Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Carotenoids Related Abstracts

17 Natural Antioxidant Changes in Fresh and Dried Spices and Vegetables

Authors: Liga Priecina, Daina Karklina

Abstract:

Antioxidants are became the most analyzed substances in last decades. Antioxidants act as in activator for free radicals. Spices and vegetables are one of major antioxidant sources. Most common antioxidants in vegetables and spices are vitamin C, E, phenolic compounds, carotenoids. Therefore, it is important to get some view about antioxidant changes in spices and vegetables during processing. In this article was analyzed nine fresh and dried spices and vegetables- celery (Apium graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa), celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), pumpkin (Curcubica maxima), carrot (Daucus carota)- grown in Latvia 2013. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds and their antiradical scavenging activity were determined for all samples. Dry matter content was calculated from moisture content. After drying process carotenoid content significantly decreases in all analyzed samples, except one -carotenoid content increases in parsley. Phenolic composition was different and depends on sample – fresh or dried. Total phenolic, flavonoid and phenolic acid content increases in dried spices. Flavan-3-ol content is not detected in fresh spice samples. For dried vegetables- phenolic acid content decreases significantly, but increases flavan-3-ols content. The higher antiradical scavenging activity was observed in samples with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid content.

Keywords: Spices, Vegetables, Carotenoids, Phenolic Compounds, antiradical scavenging activity

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16 Evaluation of Scenedesmus obliquus Carotenoids as Food Colorants, and Antioxidant Activity in Functional Cakes

Authors: Hanaa H. Abd El Baky, Gamal S. El Baroty, Eman A. Ibrahem

Abstract:

Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus, the carotenoides (astaxanine and β-caroteine) were identified as the major bioactive constituents. In this work we prepared functional pre-biotic cakes to increase general mental health. Functional cakes were formulated by adding algal caroteinods at 2 and 4 mg/100g to flower and the cakes were storage for 20 days. Oxidative stability of both function cakes products were examined during storage periods by DPPH and TBA assays, and the results revealed that both values in function food products were significantly much low than that in untreated food products. Data of sensory evaluation revealed that treated biscuit and cakes with algae or algae extracts were significantly acceptable as control for main sensory characteristics (colour, odour/aroma, flavour, texture, the global appreciation, and overall acceptability). Thus, it could be concluded that functional biscuits and cakes (very popular and well balanced nutritional food) had good sensory and nutritional profiles and can be developed as new niche food market.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Scenedesmus obliquus, functional cakes antioxidant, nutritional profiles

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15 Effect of Ultrasound on Carotenoids Extraction from Pepper and Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Elham Mahdian, Reza Karazhian, Rahele Dehghan Tanha

Abstract:

Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) which belong to the family Solananceae, are known for their versatility as a vegetable crop and are consumed both as fresh vegetables or dehydrated for spices. Pepper is considered an excellent source of bioactive nutrients. Ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds are its main antioxidant constituents. Ultrasound assisted extraction is an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques. The mechanism of action for ultrasound-assisted extraction are attributed to cavitations, mechanical forces and thermal impact, which result in disruption of cells walls, reduce particle size, and enhance mass transfer across cell membranes. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction of carotenoid compounds from Chili peppers. Variables were included extraction temperatures at 3 levels (30, 40 and 50 °C), extraction times at 3 levels (10, 25 and 40 minutes) and power at 3 levels (30, 60 and 90 %). It was observed that ultrasound waves applied at temperature of 49°C, time of 10 minutes and power 89 % resulted to the highest carotenoids contents (lycopene and β-carotene), while the lowest value was recorded in the control. Thus, results showed that ultrasound waves have strong impact on extraction of carotenoids from pepper.

