Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Carrying Capacity Related Abstracts

9 New Challenges to the Conservation and Management of the Endangered Persian Follow Deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) in Ashk Island of Lake Uromiyeh National Park, Iran

Authors: Morteza Naderi


The Persian fallow deer was considered as a globally extinct species until 1956 when a small population was rediscovered from Dez Wildlife Refuge and Karkheh Wildlife Refuge in southwestern parts of Iran. After long species rehabilitation process, the species was transplanted to Dasht-e-Naz Wildlife Refuge in northern Iran, and from where, follow deer was introduced to the different selected habitats such as Ashk Island in Lake Uromiyeh National Park. During 12 years, (from 1978 to 1989) 58 individuals (25 males and 33 females) were transferred to Ask Island. The main threat to the established population was related to the freshwater shortage and existing just one single trough such as high mortality rate of adult males during rutting season, snake biting and dilutional hyponatremia. Desiccation of Lake Uromiyeh in recent years raised new challenges to the conservation process, as about 80 individuals, nearly one third of the population were died in 2011. Connection of Island to the mainland caused predators’ accessibility (such as wolf and Jackal) to the Ask Island and higher mortality because of follow deer attraction to the surrounding mainland farms. Conservation team faced such new challenges that may cause introduction plan to be probably failed. Investigations about habitat affinities and carrying capacity are the main basic researches in the management and conservation of the species. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of the different fresh water resources as well as Allium akaka and Pistacia atlantica are the main environmental variables affect Follow deer habitat selection. Habitat carrying capacity analysis both in summer and winter seasons indicated that Ashk Island can support 240±30 of Persian follow deer.

Keywords: Carrying Capacity, Predation, follow deer, lake Uromiyeh, microhabitat affinities, population oscillation, sex ratio

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8 Simulating the Dynamics of E-waste Production from Mobile Phone: Model Development and Case Study of Rwanda

Authors: Rutebuka Evariste, Zhang Lixiao


Mobile phone sales and stocks showed an exponential growth in the past years globally and the number of mobile phones produced each year was surpassing one billion in 2007, this soaring growth of related e-waste deserves sufficient attentions paid to it regionally and globally as long as 40% of its total weight is made from metallic which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. Different research and methods have been used to estimate the obsolete mobile phones but none has developed a dynamic model and handle the discrepancy resulting from improper approach and error in the input data. The study aim was to develop a comprehensive dynamic system model for simulating the dynamism of e-waste production from mobile phone regardless the country or region and prevail over the previous errors. The logistic model method combined with STELLA program has been used to carry out this study. Then the simulation for Rwanda has been conducted and compared with others countries’ results as model testing and validation. Rwanda is about 1.5 million obsoletes mobile phone with 125 tons of waste in 2014 with e-waste production peak in 2017. It is expected to be 4.17 million obsoletes with 351.97 tons by 2020 along with environmental impact intensity of 21times to 2005. Thus, it is concluded through the model testing and validation that the present dynamic model is competent and able deal with mobile phone e-waste production the fact that it has responded to the previous studies questions from Czech Republic, Iran, and China.

Keywords: Dematerialization, System Dynamics, Carrying Capacity, Obsolescence, similarity, mobile phone, logistic model, Stella

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7 Evaluation of Cirata Reservoir Sustainability Using Multi Dimensionalscaling (MDS)

Authors: Kholil Kholil, Aniwidayati


MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling) is one method that has been widely used to evaluate the use of natural resources. By using Raffish software tool, we will able to analyze sustainability level of the natural resources use. This paper will discuss the level of sustainability of the reservoir using MDS (Multi-Dimensional Scaling) based on five dimensions: (1) Ecology & Layout, (2) Economics, (3) Social & Culture, (4) Regulations & Institutional, and (5) Infrastructure and Technology. MDS analysis results show that the dimension of ecological and layout, institutional and the regulation are lack of sustainability due to the low index score of 45.76 and 42.24. While for the economic, social and culture, and infrastructure and technology dimension reach each score of 63.12, 64.42, and 68.64 (only the sufficient sustainability category). It means that the sustainability performance of Cirata Reservoir seriously threatened.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Water Quality, Carrying Capacity, Sedimentation, sustainability index, MDS, cirata reservoir

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6 Exploring Coexisting Opportunity of Earthquake Risk and Urban Growth

