimizing the existing catalytic systems in order to prevent the sintering of the palladium, providing at the same time a sufficient activity at temperatures below 500oC. The aim of the present work is to prepare mixed Cu-Ag-Pd oxide catalysts supported on alumina and to test them for methane complete catalytic oxidation. Cu-Ag-Pd/Al2O3 were prepared on a γ-Al2O3 (BET surface area = 220 m2/g) by the incipient wetness method using the corresponding metal nitrates (Cu:Ag = 90:10, Cu:Pd =97:3, Cu:Ag:Pd= 87:10:3) as precursors. A second set of samples were prepared with addition of urea to the metal nitrate solutions with the above mentioned ratios assuming increased dispersivity of the catalysts. The catalyst samples were dried at 100°C for 3 hours and calcined at 550°C for 30 minutes. Catalysts samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature adsorption of nitrogen (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity tests were carried out in a continuous flow type of reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of catalyst aging at 500 oC for 120 h on the methane combustion activity was also investigated. The results clearly indicate the synergetic effect of Ag and Pd on the catalytic activity.

Keywords: Catalysts, SEM, XRD, catalytic oxidation, BET

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4 Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Zeolite Catalyzed Chemical Industry Processes

Authors: Mithil Pandey, Ragunathan Bala Subramanian

Abstract:

One of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry is Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) which produces the majority of the world’s gasoline. Some useful products are generated from the vacuum gas oil, heavy gas oil and residue feedstocks by the FCC unit in an oil refinery. Moreover, Zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) have found widespread applications and have proved to be substantial and paradigmatic in oil refining and petrochemical processes, such as FCC because of their porous features. Several famous zeo-catalysts have been fabricated and applied in industrial processes as milestones in history, and have brought on huge changes in petrochemicals. So far, more than twenty types of zeolites have been industrially applied, and their versatile porous architectures with their essential features have contributed to affect the catalytic efficiency. This poster depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts which are accompanied by an increase in environmental and demands. The crucial roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The development of industrial processes for the FCC process, aromatic conversions and olefin production, makes it obvious that the pore architecture plays a very important role in zeo-catalysis processes. By looking at the different necessities of industrial processes, rational construction of the pore model is critically essential. Besides, the pore structure of the zeolite would have a substantial and direct effect on the utilization efficiency of the zeo-catalyst.

Keywords: Industrial Processes, Zeolite, Catalysts, fluid catalytic cracking

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3 Mapping the Urban Catalytic Trajectory for 'Convention and Exhibition' Projects: A Case of India International Convention and Expo Centre, New Delhi

Authors: Bhavana Gulaty, Arshia Chaudhri

Abstract:

Great civic projects contribute integrally to a city, and every city undergoes a recurring cycle of urban transformations and regeneration by their insertion. The M.I.C.E. (Meetings, Incentives, Convention and Exhibitions) industry is the forbearer of one category of such catalytic civic projects. Through a specific focus on M.I.C.E. destinations, this paper illustrates the multifarious dimensions that urban catalysts impact the city on S.P.U.R. (Seed. Profile. Urbane. Reflections), the theoretical framework of this paper aims to unearth these dimensions in the realm of the COEX (Convention & Exhibition) biosphere. The ‘COEX Biosphere’ is the filter of such catalysts being ecosystems unto themselves. Like a ripple in water, the impact of these strategic interventions focusing on art, culture, trade, and promotion expands right from the trigger; the immediate context to the region and subsequently impacts the global scale. These ripples are known to bring about significant economic, social, and political and network changes. The COEX inventory in the Asian context has one such prominent addition; the proposed India International Convention and Exhibition Centre (IICC) at New Delhi. It is envisioned to be the largest facility in Asia currently and would position India on the global M.I.C.E map. With the first phase of the project scheduled to open for use in the end of 2019, this flagship project of the Government of India is projected to cater to a peak daily footfall of 3,20,000 visitors and estimated to generate 5,00,000 jobs. While the economic benefits are yet to manifest in real time and ‘Good design is good business’ holds true, for the urban transformation to be meaningful, the benefits have to go beyond just a balance sheet for the city’s exchequer. This aspect has been found relatively unexplored in research on these developments. The methodology for investigation will comprise of two steps. The first will be establishing an inventory of the global success stories and associated benefits of COEX projects over the past decade. The rationale for capping the timeframe is the significant paradigm shift that has been observed in their recent conceptualization; for instance ‘Innovation Districts’ conceptualised in the city of Albuquerque that converges into the global economy. The second step would entail a comparative benchmarking of the projected transformations by IICC through a toolkit of parameters. This is posited to yield a matrix that can form the test bed for mapping the catalytic trajectory for projects in the pipeline globally. As a ready reckoner, it purports to be a catalyst to substantiate decision making in the planning stage itself for future projects in similar contexts.