Keywords: Optimization, Carotenoids, response surface methodology, pepper

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14 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Properties and Health Benefits

Authors: C. S. Marques, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: Functional foods, Bioavailability, Carotenoids, lycopene, tomato, cancer and antioxidants

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13 Carotenoids a Biologically Important Bioactive Compound

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Carotenoids comprise a group of isoprenoid pigments. Carotenes, xanthophylls and their derivatives have been found to play an important role in all living beings through foods, neutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin play a vital role in humans to provide vitamin A source for the growth, development and proper functioning of immune system and vision. They are very crucial for plants and humans as they protect from photooxidative damage and are excellent antioxidants quenching singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals. Diet including more intake of carotenoids results in reduced threat of various chronic diseases such as cancer (lung, breast, prostrate, colorectal and ovarian cancers) and coronary heart diseases. The blue light filtering efficiency of the carotenoids in liposomes have been reported to be maximum in lutein followed by zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene. Lycopene plays a vital role for the protection from CVD. Lycopene in serum is directly related to reduced risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Carotenoids have major role in the treatment of skin disorders. There is need to identify and isolate novel carotenoids from diverse natural sources for human health benefits.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Pharmaceuticals, Carotenoids, Antioxidants, neutraceuticals

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12 A Review: Carotenoids a Biologically Important Bioactive Compound

Authors: Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

Abstract:

Carotenoids comprise a group of isoprenoid pigments. Carotenes, xanthophylls and their derivatives have been found to play an important role in all living beings through foods, neutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin play a vital role in humans to provide vitamin A source for the growth, development and proper functioning of immune system and vision. They are very crucial for plants and humans as they protect from photooxidative damage and are excellent antioxidants quenching singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals. Diet including more intake of carotenoids results in reduced threat of various chronic diseases such as cancer (lung, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers) and coronary heart diseases. The blue light filtering efficiency of the carotenoids in liposomes have been reported to be maximum in lutein followed by zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene. Lycopene play a vital role for the protection from CVD. Lycopene in serum is directly related to reduced risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Carotenoids have the major role in the treatment of skin disorders. There is a need to identify and isolate novel carotenoids from diverse natural sources for human health benefits.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Pharmaceuticals, Carotenoids, Antioxidants, neutraceuticals

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11 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Tangerine Peel Using Ostrich Oil as a Green Solvent and Optimization of the Process by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Fariba Tadayon, Nika Gharahgolooyan, Ateke Tadayon, Mostafa Jafarian

Abstract:

Carotenoid pigments are a various group of lipophilic compounds that generate the yellow to red colors of many plants, foods and flowers. A well-known type of carotenoids which is pro-vitamin A is β-carotene. Due to the color of citrus fruit’s peel, the peel can be a good source of different carotenoids. Ostrich oil is one of the most valuable foundations in many branches of industry, medicine, cosmetics and nutrition. The animal-based ostrich oil could be considered as an alternative and green solvent. Following this study, wastes of citrus peel will recycle by a simple method and extracted carotenoids can increase properties of ostrich oil. In this work, a simple and efficient method for extraction of carotenoids from tangerine peel was designed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) showed significant effect on the extraction rate by increasing the mass transfer rate. Ostrich oil can be used as a green solvent in many studies to eliminate petroleum-based solvents. Since tangerine peel is a complex source of different carotenoids separation and determination was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the ability of ostrich oil and sunflower oil in carotenoid extraction from tangerine peel and carrot was compared. The highest yield of β-carotene extracted from tangerine peel using sunflower oil and ostrich oil were 75.741 and 88.110 (mg/L), respectively. Optimization of the process was achieved by response surface methodology (RSM) and the optimal extraction conditions were tangerine peel powder particle size of 0.180 mm, ultrasonic intensity of 19 W/cm2 and sonication time of 30 minutes.

Keywords: Carotenoids, response surface methodology, β-carotene, citrus peel, ostrich oil, ultrasound-assisted extraction

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10 Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit Quality: Phytochemical Attributes of Some Apricot Cultivars as Affected by Genotype and Ripening

Authors: Jamal Ayour, Mohamed Benichou

Abstract:

