Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

carrier Related Abstracts

4 Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier

Authors: B. Guezzen, B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi

Abstract:

In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.

Keywords: surfactant, cadmium, emulsion liquid membrane, carrier

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3 A Concept for Flexible Battery Cell Manufacturing from Low to Medium Volumes

Authors: Tim Giesen, Raphael Adamietz, Pablo Mayer, Philipp Stiefel, Patrick Alle, Dirk Schlenker

Abstract:

The competitiveness and success of new electrical energy storages such as battery cells are significantly dependent on a short time-to-market. Producers who decide to supply new battery cells to the market need to be easily adaptable in manufacturing with respect to the early customers’ needs in terms of cell size, materials, delivery time and quantity. In the initial state, the required output rates do not yet allow the producers to have a fully automated manufacturing line nor to supply handmade battery cells. Yet there was no solution for manufacturing battery cells in low to medium volumes in a reproducible way. Thus, in terms of cell format and output quantity, a concept for the flexible assembly of battery cells was developed by the Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation. Based on clustered processes, the modular system platform can be modified, enlarged or retrofitted in a short time frame according to the ordered product. The paper shows the analysis of the production steps from a conventional battery cell assembly line. Process solutions were found by using I/O-analysis, functional structures, and morphological boxes. The identified elementary functions were subsequently clustered by functional coherences for automation solutions and thus the single process cluster was generated. The result presented in this paper enables to manufacture different cell products on the same production system using seven process clusters. The paper shows the solution for a batch-wise flexible battery cell production using advanced process control. Further, the performed tests and benefits by using the process clusters as cyber-physical systems for an integrated production and value chain are discussed. The solution lowers the hurdles for SMEs to launch innovative cell products on the global market.

Keywords: Automation, Advanced Process Control, carrier, battery production, cyber-physical system

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2 Bactericidal Efficacy of Quaternary Ammonium Compound on Carriers with Food Additive Grade Calcium Hydroxide against Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli

Authors: Kazuaki Takehara, Mayuko Suzuki, Miyuki Komura, M. Shahin Alam, Satoru Takahashi, Mariko Itoh, Natthanan Sangsriratanakul

Abstract:

Cleaning and disinfection are key components of routine biosecurity in livestock farming and food processing industry. The usage of suitable disinfectants and their proper concentration are important factors for a successful biosecurity program. Disinfectants have optimum bactericidal and virucidal efficacies at temperatures above 20°C, but very few studies on application and effectiveness of disinfectants at low temperatures have been done. In the present study, the bactericidal efficacies of food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)), quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and their mixture, were investigated under different conditions, including time, organic materials (fetal bovine serum: FBS) and temperature, either in suspension or in carrier test. Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli, which are the most prevalent gram negative bacteria in commercial poultry housing and food processing industry, were used in this study. Initially, we evaluated these disinfectants at two different temperatures (4°C and room temperature (RT) (25°C ± 2°C)) and 7 contact times (0, 5 and 30 sec, 1, 3, 20 and 30 min), with suspension tests either in the presence or absence of 5% FBS. Secondly, we investigated the bactericidal efficacies of these disinfectants by carrier tests (rubber, stainless steel and plastic) at same temperatures and 4 contact times (30 sec, 1, 3, and 5 min). Then, we compared the bactericidal efficacies of each disinfectant within their mixtures, as follows. When QAC was diluted with redistilled water (dW2) at 1: 500 (QACx500) to obtain the final concentration of didecyl-dimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) of 200 ppm, it could inactivate Salmonella Infantis within 5 sec at RT either with or without 5% FBS in suspension test; however, at 4°C it required 30 min in presence of 5% FBS. FdCa(OH)2 solution alone could inactivate bacteria within 1 min both at RT and 4°C even with 5% FBS. While FdCa(OH)2 powder was added at final concentration 0.2% to QACx500 (Mix500), the mixture could inactivate bacteria within 30 sec and 5 sec, respectively, with or without 5% FBS at 4°C. The findings from the suspension test indicated that low temperature inhibited the bactericidal efficacy of QAC, whereas Mix500 was effective, regardless of short contact time and low temperature, even with 5% FBS. In the carrier test, single disinfectant required bit more time to inactivate bacteria on rubber and plastic surfaces than on stainless steel. However, Mix500 could inactivate S. Infantis on rubber, stainless steel and plastic surfaces within 30 sec and 1 min, respectively, at RT and 4°C; but, for E. coli, it required only 30 sec at both temperatures. So, synergistic effects were observed on different carriers at both temperatures. For a successful enhancement of biosecurity during winter, the disinfectants should be selected that could have short contact times with optimum efficacy against the target pathogen. The present study findings help farmers to make proper strategies for application of disinfectants in their livestock farming and food processing industry.

Keywords: synergistic effects, carrier, food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)₂), quaternary ammonium compound

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1 Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes of Single versus Multiple Embryo Transfer in Gestational Surrogacy Arrangements: A Systematic Review

Authors: Jutharat Attawet, Alex Y. Wang, Cindy M. Farquhar, Elizabeth A. Sullivan

Abstract:

Background: Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes of multiple pregnancies resulting from multiple embryo transfers (ET) has become significant concerns. This is particularly relevant for gestational carriers since they usually do not have infertility issues. Single embryo transfer (SET) therefore has been encouraged to assist reproductive technology (ART) practice in order to reduce multiple pregnancies. Objectives: This systematic review aims to investigate the pregnancy and birth outcomes of SET and multiple ET in surrogacy arrangements. Search methods: This study is a systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from CINAHL, Medline, Embase, Scopus and ProQuest for studies from 1980 to 2017. Cross-references and national ART reports were also manual searchings. Articles without restriction of English language and study types were accessed. Carrier cycles involving in SET and multiple ET were identified in database searching. The main outcome measures including clinical pregnancy, live delivery and multiple deliveries per gestational carrier cycle were compared between SET and multiple ET. Mantel-Haenzel risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the numbers of outcome events in SET and multiple ET of each study were calculated suing RevMan5.3. Outcomes: The search returned 97 articles of which 5 met the inclusion criteria. Approximately 50% of carrier cycles were transferred a single embryo and 50% were transferred more than one embryo. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) was 39% for SET and 53% for multiple ET, which was not significantly different with RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.67-1.03). The live delivery rate was 33% for SET and 57% for multiple ET which was not significantly different with RR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61-1.00). The multiple delivery rate per carrier was greater risks in the multiple ET carrier cycles (RR =0.4, 95% CI: 0.01-0.26). There were 104 sets of twins (including one set of twins selectively reduced from triplets to twins) and 1 set of triples in the multiple ET carrier cycle. In the SET carrier cycles, there were 2 sets of twins. Significance of the study: SET should be advocated among surrogate carriers to prevent multiple pregnancies and subsequent adverse outcomes for both carrier and baby. Surrogacy practice should be reviewed and surrogate carriers should be fully informed of the risk of adverse maternal and birth outcome of multiple pregnancies due to multiple embryo transfers.

Keywords: Assisted Reproduction, systematic review, birth outcomes, carrier, gestational surrogacy, multiple embryo transfer, multiple pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes, single embryo transfer, surrogate mother

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