Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Cascade Control Related Abstracts

6 Cascade Control for Pressure Calibration by Fieldbus Communication System

Authors: Chatchaval Pornpatkul, Wipawan Suksathid


This paper is to study and control the pressure of the water inside the open tank using a cascade control with the communication in the process by fieldbus system for the pressure calibration. The plant model is to be used in experiments to control the level and flow process of the water by using Syscon program to create functions. We used to control by Intouch runtime program to create the graphic display on the screen. In this case we used PI control the level and the flow process of water in the open tank in the range of 0 – 10 L/m. The output signal of the level and the flow transmitter are the digital standard signal by fieldbus system. And all information displayed on the computer with the communication between the computer and plant model can be communication to each other through just one cable pair. And in this paper, the PI tuning, we used calculate by Ziegler-Nichols reaction curve method to control the plant model by PI controller.

Keywords: Cascade Control, fieldbus system, pressure calibration, microelectronics systems

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5 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Lillie Dewan, Khaing Yadana Swe


At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the super-heating temperature (main steam temperature). As the main steam temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay, and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy can not achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, Cascade Control, PID, model-free adaptive control

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4 Dynamic Fault Diagnosis for Semi-Batch Reactor Under Closed-Loop Control via Independent RBFNN

Authors: Abdelkarim M. Ertiame, D. W. Yu, D. L. Yu, J. B. Gomm


In this paper, a new robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme is developed to monitor a multivariable nonlinear chemical process called the Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor when it is under the cascade PI control. The scheme employs a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) in an independent mode to model the process dynamics and using the weighted sum-squared prediction error as the residual. The recursive orthogonal Least Squares algorithm (ROLS) is employed to train the model to overcome the training difficulty of the independent mode of the network. Then, another RBFNN is used as a fault classifier to isolate faults from different features involved in the residual vector. The several actuator and sensor faults are simulated in a nonlinear simulation of the reactor in Simulink. The scheme is used to detect and isolate the faults on-line. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the scheme even the process is subjected to disturbances and uncertainties including significant changes in the monomer feed rate, fouling factor, impurity factor, ambient temperature and measurement noise. The simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Robust Fault Detection, Cascade Control, RBF neural networks, Chylla-Haase reactor, independent RBF model, FDI under closed-loop control

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3 Performance Optimization of Low-Cost Solar Dryer Using Modified PI Controller

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Rajesh Kondareddy, Maunash Das, Vrinatri Velentina Boro


Today, there is a huge global concern for sustainable development which would include minimizing the consumption of non-renewable energies without affecting the basic global economy. Solar drying is one of the important processes used for extending the shelf life of agricultural products. The performance of a low cost automated solar dryer fitted with cascade control scheme and modified PI controller for drying chilli was investigated. The dryer was composed of designed solar collector (air heater) fitted with cylindrical pipes to improve the air velocity and a solar drying chamber containing rack of two cheese cloth (net) trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channelled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded). Here, to maintain the temperature in the heating chambers and to improve performance, a modified PI (Proportional–Integral) controller was used due its simplicity and robustness. Drying time for drying chilli from the initial moisture content of 88.5% (wb) to 7.3% (wb) was estimated to be 14 hours in solar dryer whereas 32 h was observed in the open sun drying.

Keywords: Cascade Control, chilli, PI controller, solar dryer

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2 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati


In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system.

Keywords: Cascade Control, dynamic braking system, DC traction motors, slip control

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1 Multi-Objective Optimal Design of a Cascade Control System for a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems

Authors: Yuekun Chen, Yousef Sardahi, Salam Hajjar, Christopher Greer


This paper presents a multi-objective optimal design of a cascade control system for an underactuated mechanical system. Cascade control structures usually include two control algorithms (inner and outer). To design such a control system properly, the following conflicting objectives should be considered at the same time: 1) the inner closed-loop control must be faster than the outer one, 2) the inner loop should fast reject any disturbance and prevent it from propagating to the outer loop, 3) the controlled system should be insensitive to measurement noise, and 4) the controlled system should be driven by optimal energy. Such a control problem can be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem such that the optimal trade-offs among these design goals are found. To authors best knowledge, such a problem has not been studied in multi-objective settings so far. In this work, an underactuated mechanical system consisting of a rotary servo motor and a ball and beam is used for the computer simulations, the setup parameters of the inner and outer control systems are tuned by NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm), and the dominancy concept is used to find the optimal design points. The solution of this problem is not a single optimal cascade control, but rather a set of optimal cascade controllers (called Pareto set) which represent the optimal trade-offs among the selected design criteria. The function evaluation of the Pareto set is called the Pareto front. The solution set is introduced to the decision-maker who can choose any point to implement. The simulation results in terms of Pareto front and time responses to external signals show the competing nature among the design objectives. The presented study may become the basis for multi-objective optimal design of multi-loop control systems.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Multiobjective optimization, Cascade Control, multi-Loop control systems

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