Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Cast Iron Related Abstracts

5 Non-Waste Utilization of Copper Smelting Slags for Production of Demanded Products

Authors: V. D. Povolockiy, V. E. Roshchin, Y. Kapelyushin


Smelting of copper matte is followed by production of a large amount of slag. This slag mostly contains silicates and can be utilized in a construction industry. In addition to silicates it also contains Fe; if the Fe content is high, the density of the silicate phases increases and such a slag cannot be used as an additive for the concrete. Furthermore, slags obtained during copper matte production contain copper, sulphur, zinc and some other elements. Fe is the element with the highest price in these slags. An extraction of Fe is possible even using the conventional methods, e.g., the addition of slag to the charge materials during production of sinter for the blast furnace smelting. However, in this case, the blast furnace hot metal would accumulate sulphur and copper which is very harmful impurity for the steelmaking. An accumulation of copper by the blast furnace hot metal is unacceptable, as copper cannot be removed during further steelmaking operations having a critical effect on the properties of steel. In present work, the technological scheme for non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags has been suggested and experimentally confirmed. This scheme includes a solid state reduction of Fe and smelting for the separation of cast iron and slag. During solid state reduction, the zinc vapor was trapped. After the reduction and smelting operations, the cast iron containing copper was used for the production of metal balls with increased mechanical properties allowing their utilization for milling of ore minerals. Such a cast iron could also be applied in the production of special types of steel with copper. The silicate slag freed from Fe might be used as a propping agent in the oil industry, or granulated for application as an additive for concrete in a construction industry. Thereby, the suggested products for a Mini Mill plant with non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags are cast iron grinding balls for the ore minerals, special types of steel with copper, silicate slag utilized as an additive for the concrete and propping agents for the oil industry.

Keywords: Cast Iron, utilization of copper slag, grinding balls, propping agents

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4 Root Cause Analysis of a Catastrophically Failed Output Pin Bush Coupling of a Raw Material Conveyor Belt

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Suman Mukhopadhyay, Susovan Das, Manashi Adhikary, Sandip Bhattacharyya


In integrated steel plants, conveyor belts are widely used for transferring raw materials from one location to another. An output pin bush coupling attached with a conveyor transferring iron ore fines and fluxes failed after two years of service life. This led to an operational delay of approximately 15 hours. This study is focused on failure analysis of the coupling and recommending counter-measures to prevent any such failures in the future. Investigation consisted of careful visual observation, checking of operating parameters, stress calculation and analysis, macro and micro-fractography, material characterizations like chemical and metallurgical analysis and tensile and impact testings. The fracture occurred from an unusually sharp double step. There were multiple corrosion pits near the step that aggravated the situation. Inner contact surface of the coupling revealed differential abrasion that created a macroscopic difference in the height of the component. This pointed towards misalignment of the coupling beyond a threshold limit. In addition to these design and installation issues, material of the coupling did not meet the quality standards. These were made up of grey cast iron having graphite morphology intermediate between random distribution (Type A) and rosette pattern (Type B). This manifested as a marked reduction in impact toughness and tensile strength of the component. These findings corroborated well with the brittle mode of fracture that might have occurred during minor impact loading while loading of conveyor belt with raw materials from height. Simulated study was conducted to examine the effect of corrosion pits on tensile and impact toughness of grey cast iron. It was observed that pitting marginally reduced tensile strength and ductility. However, there was marked (up to 45%) reduction in impact toughness due to pitting. Thus, it became evident that failure of the coupling occurred due to combination of factors like inferior material, misalignment, poor step design and corrosion pitting. Recommendation for life enhancement of coupling included the use of tougher SG 500/7 grade, incorporation of proper fillet radius for the step, correction of alignment and application of corrosion resistant organic coating to prevent pitting.

Keywords: Cast Iron, brittle fracture, coupling, pitting, double step, simulated impact tests

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3 Assessment of Ultra-High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of EN-GJL-250 Cast Iron Using Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing Machine

Authors: Saeedeh Bakhtiari, Johannes Depessemier, Stijn Hertelé, Wim De Waele


High cycle fatigue comprising up to 107 load cycles has been the subject of many studies, and the behavior of many materials was recorded adequately in this regime. However, many applications involve larger numbers of load cycles during the lifetime of machine components. In this ultra-high cycle regime, other failure mechanisms play, and the concept of a fatigue endurance limit (assumed for materials such as steel) is often an oversimplification of reality. When machine component design demands a high geometrical complexity, cast iron grades become interesting candidate materials. Grey cast iron is known for its low cost, high compressive strength, and good damping properties. However, the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of cast iron is poorly documented. The current work focuses on the ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of EN-GJL-250 (GG25) grey cast iron by developing an ultrasonic (20 kHz) fatigue testing system. Moreover, the testing machine is instrumented to measure the temperature and the displacement of  the specimen, and to control the temperature. The high resonance frequency allowed to assess the  behavior of the cast iron of interest within a matter of days for ultra-high numbers of cycles, and repeat the tests to quantify the natural scatter in fatigue resistance.