Fruit quality is one of the main concerns of consumers, producers, and distributors. The evolution of apricot fruits undergoes a strong acceleration during maturation, and the rapidity of post-harvest evolution of the ripe fruit is particularly selective in the apricot. The objective of this study is to identify new cultivars with an interesting quality as well as a better yield allowing a more prolonged production over time. The evaluation of the fruit quality of new apricot cultivars from the Marrakech region was carried out by analyzing their physical and biochemical attributes during ripening. The results obtained clearly show a great diversity of the physicochemical attributes of the selected clones. Also, some genotypes of apricots showed contents of sugars, organic acids (vitamin C) and β carotene significantly higher than those of the most famous varieties of Morocco: Canino, Delpatriarca, and Maoui. Principal component analysis (PCA), taking into account the maturity stage and the diversity of cultivars, made it possible to define three groups with similar physicochemical attributes. The results of this study are of great use, particularly for the selection of genotypes with a better quality of fruit, both for consumption or industrial processing and with important contents of physicochemical attributes.

Keywords: Quality, Carotenoids, Acidity, Color, Sugar, apricot, vitamin C

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9 Extraction and Encapsulation of Carotenoids from Carrot

Authors: Gordana Ćetković, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Vanja Šeregelj, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić

Abstract:

The color of food is one of the decisive factors for consumers. Potential toxicity of artificial food colorants has led to the consumers' preference for natural products over products with artificial colors. Natural pigments have many bioactive functions, such as antioxidant, provitamin and many other. Having this in mind, the acceptability of natural colorants by the consumers is much higher. Being present in all photosynthetic plant tissues carotenoids are probably most widespread pigments in nature. Carrot (Daucus carota) is a good source of functional food components. Carrot is especially rich in carotenoids, mainly α- and β-carotene and lutein. For this study, carrot was extracted using classical extraction with hexane and ethyl acetate, as well as supercritical CO₂ extraction. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by estimation of carotenoid yield determined spectrophotometrically. Classical extraction using hexane (18.27 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) was the most efficient method for isolation of carotenoids, compared to ethyl acetate classical extraction (15.73 mg β-carotene/100 g DM) and supercritical CO₂ extraction (0.19 mg β-carotene/100 g DM). Three carrot extracts were tested in terms of antioxidant activity using DPPH and reducing power assay as well. Surprisingly, ethyl acetate extract had the best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals (AADPPH=120.07 μmol TE/100 g) while hexane extract showed the best reducing power (RP=1494.97 μmol TE/100 g). Hexane extract was chosen as the most potent source of carotenoids and was encapsulated in whey protein by freeze-drying. Carotenoid encapsulation efficiency was found to be high (89.33%). Based on our results it can be concluded that carotenoids from carrot can be efficiently extracted using hexane and classical extraction method. This extract has the potential to be applied in encapsulated form due to high encapsulation efficiency and coloring capacity. Therefore it can be used for dietary supplements development and food fortification.

Keywords: Extraction, Carotenoids, encapsulation, carrot

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8 Comparison of Fat Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids and Cholesterol Content in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa and Ulva rigida from the Black Sea

Authors: Diana A. Dobreva, Veselina Panayotova, Albena Merdzhanova, Lubomir Makedonski, Mona Stancheva

Abstract:

Many studies suggest that marine mollusks are healthy food, characterized by low fat and high digestible proteins content. They are one of the most important dietary sources of fat soluble vitamins. The most common species of mollusks in the Bulgarian Black Sea waters are the black mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and the sea snail Rapana (Rapana venosa). One of the main problems of the region is the lack of information about chemical composition of these important marine species. Due to these facts, the aim of the present work was to determine the fat soluble vitamins A, D2, D3, and E, carotenoids–β-carotene and astaxanthin, and total cholesterol contents of mollusk samples and compare them to sample of green algae (Ulva rigida). Samples were collected during autumn from north region of the Black Sea coast, and their wet tissues were used for evaluation of vitamins A, D2, D3, and E, astaxanthin, β-carotene and cholesterol compositions. All fat soluble analytes were simultaneously analyzed by RP- HPLC/UV/FL system. The results were calculated as milligrams per gram total lipid (mg.g-1TL). Alpha-tocopherol and b-carotene were most abundant in algae samples, while mussel samples presented the highest amounts of vitamin D3 (several times higher than the recommended daily intake in Bulgaria (Ordinance № 23 / 19.07.2005)). In all samples, cholesterol content was significantly low, which falls within recommendation of the same ordinance (upper daily consumption should not exceed 300 mg per day). From data, it can be concluded that all samples were characterized as beneficial sources of biologically active compounds.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Algae, fat soluble vitamins, mussel, rapana

