Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Casting Related Abstracts

5 Microstructural Interactions of Ag and Sc Alloying Additions during Casting and Artificial Ageing to a T6 Temper in a A356 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Dimitrios Bakavos, Dimitrios Tsivoulas, Chaowalit Limmaneevichitr


Aluminium cast alloys, of the Al-Si system, are widely used for shape castings. Their microstructures can be further improved on one hand, by alloying modification and on the other, by optimised artificial ageing. In this project four hypoeutectic Al-alloys, the A356, A356+ Ag, A356+Sc, and A356+Ag+Sc have been studied. The interactions of Ag and Sc during solidification and artificial ageing at 170°C to a T6 temper have been investigated in details. The evolution of the eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification. The ageing kinetics of the alloys has been identified by hardness measurements. The precipitate phases, number density, and chemical composition has been analysed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EDS analysis. Furthermore, the SHT effect onto the Si eutectic particles for the four alloys has been investigated by means of optical microscopy, image analysis, and the UTS strength has been compared with the UTS of the alloys after casting. The results suggest that the Ag additions, significantly enhance the ageing kinetics of the A356 alloy. The formation of β” precipitates were kinetically accelerated and an increase of 8% and 5% in peak hardness strength has been observed compared to the base A356 and A356-Sc alloy. The EDS analysis demonstrates that Ag is present on the β” precipitate composition. After prolonged ageing 100 hours at 170°C, the A356-Ag exhibits 17% higher hardness strength compared to the other three alloys. During solidification, Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction. In contrast, Ag has no significance effect on the solidification mode revealing a macroscopic eutectic growth similar to A356 base alloy. However, the mechanical strength of the as cast A356-Ag, A356-Sc, and A356+Ag+Sc additions has increased by 5, 30, and 35 MPa, respectively. The outcome is a tribute to the refining of the eutectic Si that takes place which it is strong in the A356-Sc alloy and more profound when silver and scandium has been combined. Moreover after SHT the Al alloy with the highest mechanical strength, is the one with Ag additions, in contrast to the as-cast condition where the Sc and Sc+Ag alloy was the strongest. The increase of strength is mainly attributed to the dissolution of grain boundary precipitates the increase of the solute content into the matrix, the spherodisation, and coarsening of the eutectic Si. Therefore, we could safely conclude for an A356 hypoeutectic alloy additions of: Ag exhibits a refining effect on the Si eutectic which is improved when is combined with Sc. In addition Ag enhance, the ageing kinetics increases the hardness and retains its strength at prolonged artificial ageing in a Al-7Si 0.3Mg hypoeutectic alloy. Finally the addition of Sc is beneficial due to the refinement of the α-Al grain and modification-refinement of the eutectic Si increasing the strength of the as-cast product.

Keywords: Ageing, Casting, Mechanical Strength, precipitates

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4 Application of Metakaolin from Northeast of Thailand Used as Binder in Casting Process of Rice Polishing Cylinder

Authors: S. Bangphan, T. Boonkang, C. Santhaweesuk, N. Pianthong, P. Neeramon, A. Phimhlo


The objective of this research was to apply metakaolin from northeast of Thailand as a binder in the casting process of rice polishing cylinder in replacement of the imported calcined magnesite cement and to reduce the production cost of the cylinder. Metakaolin was obtained from three different regions (Udon Thani, Nakhon Phanom, and Ubon Ratchathani). The design of experiment analysis using the MINITAB Release 14 based on the compressive strength and tensile strength testing was conducted. According to the analysis results, it was found that the optimal proportions were calcined magnesite cement: metakaolin from Udon Thani, Nakhon Phanom and Ubon Ratchathani equal to 63:37, 71:29, and 100:0, respectively. When used this formula to cast the cylinder and test the rice milling, it was found that the average broken rice percent was 32.52 and 38.29 for the cylinder contained the metakaolin from Udon Thani and Nakhon Phanom, respectively, which implied that the cylinder which contained the metakaolin from Udon Thani has higher efficiency than the cylinder which contained the metakaolin from Nakhon Phanom at 0.05 level of statistical significance. Whereas, the average wear rate of cylinder from both resources were 7.27 and 6.53 g/h, respectively.