Keywords: Catalysts, urban transformations, COEX, M.I.C.E

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2 Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Hybrid Hydrogel-Biochar Matrix: An Understanding of Process Parameters

Authors: Sumedha Chakma, Vibha Sinha

Abstract:

Arsenic (As) contamination in drinking water is a serious concern worldwide resulting in severe health maladies. To tackle this problem, several hydrogel based matrix which selectively uptake toxic metals from contaminated water has increasingly been examined as a potential practical method for metal removal. The major concern in hydrogels is low stability of matrix, resulting in poor performance. In this study, the potential of hybrid hydrogel-biochar matrix synthesized from natural plant polymers, specific for As removal was explored. Various compositional and functional group changes of the elements contained in the matrix due to the adsorption of As were identified. Moreover, to resolve the stability issue in hydrogel matrix, optimum and effective mixing of hydrogel with biochar was studied. Mixing varied proportions of matrix components at the time of digestion process was tested. Preliminary results suggest that partial premixing methods may increase the stability and reduce cost. Addition of nanoparticles and specific catalysts with different concentrations of As(III) and As(V) under batch conditions was performed to study their role in performance enhancement of the hydrogel matrix. Further, effect of process parameters, optimal uptake conditions and detailed mechanism derived from experimental studies were suitably conducted. This study provides an efficient, specific and a low-cost As removal method that offers excellent regeneration abilities which can be reused for value.

Keywords: Arsenic, Water Purification, Catalysts, hybrid hydrogel-biochar

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1 Hydrogen Production from Auto-Thermal Reforming of Ethanol Catalyzed by Tri-Metallic Catalyst

Authors: Sebastiano Candamano, Patrizia Frontera, Anastasia Macario, Fortunato Crea, Pierluigi Antonucci

Abstract:

The increasing of the world energy demand makes today biomass an attractive energy source, based on the minimizing of CO2 emission and on the global warming reduction purposes. Recently, COP-21, the international meeting on global climate change, defined the roadmap for sustainable worldwide development, based on low-carbon containing fuel. Hydrogen is an energy vector able to substitute the conventional fuels from petroleum. Ethanol for hydrogen production represents a valid alternative to the fossil sources due to its low toxicity, low production costs, high biodegradability, high H2 content and renewability. Ethanol conversion to generate hydrogen by a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions is generally called auto-thermal reforming (ATR). The ATR process is advantageous due to the low energy requirements and to the reduced carbonaceous deposits formation. Catalyst plays a pivotal role in the ATR process, especially towards the process selectivity and the carbonaceous deposits formation. Bimetallic or trimetallic catalysts, as well as catalysts with doped-promoters supports, may exhibit high activity, selectivity and deactivation resistance with respect to the corresponding monometallic ones. In this work, NiMoCo/GDC, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC (where GDC is Gadolinia Doped Ceria support and the metal composition is 60:30:10 for all catalyst) have been prepared by impregnation method. The support, Gadolinia 0.2 Doped Ceria 0.8, was impregnated by metal precursors solubilized in aqueous ethanol solution (50%) at room temperature for 6 hours. After this, the catalysts were dried at 100°C for 8 hours and, subsequently, calcined at 600°C in order to have the metal oxides. Finally, active catalysts were obtained by reduction procedure (H2 atmosphere at 500°C for 6 hours). All sample were characterized by different analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, CHNS, H2-TPR and Raman Spectorscopy). Catalytic experiments (auto-thermal reforming of ethanol) were carried out in the temperature range 500-800°C under atmospheric pressure, using a continuous fixed-bed microreactor. Effluent gases from the reactor were analyzed by two Varian CP4900 chromarographs with a TCD detector. The analytical investigation focused on the preventing of the coke deposition, the metals sintering effect and the sulfur poisoning. Hydrogen productivity, ethanol conversion and products distribution were measured and analyzed. At 600°C, all tri-metallic catalysts show the best performance: H2 + CO reaching almost the 77 vol.% in the final gases. While NiMoCo/GDC catalyst shows the best selectivity to hydrogen whit respect to the other tri-metallic catalysts (41 vol.% at 600°C). On the other hand, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC demonstrated high sulfur poisoning resistance (up to 200 cc/min) with respect to the NiMoCo/GDC catalyst. The correlation among catalytic results and surface properties of the catalysts will be discussed.

Keywords: Hydrogen, Ethanol, Catalysts, Nickel, ceria, gadolinia

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