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7 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Jyoti Kumari, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Color, Antioxidant Capacity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs

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6 Carotenoid Bioaccessibility: Effects of Food Matrix and Excipient Foods

Authors: Birgul Hizlar, Sibel Karakaya

Abstract:

Recently, increasing attention has been given to carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the field of nutrition research. As a consequence of their lipophilic nature and their specific localization in plant-based tissues, carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability is generally quite low in raw fruits and vegetables, since carotenoids need to be released from the cellular matrix and incorporated in the lipid fraction during digestion before being absorbed. Today’s approach related to improving the bioaccessibility is to design food matrix. Recently, the newest approach, excipient food, has been introduced to improve the bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds. The main idea is combining food and another food (the excipient food) whose composition and/or structure is specifically designed for improving health benefits. In this study, effects of food processing, food matrix and the addition of excipient foods on the carotenoid bioaccessibility of carrots were determined. Different excipient foods (olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd) and different food matrices (grating, boiling and mashing) were used. Total carotenoid contents of the grated, boiled and mashed carrots were 57.23, 51.11 and 62.10 μg/g respectively. No significant differences among these values indicated that these treatments had no effect on the release of carotenoids from the food matrix. Contrary to, changes in the food matrix, especially mashing caused significant increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility. Although the carotenoid bioaccessibility was 10.76% in grated carrots, this value was 18.19% in mashed carrots (p<0.05). Addition of olive oil and lemon juice as excipients into the grated carrots caused 1.23 times and 1.67 times increase in the carotenoid content and the carotenoid bioaccessibility respectively. However, addition of the excipient foods in the boiled carrot samples did not influence the release of carotenoid from the food matrix. Whereas, up to 1.9 fold increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility was determined by the addition of the excipient foods into the boiled carrots. The bioaccessibility increased from 14.20% to 27.12% by the addition of olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. The highest carotenoid content among mashed carrots was found in the mashed carrots incorporated with olive oil and lemon juice. This combination also caused a significant increase in the carotenoid bioaccessibility from 18.19% to 29.94% (p<0.05). When compared the results related with the effect of the treatments on the carotenoid bioaccessibility, mashed carrots containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd had the highest carotenoid bioaccessibility. The increase in the bioaccessibility was approximately 81% when compared to grated and mashed samples containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the food matrix and addition of the excipient foods had a significant effect on the carotenoid content and the carotenoid bioaccessibility.

Keywords: Carotenoids, carrot, excipient foods, food matrix

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5 The Effects of Food Matrix and Different Excipient Foods on β-Carotene Bioaccessibility in Carrots

Authors: Birgul Hizlar, Sibel Karakaya

Abstract:

Nowadays, consumers are more and more aware of the benefits beyond basic nutrition provided by food and food compounds. Between these, carotenoids have been demonstrated to exhibit multiple health benefits (for example, some types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, among others). However, carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability is generally rather low due to their specific localization in plant tissue and lipophilic nature. This situation is worldwide issue, since both developed and developing countries have their interest and benefits in increasing the uptake of carotenoids from the human diet. Recently, a new class of foods designed to improve the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds is introduced: excipient foods. Excipient foods are specially designed foods which are prepared depending on the physicochemical properties of target bioactive compounds and increasing the bioavailability or bioaccessibility of bioactive compound. In this study, effects of food matrix (greating, boiling and mashing) and different excipient foods (olive oil, lemon juice, whey curd and dried artichoke leaf powder) on bioaccessibility of β-carotene in carrot were investigated by means of simulating in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. β-carotene contents of grated, boiled and mashed (after boiling process) carrots were 79.28, 147.63 and 151.19 μg/g respectively. No significant differences among boiled and mashed samples indicated that mashing process had no effect on the release of β-carotene from the food matrix (p > 0.05). On the contrary, mashing causes significant increase in the β-carotene bioaccessibility (p < 0.05). The highest β-carotene content was found in the mashed carrots incorporated with olive oil and lemon juice (C2). However, no significant differences between that sample and C1 (mashed carrot with lemon juice, olive oil, dried artichoke leaf powder), C3 (mashed carrot with addition of olive oil, lemon juice, whey curd) and). Similarly, the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility (50.26%) was found mashed C3 sample (p < 0.05). The increase in the bioaccessibility was approximately 5 fold and 50 fold when compared to grated and mashed samples containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. The results demonstrate that both, food matrix and excipient foods, are able to increase the bioaccessibility of β-carotene.