Keywords: Casting, metakaolin, binder, rice polishing cylinder

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3 Fabricating Method for Complex 3D Microfluidic Channel Using Soluble Wax Mold

Authors: Sangwoo Oh, Yongha Hwang, Kyunghun Kang


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device has been recently applied to area of biomedical research, tissue engineering, and diagnostics because PDMS is low cost, nontoxic, optically transparent, gas-permeable, and especially biocompatible. Generally, PDMS microfluidic devices are fabricated by conventional soft lithography. Microfabrication requires expensive cleanroom facilities and a lot of time; however, only two-dimensional or simple three-dimensional structures can be fabricated. In this study, we introduce fabricating method for complex three-dimensional microfluidic channels using soluble wax mold. Using the 3D printing technique, we firstly fabricated three-dimensional mold which consists of soluble wax material. The PDMS pre-polymer is cast around, followed by PDMS casting and curing. The three-dimensional casting mold was removed from PDMS by chemically dissolved with methanol and acetone. In this work, two preliminary experiments were carried out. Firstly, the solubility of several waxes was tested using various solvents, such as acetone, methanol, hexane, and IPA. We found the combination between wax and solvent which dissolves the wax. Next, side effects of the solvent were investigated during the curing process of PDMS pre-polymer. While some solvents let PDMS drastically swell, methanol and acetone let PDMS swell only 2% and 6%, respectively. Thus, methanol and acetone can be used to dissolve wax in PDMS without any serious impact. Based on the preliminary tests, three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channels was fabricated using the mold which was printed out using 3D printer. With the proposed fabricating technique, PDMS-based microfluidic devices have advantages of fast prototyping, low cost, optically transparence, as well as having complex three-dimensional geometry. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Supported by a Korea University Grant and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF).

Keywords: Casting, polydimethylsiloxane, microfluidic channel

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2 Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution

Authors: Amit Kumar Singh, Uttam Singh, Basant Kumar Singh, S. Subhachandhar, Vineet Ranjan Tripathi, Santosh Kumar Lal


Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.

Keywords: Casting, blast furnace, staves, gas flow pattern, belly/bosh heat losses, ore/coke ratio, blowing parameters, operation practice

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1 Characterization of Alloyed Grey Cast Iron Quenched and Tempered for a Smooth Roll Application

Authors: Mohamed Habireche, Nacer E. Bacha, Mohamed Djeghdjough


In the brick industry, smooth double roll crusher is used for medium and fine crushing of soft to medium hard material. Due to opposite inward rotation of the rolls, the feed material is nipped between the rolls and crushed by compression. They are subject to intense wear, known as three-body abrasion, due to the action of abrasive products. The production downtime affecting productivity stems from two sources: the bi-monthly rectification of the roll crushers and their replacement when they are completely worn out. Choosing the right material for the roll crushers should result in longer machine cycles, and reduced repair and maintenance costs. All roll crushers are imported from outside Algeria. This results in sometimes very long delivery times which handicap the brickyards, in particular in respecting delivery times and honored the orders made by customers. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of alloying additions on microstructure and wear behavior of grey lamellar cast iron for smooth roll crushers in brick industry. The base gray iron was melted in an induction furnace with low frequency at a temperature of 1500 °C, in which return cast iron scrap, new cast iron ingot, and steel scrap were added to the melt to generate the desired composition. The chemical analysis of the bar samples was carried out using Emission Spectrometer Systems PV 8050 Series (Philips) except for the carbon, for which a carbon/sulphur analyser Elementrac CS-i was used. Unetched microstructure was used to evaluate the graphite flake morphology using the image comparison measurement method. At least five different fields were selected for quantitative estimation of phase constituents. The samples were observed under X100 magnification with a Zeiss Axiover T40 MAT optical microscope equipped with a digital camera. SEM microscope equipped with EDS was used to characterize the phases present in the microstructure. The hardness (750 kg load, 5mm diameter ball) was measured with a Brinell testing machine for both treated and as-solidified condition test pieces. The test bars were used for tensile strength and metallographic evaluations. Mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile specimens made as per ASTM E8 standards. Two specimens were tested for each alloy. From each rod, a test piece was made for the tensile test. The results showed that the quenched and tempered alloys had best wear resistance at 400 °C for alloyed grey cast iron (containing 0.62%Mn, 0.68%Cr, and 1.09% Cu) due to fine carbides in the tempered matrix. In quenched and tempered condition, increasing Cu content in cast irons improved its wear resistance moderately. Combined addition of Cu and Cr increases hardness and wear resistance for a quenched and tempered hypoeutectic grey cast iron.

Keywords: Microstructure, Casting, Cast Iron, heat treating

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