Keywords: Cast Iron, GG25, ultra-high cycle fatigue, ultrasonic test

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2 Characterization of Alloyed Grey Cast Iron Quenched and Tempered for a Smooth Roll Application

Authors: Mohamed Habireche, Nacer E. Bacha, Mohamed Djeghdjough


In the brick industry, smooth double roll crusher is used for medium and fine crushing of soft to medium hard material. Due to opposite inward rotation of the rolls, the feed material is nipped between the rolls and crushed by compression. They are subject to intense wear, known as three-body abrasion, due to the action of abrasive products. The production downtime affecting productivity stems from two sources: the bi-monthly rectification of the roll crushers and their replacement when they are completely worn out. Choosing the right material for the roll crushers should result in longer machine cycles, and reduced repair and maintenance costs. All roll crushers are imported from outside Algeria. This results in sometimes very long delivery times which handicap the brickyards, in particular in respecting delivery times and honored the orders made by customers. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of alloying additions on microstructure and wear behavior of grey lamellar cast iron for smooth roll crushers in brick industry. The base gray iron was melted in an induction furnace with low frequency at a temperature of 1500 °C, in which return cast iron scrap, new cast iron ingot, and steel scrap were added to the melt to generate the desired composition. The chemical analysis of the bar samples was carried out using Emission Spectrometer Systems PV 8050 Series (Philips) except for the carbon, for which a carbon/sulphur analyser Elementrac CS-i was used. Unetched microstructure was used to evaluate the graphite flake morphology using the image comparison measurement method. At least five different fields were selected for quantitative estimation of phase constituents. The samples were observed under X100 magnification with a Zeiss Axiover T40 MAT optical microscope equipped with a digital camera. SEM microscope equipped with EDS was used to characterize the phases present in the microstructure. The hardness (750 kg load, 5mm diameter ball) was measured with a Brinell testing machine for both treated and as-solidified condition test pieces. The test bars were used for tensile strength and metallographic evaluations. Mechanical properties were evaluated using tensile specimens made as per ASTM E8 standards. Two specimens were tested for each alloy. From each rod, a test piece was made for the tensile test. The results showed that the quenched and tempered alloys had best wear resistance at 400 °C for alloyed grey cast iron (containing 0.62%Mn, 0.68%Cr, and 1.09% Cu) due to fine carbides in the tempered matrix. In quenched and tempered condition, increasing Cu content in cast irons improved its wear resistance moderately. Combined addition of Cu and Cr increases hardness and wear resistance for a quenched and tempered hypoeutectic grey cast iron.

Keywords: Microstructure, Casting, Cast Iron, heat treating

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1 Production of Ferroboron by SHS-Metallurgy from Iron-Containing Rolled Production Wastes for Alloying of Cast Iron

Authors: G. Zakharov, Z. Aslamazashvili, M. Chikhradze, D. Kvaskhvadze, N. Khidasheli, S. Gvazava


Traditional technologies for processing iron-containing industrial waste, including steel-rolling production, are associated with significant energy costs, the long duration of processes, and the need to use complex and expensive equipment. Waste generated during the industrial process negatively affects the environment, but at the same time, it is a valuable raw material and can be used to produce new marketable products. The study of the effectiveness of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) methods, which are characterized by the simplicity of the necessary equipment, the purity of the final product, and the high processing speed, is under the wide scientific and practical interest to solve the set problem. The work presents technological aspects of the production of Ferro boron by the method of SHS - metallurgy from iron-containing wastes of rolled production for alloying of cast iron and results of the effect of alloying element on the degree of boron assimilation with liquid cast iron. Features of Fe-B system combustion have been investigated, and the main parameters to control the phase composition of synthesis products have been experimentally established. Effect of overloads on patterns of cast ligatures formation and mechanisms structure formation of SHS products was studied. It has been shown that an increase in the content of hematite Fe₂O₃ in iron-containing waste leads to an increase in the content of phase FeB and, accordingly, the amount of boron in the ligature. Boron content in ligature is within 3-14%, and the phase composition of obtained ligatures consists of Fe₂B and FeB phases. Depending on the initial composition of the wastes, the yield of the end product reaches 91 - 94%, and the extraction of boron is 70 - 88%. Combustion processes of high exothermic mixtures allow to obtain a wide range of boron-containing ligatures from industrial wastes. In view of the relatively low melting point of the obtained SHS-ligature, the positive dynamics of boron absorption by liquid iron is established. According to the obtained data, the degree of absorption of the ligature by alloying gray cast iron at 1450°C is 80-85%. When combined with the treatment of liquid cast iron with magnesium, followed by alloying with the developed ligature, boron losses are reduced by 5-7%. At that, uniform distribution of boron micro-additives in the volume of treated liquid metal is provided. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Shota Rustaveli Georgian National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRGNSFG) under the GENIE project (grant number № CARYS-19-802).

Keywords: Structure Formation, Industrial Waste, Cast Iron, ductile iron, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

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