Keywords: Carotenoids, carrot, bioaccessibility, β-carotene

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4 Rheological and Crystallization Properties of Dark Chocolate Formulated with Essential Oil of Orange and Carotene Extracted from Pineapple Peels

Authors: Mayra Pilamunga, Edwin Vera

Abstract:

The consumption of dark chocolate is beneficial due to its high content of flavonoids, catechins, and procyanidins. To improve its properties, fortification of chocolate with polyphenols, anthocyanins, soy milk powder and other compounds has been evaluated in several studies. However, to our best knowledge, the addition of carotenes to chocolate has not been tested. Carotenoids, especially ß-carotene and lutein, are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables so that they could be extracted from agro-industrial waste, such as fruit processing. On the other hand, limonene produces crystalline changes of cocoa butter and improves its consistency and viscosity. This study aimed to evaluate the production of dark chocolate with the addition of carotenes extracted from an agro industrial waste and to improve its rheological properties and crystallization, with orange essential oil. The dried and fermented cocoa beans were purchased in Puerto Quito, Ecuador, and had a fat content of 51%. Six types of chocolates were formulated, and two formulations were chosen, one at 65% cocoa and other at 70% cocoa, both with a solid: fat ratio of 1.4:1. With the formulations selected, the influence of the addition of 0.75% and 1.5% orange essential oil was evaluated, and analysis to measure the viscosity, crystallization and sensory analysis were done. It was found that essential oil does not generate significant changes in the properties of chocolate, but has an important effect on aroma and coloration, which changed from auburn to brown. The best scores on sensory analysis were obtained for the samples formulated with 0.75% essential oil. Prior to the formulation with carotenes, the extraction of these compounds from pineapple peels were performed. The process was done with and without a previous enzymatic treatment, with three solid-solvent ratios. The best treatment was using enzymes in a solids-solvent ratio of 1:12.5; the extract obtained under these conditions had 4.503 ± 0.214 μg Eq. β-carotene/mL. This extract was encapsulated with gum arabic and maltodextrin, and the solution was dried using a freeze dryer. The encapsulated carotenes were added to the chocolate in an amount of 1.7% however 60,8 % of them were lost in the final product.

Keywords: Carotenoids, limonene, cocoa, fat crystallization, pineapple peels

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3 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya

Abstract:

Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: Extraction, Carotenoids, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell

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2 Recent Advances in Research on Carotenoids: From Agrofood Production to Health Outcomes

Authors: Antonio J. Melendez-Martinez

Abstract:

