Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Cartography Related Abstracts

8 Patchwork City: An Affective Map for a Patchwork Zone

Authors: Maria Lucília Borges


This article presents the creation and design process of the "patchwork map" made for the project “Santo Amaro em Rede” (Santo Amaro on Web). The project was carried out in 2009 by SESC – SP – Brazil (Social Service for the Commerce of São Paulo) in partnership with Instituto Pólis. It is a mapping of socio-cultural dynamics of São Paulo’s South Zone and neighboring municipalities.

Keywords: Space, Cartography, Patchwork, affective map, São Paulo city

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7 Vulnerability Assessment for Protection of Ghardaia City to the Inundation of M’zabWadi

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Reda Madi


The problem of natural disasters in general and flooding in particular is a topic which marks a memorable action in the world and specifically in cities and large urban areas. Torrential floods and faster flows pose a major problem in urban area. Indeed, a better management of risks of floods becomes a growing necessity that must mobilize technical and scientific means to curb the adverse consequences of this phenomenon, especially in the Saharan cities in arid climate. The aim of this study is to deploy a basic calculation approach based on a hydrologic and hydraulic quantification for locating the black spots in urban areas generated by the flooding and to locate the areas that are vulnerable to flooding. The principle of flooding method is applied to the city of Ghardaia to identify vulnerable areas to inundation and to establish maps management and prevention against the risks of flooding.

Keywords: Cartography, Vulnerability, inundation, HEC-RAS, Alea, Beni Mzab, torrential, wadi

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6 Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria

Authors: Nafaa Zaafour


Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.

Keywords: Cartography, Vegetation, Soil, Algeria

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5 Digital Geomatics Trends for Production and Updating Topographic Map by Using Digital Generalization Procedures

Authors: O. Z. Jasim


An accuracy digital map must satisfy the users for two main requirements, first, map must be visually readable and second, all the map elements must be in a good representation. These two requirements hold especially true for map generalization which aims at simplifying the representation of cartographic data. Different scales of maps are very important for any decision in any maps with different scales such as master plan and all the infrastructures maps in civil engineering. Cartographer cannot project the data onto a piece of paper, but he has to worry about its readability. The map layout of any geodatabase is very important, this layout is help to read, analyze or extract information from the map. There are many principles and guidelines of generalization that can be find in the cartographic literature. A manual reduction method for generalization depends on experience of map maker and therefore produces incompatible results. Digital generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapping fields. This project is intended to review the state of the art of the new technology and help to understand the needs and plans for the implementation of digital generalization capability as well as increase the knowledge of production topographic maps.

Keywords: Cartography, Mapping, GIS, digital generalization

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4 Landslide Hazard Assessment Using Physically Based Mathematical Models in Agricultural Terraces at Douro Valley in North of Portugal