Authors: Chang Hsueh-Sheng, Chen Tzu-Ling


Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience, and further increase vulnerability. Due to earthquakes do not kill people, buildings do. When buildings located nearby earthquake-prone areas and constructed upon poorer soil areas might result in earthquake-induced ground damage. In addition, many existing buildings built before any improved seismic provisions began to be required in building codes and inappropriate land usage with highly dense population might result in much serious earthquake disaster. Indeed, not only do earthquake disaster impact seriously on urban environment, but urban growth might increase the vulnerability. Since 1980s, ‘Cutting down risks and vulnerability’ has been brought up in both urban planning and architecture and such concept has way beyond retrofitting of seismic damages, seismic resistance, and better anti-seismic structures, and become the key action on disaster mitigation. Land use planning and zoning are two critical non-structural measures on controlling physical development while it is difficult for zoning boards and governing bodies restrict development of questionable lands to uses compatible with the hazard without credible earthquake loss projection. Therefore, identifying potential earthquake exposure, vulnerability people and places, and urban development areas might become strongly supported information for decision makers. Taiwan locates on the Pacific Ring of Fire where a seismically active zone is. Some of the active faults have been found close by densely populated and highly developed built environment in the cities. Therefore, this study attempts to base on the perspective of carrying capacity and draft out micro-zonation according to both vulnerability index and urban growth index while considering spatial variances of multi factors via geographical weighted principle components (GWPCA). The purpose in this study is to construct supported information for decision makers on revising existing zoning in high-risk areas for a more compatible use and the public on managing risks.

Keywords: Vulnerability, Carrying Capacity, Urban Growth, earthquake disaster, /geographical weighted principle components (GWPCA), bivariate spatial association statistic

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5 The Quantitative Analysis of Tourism Carrying Capacity with the Approach of Sustainable Development Case Study: Siahsard Fountain

Authors: Masoumeh Tadayoni, Saeed Kamyabi, Alireza Entezari


Background and goal of the research: In planning and management system, the tourism carrying capacity is used as a holistic approach and supportive instrument. Evaluating the carrying capacity is used in quantitative the resource exploitation in line with sustainable development and as a foundation for identifying the changes in natural ecosystem and for the final evaluation and monitoring the tensions and decays in regressed ecosystem. Therefore, the present research tries to determine the carrying capacity of effective, physical and real range of Siahsard tourism region. Method: In the present research, the quantitative analysis of tourism carrying capacity is studied by used of effective or permissible carrying capacity (EPCC), real carrying capacity (PCC) and physical carrying capacity (RCC) in Siahsard fountain. It is analyzed based on the field survey and various resources were used for collecting information. Findings: The results of the analysis shows that, 3700 people use the Siahsard tourism region every day and 1350500 people use it annually. However, the evaluation of carrying capacity can be annually 1390650 people in this place. It can be an important tourism place along with other places in the region. Results: Siahsard’s tourism region has a little way to reach to its carrying capacity that needs to be analyzed. However, based on the results, some suggestions were offered for sustainable development of this region and as the most logical alternations for tourism management.

Keywords: Tourism, Evaluation, Carrying Capacity, Siahsard

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4 Organizational Mortality of Insurance Organizations under the Conditions of Environmental Changes

Authors: Erdem Kirkbesoglu, A. Bugra Soylu, E. Deniz Kahraman


The aim of this study is to examine the effects of some variables on organizational mortality of the Turkish insurance industry and calculate the carrying capacities of Turkish insurance industry according to cities and regions. In the study, organizational mortality was tested with the level of reaching the population's carrying capacity. The findings of this study show that the insurance sales potentials can be calculated according to the provinces and regions of Turkey. It has also been proven that the organizations that feed on the same source will have a carrying capacity in the evolutionary process.

Keywords: Insurance, Organization, Carrying Capacity, organizational mortality

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3 Motivations, Communication Dimensions, and Perceived Outcomes in the Multi-Sectoral Collaboration of the Visitor Management Program of Mount Makiling Forest Reserve in Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines

Authors: Charmaine B. Distor


Collaboration has long been recognized in different fields, but there’s been little research on operationalizing it especially on a multi-sectoral setting as per the author’s best knowledge. Also, communication is one of the factors that is usually overlooked when studying it. Specifically, this study aimed to describe the organizational profile and tasks of collaborators in the visitor management program of Make It Makiling (MIM). It also identified the factors that motivated collaborators to collaborate in MIM while determining the communication dimensions in the collaborative process. It also determined the communication channels used by collaborators in MIM while identifying the outcomes of collaboration in MIM. This study also found out if a relationship exists between collaborators’ motivations for collaboration and their perceived outcomes of collaboration, and collaborators' communication dimensions and their perceived outcomes of collaboration. Lastly, it also provided recommendations to improve the communication in MIM. Data were gathered using a self-administered survey that was patterned after Mattessich and Monsey’s (1992) collaboration experience questionnaire. Interviews and secondary sources mainly provided by the Makiling Center for Mountain Ecosystems (MCME) were also used. From the seven MIM collaborating organizations that were selected through purposive sampling, 86 respondents were chosen. Then, data were analyzed through frequency counts, percentages, measures of central tendencies, and Pearson’s and Spearman rho correlations. Collaborators’ length of collaboration ranged from seven to twenty years. Furthermore, six out of seven of the collaborators were involved in the task of 'emergency, rescue, and communication'. For the other aspect of the antecedents, the history of previous collaboration efforts ranked as the highest rated motivation for collaboration. In line with this, the top communication dimension is the governance while perceived effectiveness garnered the highest overall average among the perceived outcomes of collaboration. Results also showed that the collaborators highly rely on formal communication channels. Meetings and memos were the most commonly used communication channels throughout all tasks under the four phases of MIM. Additionally, although collaborators have a high view towards their co-collaborators, they still rely on MCME to act as their manager in coordinating with one another indirectly. Based on the correlation analysis, antecedent (motivations)-outcome relationship generally had positive relationships. However, for the process (communication dimensions)-outcome relationship, both positive and negative relationships were observed. In conclusion, this study exhibited the same trend with existing literature which also used the same framework. For the antecedent-outcome relationship, it can be deduced that MCME, as the main organizer of MIM, can focus on these variables to achieve their desired outcomes because of the positive relationships. For the process-outcome relationship, MCME should also take note that there were negative relationships where an increase in the said communication dimension may result in a decrease in the desired outcome. Recommendations for further study include a methodology that contains: complete enumeration or any parametric sampling, a researcher-administered survey, and direct observations. These might require additional funding, but all may yield to richer data.