Beyond their role as natural colorants, some carotenoids are provitamins A and may be involved in health-promoting biological actions and contribute to reducing the risk of developing non-communicable diseases, including several types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, eye conditions, skin disorders or metabolic disorders. Given the versatility of carotenoids, the COST-funded European network to advance carotenoid research and applications in agro-food and health (EUROCAROTEN) is aimed at promoting health through the diet and increasing well-being by means. Stakeholders from 38 countries participate in this network, and one of its main objectives is to promote research on little-studied carotenoids. In this contribution, recent advances of our research group and collaborators in the study of two such understudied carotenoids, namely phytoene and phytofluene, the colorless carotenoids, are outlined. The study of these carotenoids is important as they have been largely neglected despite they are present in our diets, fluids, and tissues, and evidence is accumulating that they may be involved in health-promoting actions. More specifically, studies on their levels in diverse tomato and orange varieties were carried out as well as on their potential bioavailability from different dietary sources. Furthermore, the potential effect of these carotenoids on an animal model subjected to oxidative stress was evaluated. The tomatoes were grown in research greenhouses, and some of them were subjected to regulated deficit irrigation, a sustainable agronomic practice. The citrus samples were obtained from an experimental field. The levels of carotenoids were assessed using HPLC according to routine methodologies followed in our lab. Regarding the potential bioavailability (bioaccessibility) studies, different products containing colorless carotenoids, like fruits, juices, were subjected to simulated in vitro digestions, and their incorporation into mixed micelles was assessed. The effect of the carotenoids on oxidative stress was evaluated on the Caenorhabditis elegans model. For that purpose, the worms were subjected to oxidative stress by means of a hydrogen peroxide challenge. In relation to the presence of colorless carotenoids in tomatoes and orange varieties, it was observed that they are widespread in such products and that there are mutants with very high quantities of them, for instance, the Cara Cara or Pinalate mutant oranges. The studies on their bioaccessibility revealed that, in general, phytoene and phytofluene are more bioaccessible than other common dietary carotenoids, probably due to their distinctive chemical structure. About the in vivo antioxidant capacity of phytoene and phytofluene, it was observed that they both exerted antioxidant effects at certain doses. In conclusion, evidence on the importance of phytoene and phytofluene as dietary easily bioavailable and antioxidant carotenoids has been obtained in recent studies from our group, which can be important shortly to innovate in health-promotion through the development of functional foods and related products.

Keywords: Nutrition, Functional foods, Health, Carotenoids, phytoene, phytofluene

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1 Effect of Phytohormones on the Development and Nutraceutical Characteristics of the Fruit Capsicum annuum

Authors: Rossy G. Olan Villegas, Gerardo Acosta Garcia, Aurea Bernardino Nicanor, Leopoldo Gonzalez Cruz, Humberto Ramirez Medina

Abstract:

Capsicum annuum is a crop of agricultural and economic importance in Mexico and other countries. The fruit (pepper) contains bioactive components such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and capsaicinoids that improve health. However, pepper cultivation is affected by biotic and abiotic factors that decrease yield. Some phytohormones like gibberellins and auxins induce the formation and development of fruit in several plants. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the exogenous application of phytohormones like gibberellic acid and indolbutyric acid on fruit development of jalapeno pepper plants, the protein profile of plant tissues, the accumulation of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in the pericarp and seeds. For that, plants were sprinkled with these phytohormones. The fruit collection for the control, indolbutyric acid and gibberellic acid treatments was 7 peppers per plant; however, for the treatment that combines indolbutyric acid and gibberellic acid, a fruit with the shortest length (1.52 ± 1.00 cm) and weight (0.41 ± 1.0 g) was collected compared to fruits of plants grown under other treatments. The length (4,179 ± 0,130 cm) and weight of the fruit (8,949 ± 0.583 g) increased in plants treated with indolbutyric acid, but these characteristics decreased with the application of GA3 (length of 3,349 ± 0.127 cm and a weight 4,429 ± 0.144 g). The content of carotenes and phenolic compounds increased in plants treated with GA3 (1,733 ± 0.092 and 1,449 ± 0.009 mg / g, respectively) or indolbutyric acid (1,164 ± 0.042 and 0.970 ± 0.003 mg / g). However, this effect was not observed in plants treated with both phytohormones (0.238 ± 0.021 and 0.218 ± 0.004 mg / g). Capsaicin content was higher in all treatments; but it was more noticeable in plants treated with both phytohormones, the value being 0.913 ± 0.001 mg / g (three times greater in amount). The antioxidant activity was measured by 3 different assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidant power of ferric reduction (FRAP) and 2,2'-Azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid ( ABTS) to find the minimum inhibitory concentration of the reducing radical (IC50 and EC50). Significant differences were observed from the application of the phytohormone, being the fruits treated with gibberellins, which had a greater accumulation of bioactive compounds. Our results suggest that the application of phytohormones modifies the development of fruit and its content of bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Carotenoids, Auxins, Capsaicinoids, gibberellins

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