Authors: C. Bateira, J. Fernandes, A. Costa


The Douro Demarked Region (DDR) is a production Porto wine region. On the NE of Portugal, the strong incision of the Douro valley developed very steep slopes, organized with agriculture terraces, have experienced an intense and deep transformation in order to implement the mechanization of the work. The old terrace system, based on stone vertical wall support structure, replaced by terraces with earth embankments experienced a huge terrace instability. This terrace instability has important economic and financial consequences on the agriculture enterprises. This paper presents and develops cartographic tools to access the embankment instability and identify the area prone to instability. The priority on this evaluation is related to the use of physically based mathematical models and develop a validation process based on an inventory of the past embankment instability. We used the shallow landslide stability model (SHALSTAB) based on physical parameters such us cohesion (c’), friction angle(ф), hydraulic conductivity, soil depth, soil specific weight (ϱ), slope angle (α) and contributing areas by Multiple Flow Direction Method (MFD). A terraced area can be analysed by this models unless we have very detailed information representative of the terrain morphology. The slope angle and the contributing areas depend on that. We can achieve that propose using digital elevation models (DEM) with great resolution (pixel with 40cm side), resulting from a set of photographs taken by a flight at 100m high with pixel resolution of 12cm. The slope angle results from this DEM. In the other hand, the MFD contributing area models the internal flow and is an important element to define the spatial variation of the soil saturation. That internal flow is based on the DEM. That is supported by the statement that the interflow, although not coincident with the superficial flow, have important similitude with it. Electrical resistivity monitoring values which related with the MFD contributing areas build from a DEM of 1m resolution and revealed a consistent correlation. That analysis, performed on the area, showed a good correlation with R2 of 0,72 and 0,76 at 1,5m and 2m depth, respectively. Considering that, a DEM with 1m resolution was the base to model the real internal flow. Thus, we assumed that the contributing area of 1m resolution modelled by MFD is representative of the internal flow of the area. In order to solve this problem we used a set of generalized DEMs to build the contributing areas used in the SHALSTAB. Those DEMs, with several resolutions (1m and 5m), were built from a set of photographs with 50cm resolution taken by a flight with 5km high. Using this maps combination, we modelled several final maps of terrace instability and performed a validation process with the contingency matrix. The best final instability map resembles the slope map from a DEM of 40cm resolution and a MFD map from a DEM of 1m resolution with a True Positive Rate (TPR) of 0,97, a False Positive Rate of 0,47, Accuracy (ACC) of 0,53, Precision (PVC) of 0,0004 and a TPR/FPR ratio of 2,06.

Keywords: Landslides, Cartography, agricultural terraces, SHALSTAB, vineyards

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3 Retrospective Cartography of Tbilisi and Surrounding Area

Authors: Mariam Tsitsagi, Dali Nikolaishvili, Nino Khareba


Tbilisi has been a capital of Georgia since the 5ᵗʰ century. City area was covered by forest in historical past. Nowadays the situation has been changing dramatically. Dozens of problems are caused by damages/destruction of green cover and solution, at one glance, seems to be uncomplicated (planting trees and creating green quarters), but on the other hand, according to the increasing tendency, the built up of areas still remains unsolved. Finding out the ways to overcome such obstacles is important even for protecting the health of society. Making of Retrospective cartography of the forest area of Tbilisi with use of GIS technology and remote sensing was the main aim of the research. Research about the dynamic of forest-cover in Tbilisi and its surroundings included the following steps: assessment of the dynamic of forest in Tbilisi and its surroundings. The survey was mainly based on the retrospective mapping method. Using of GIS technology, studying, comparing and identifying the narrative sources was the next step. And the last one was analyzed of the changes from the 80s to the present days on the basis of decryption of remotely sensed images. After creating a unified cartographic basis, the mapping and plans of different periods have been linked to this geodatabase. Data about green parks, individual old plants existing in the private yards and respondents' Information (according to a questionnaire created in advance) was added to the basic database, the general plan of Tbilisi and Scientific works as well. On the basis of analysis of historic, including cartographic sources, forest-cover maps for different periods of time were made. In addition, was made the catalog of individual green parks (location, area, typical composition, name and so on), which was the basis of creating several thematic maps. Areas with a high rate of green area degradation were identified. Several maps depicting the dynamics of forest cover of Tbilisi were created and analyzed. The methods of linking the data of the old cartographic sources to the modern basis were developed too, the result of which may be used in Urban Planning of Tbilisi. Understanding, perceiving and analyzing the real condition of green cover in Tbilisi and its problems, in turn, will help to take appropriate measures for the maintenance of ancient plants, to develop forests and to plan properly parks, squares, and recreational sites. Because the healthy environment is the main condition of human health and implies to the rational development of the city.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Cartography, GIS, catalogue of green area, historical cartography, Tbilisi

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2 Analysis of the Production Time in a Pharmaceutical Company