Keywords: Organizational Communication, Carrying Capacity, antecedent-outcome relationship, process-outcome relationship

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2 Assessment of Major Feed Resources and Its Utilization in Manaslu Conservation Area Nepal

Authors: Bhojan Dhakal, Naba Raj Devkota, Sabita Subedi, Shankar Raj Pant


An assessment was made about the available feed resources, its utilization pattern, specifically, roughage and concentrate, produced from the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal to formulate the appropriate strategies in satisfying the annual dietary requirements of the livestock covering its present production and management scenarios. A comparative study was done by employing a purposively conducted survey to deduct the distribution of forage sources in the area. Findings revealed that natural vegetation, seasonally available crop residues, and dried grasses were major feed resources, whereas their contribution to the total supply varied significantly (p < 0.01). The amount of feed obtained from various sources was calculated by standard conversion and using primary household data. Findings revealed that farmers practice significantly higher (p < 0.01) number of grazing days and hours per day for large ruminants such as Yak and Chauries as compared to small ruminants such as goats and sheep. The findings also indicated seasonal variations of feed supply, whereas January to March is the period of short supply (p < 0.01). It was relatively in good supply from June to September though average roughage and crude protein supplement for the animals was far below than optimum requirements. These scenarios suggest the need for immediate attention to improve the range productivity in the MCA as the deteriorating situations of the rangelands may raise questions on the sustainability of livestock herders.

Keywords: Rangeland, Carrying Capacity, Feed Resources, ruminant, altitude, dietary requirement

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1 A Bayesian Population Model to Estimate Reference Points of Bombay-Duck (Harpadon nehereus) in Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh Using CMSY and BSM

Authors: Ahmad Rabby


The demographic trend analyses of Bombay-duck from time series catch data using CMSY and BSM for the first time in Bangladesh. During 2000-2018, CMSY indicates average lowest production in 2000 and highest in 2018. This has been used in the estimation of prior biomass by the default rules. Possible 31030 viable trajectories for 3422 r-k pairs were found by the CMSY analysis and the final estimates for intrinsic rate of population increase (r) was 1.19 year-1 with 95% CL= 0.957-1.48 year-1. The carrying capacity(k) of Bombay-duck was 283×103 tons with 95% CL=173×103 - 464×103 tons and MSY was 84.3×103tons year-1, 95% CL=49.1×103-145×103 tons year-1. Results from Bayesian state-space implementation of the Schaefer production model (BSM) using catch & CPUE data, found catchabilitiy coefficient(q) was 1.63 ×10-6 from lcl=1.27×10-6 to ucl=2.10×10-6 and r= 1.06 year-1 with 95% CL= 0.727 - 1.55 year-1, k was 226×103 tons with 95% CL=170×103-301×103 tons and MSY was 60×103 tons year-1 with 95% CL=49.9 ×103- 72.2 ×103 tons year-1. Results for Bombay-duck fishery management based on BSM assessment from time series catch data illustrated that, Fmsy=0.531 with 95% CL =0.364 - 0.775 (if B > 1/2 Bmsy then Fmsy =0.5r); Fmsy=0.531 with 95% CL =0.364-0.775 (r and Fmsy are linearly reduced if B < 1/2Bmsy). Biomass in 2018 was 110×103 tons with 2.5th to 97.5th percentile=82.3-155×103 tons. Relative biomass (B/Bmsy) in last year was 0.972 from 2.5th percentile to 97.5th percentile=0.728 -1.37. Fishing mortality in last year was 0.738 with 2.5th-97.5th percentile=0.525-1.37. Exploitation F/Fmsy was 1.39, from 2.5th to 97.5th percentile it was 0.988 -1.86. The biological reference points of B/BMSY was smaller than 1.0, while F/FMSY was higher than 1.0 revealed an over-exploitation of the fishery, indicating that more conservative management strategies are required for Bombay-duck fishery.

Keywords: Carrying Capacity, biological reference points, catchability coefficient, intrinsic rate of population increase

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