Authors: Karim Ben Kahla, Hanen Khanchel


Pharmaceutical companies are facing competition. Indeed, the price differences between competing products can be such that it becomes difficult to compensate them by differences in value added. The conditions of competition are no longer homogeneous for the players involved. The price of a product is a given that puts a company and its customer face to face. However, price fixing obliges the company to consider internal factors relating to production costs and external factors such as customer attitudes, the existence of regulations and the structure of the market on which the firm evolved. In setting the selling price, the company must first take into account internal factors relating to its costs: costs of production fall into two categories, fixed costs and variable costs that depend on the quantities produced. The company cannot consider selling below what it costs the product. It, therefore, calculates the unit cost of production to which it adds the unit cost of distribution, enabling it to know the unit cost of production of the product. The company adds its margin and thus determines its selling price. The margin is used to remunerate the capital providers and to finance the activity of the company and its investments. Production costs are related to the quantities produced: large-scale production generally reduces the unit cost of production, which is an asset for companies with mass production markets. This shows that small and medium-sized companies with limited market segments need to make greater efforts to ensure their profit margins. As a result, and faced with high and low market prices for raw materials and increasing staff costs, the company must seek to optimize its production time in order to reduce loads and eliminate waste. Then, the customer pays only value added. Thus, and based on this principle we decided to create a project that deals with the problem of waste in our company, and having as objectives the reduction of production costs and improvement of performance indicators. This paper presents the implementation of the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) project in a pharmaceutical company. It is structured as follows: 1) determination of the family of products, 2) drawing of the current state, 3) drawing of the future state, 4) action plan and implementation.

Keywords: Waste, Cartography, Improvement, Kaizen, VSM, production time

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1 Unfolding Architectural Assemblages: Mapping Contemporary Spatial Objects' Affective Capacity

Authors: Panagiotis Roupas, Yota Passia


This paper aims at establishing an index of design mechanisms - immanent in spatial objects - based on the affective capacity of their material formations. While spatial objects (design objects, buildings, urban configurations, etc.) are regarded as systems composed of interacting parts, within the premises of assemblage theory, their ability to affect and to be affected has not yet been mapped or sufficiently explored. This ability lies in excess, a latent potentiality they contain, not transcendental but immanent in their pre-subjective aesthetic power. As spatial structures are theorized as assemblages - composed of heterogeneous elements that enter into relations with one another - and since all assemblages are parts of larger assemblages, their components' ability to engage is contingent. We thus seek to unfold the mechanisms inherent in spatial objects that allow to the constituent parts of design assemblages to perpetually enter into new assemblages. To map architectural assemblage's affective ability, spatial objects are analyzed in two axes. The first axis focuses on the relations that the assemblage's material and expressive components develop in order to enter the assemblages. Material components refer to those material elements that an assemblage requires in order to exist, while expressive components includes non-linguistic (sense impressions) as well as linguistic (beliefs). The second axis records the processes known as a-signifying signs or a-signs, which are the triggering mechanisms able to territorialize or deterritorialize, stabilize or destabilize the assemblage and thus allow it to assemble anew. As a-signs cannot be isolated from matter, we point to their resulting effects, which without entering the linguistic level they are expressed in terms of intensity fields: modulations, movements, speeds, rhythms, spasms, etc. They belong to a molecular level where they operate in the pre-subjective world of perceptions, effects, drives, and emotions. A-signs have been introduced as intensities that transform the object beyond meaning, beyond fixed or known cognitive procedures. To that end, from an archive of more than 100 spatial objects by contemporary architects and designers, we have created an effective mechanisms index is created, where each a-sign is now connected with the list of effects it triggers and which thoroughly defines it. And vice versa, the same effect can be triggered by different a-signs, allowing the design object to lie in a perpetual state of becoming. To define spatial objects, A-signs are categorized in terms of their aesthetic power to affect and to be affected on the basis of the general categories of form, structure and surface. Thus, different part's degree of contingency are evaluated and measured and finally, we introduce as material information that is immanent in the spatial object while at the same time they confer no meaning; they only convey some information without semantic content. Through this index, we are able to analyze and direct the final form of the spatial object while at the same time establishing the mechanism to measure its continuous transformation.

Keywords: Cartography, Virtual, affective mechanisms index, architectural assemblages, a-signifying signs

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