Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Care Related Abstracts

10 Care and Support for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs

Authors: Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Aniashie Akpanke


Early identification of developmental disorders in infants and toddlers is critical for the well being of children. It is also an integral function of the primary care medical provider and the early care given in the home or crèche. This paper is focused at providing information on special need infants and toddlers and strategies to support them in developmental concern to cope with the challenges in and out of the classroom and to interact with their peers without stigmatization and inferiority complex. The target children are from birth through three years of age. There is a strong recommendation for developmental surveillance to be incorporated at every well child preventive care program in training and practical stage of formal school settings. The paper posits that any concerns raised during surveillance should be promptly addressed with standardized developmental screening by appropriate health service providers. In addition screening tests should be administered regularly at age 9+, 19+ and 30 months of these infants. The paper also establishes that the early identification of these developmental challenges of the infants and toddlers should lead to further developmental and medical evaluation, diagnosis and treatment, including early developmental school intervention, control and teaching and learning integration and inclusion for proper career build up. Children diagnosed with developmental disorders should be identified as children with special needs so that management is initiated and its underlying etiology may also drive a range of treatment of the child, to parents. Conselling and school integration as applicable to the child’s specific need and care for sustenance in societal functioning.

Keywords: Care, support, special need, infants and toddlers, management and developmental disorders

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9 Complementary Child-Care by Grandparents: Comparisons of Zambia and the Netherlands

Authors: Francis Sichimba


Literature has increasingly acknowledged the important role that grandparents play in child care with evidence highlighting differences in grand-parental investment between countries and cultures. However, there are very few systematic cross cultural studies on grandparents’ participation in child care. Thus, we decided to conduct this study in Zambia and the Netherlands because the two countries differ rather drastically socially and culturally. The objective of this study was to investigate grand-parental involvement in child care in Zambia and the Netherlands. In line with the general objective, four hypotheses were formulated using nationality, family size, social economic status (SES), attachment security as independent variables. The study sample consisted of 411 undergraduate students from the University of Zambia and the University of Leiden. A questionnaire was used to measure grand-parental involvement in child care. Results indicated that grandparent involvement in child care was prevalent in both Zambia and Netherlands. However, as predicted it was found that Zambian grandparents (M = 9.69, SD=2.40) provided more care for their grandchildren compared to their Dutch counterparts (M = 7.80, SD=3.31) even after controlling for parents being alive. Using hierarchical logistic regression analysis the study revealed that nationality and attachment-related avoidance were significant predictors of grand-parental involvement in child care. It was concluded that grand-parental care is a great resource in offering complementary care in both countries.

Keywords: Care, attachment, grand-parenting involvement, social economic status

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8 An Audit of the Care in Recovery in Women after an Obstetrics Procedure

Authors: A. Haddick, A. Soltan


Background: During the period of recovery from an operative obstetric procedure, a woman is not only at risk of the life-threatening complications accompanying labour but also those associated with surgery and anaesthesia. It is speculated that women in the recovery area may receive a lower standard of care over a night shift. Thus obstetric recovery room care should be evaluated regularly to ensure all women receive an equally high standard of care 24/7. Aim: The aim of this audit was to undertake an audit in the Liverpool Women’s Hospital on the care in recovery, and to ascertain the extent to which the standards were met. This audit included the full audit cycle. Method: Standards were taken from the AAGBI, RCOA, NICE and CNST guidelines. There were 12 standards including appropriate documentation of vital signs and appropriate length of stay after surgery. Notes from 100 patients were analysed from March 2011-March 2012. There were 52 day notes and 48 night notes; these were accessed to gain the relevant data. In the re audit 35 notes were accessed from March 14-September 14. Results: The Liverpool Women’s Hospital met in total 10 of these standards. 10 were met during the day shift (83%) and 0 met during the night shift. In the re audit, there was a significant improvement in the standards met at night. 9 of the standards were met during the day and 7 of the standards were met at night. Clearly there are still improvements to be made. Conclusions: In the original audit, an audit action plan was formulated. This was following discussion of the results of this audit in an MDT meeting and presentation with a consultant Obstetrician, the head of Midwifery, the head of Obstetrics theatres and a recovery nurse. This audit will be further discussed in the Liverpool Woman's Hospital in July 2015 for further implementation for improvement.

Keywords: Women, Recovery, Care, room

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7 Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Diabetic Patients Regarding Diabetic Foot Care, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reda Goweda, Mokhtar Shatla, Arawa Alzaidi, Arij Alzaidi, Bashair Aldhawani, Hibah Alharbi, Noran Sultan, Daniah Alnemari, Badr Rawa


Background: 20.5% of Saudis between 20 and 79 years are diabetics. Diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes. The incidence of non traumatic lower extremity amputations is at least 15 times greater in those with diabetes than non diabetics. Patient education is important to reduce lower extremity complications. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of the diabetic patients regarding foot care and diabetic foot complications. Methods: In Makkah hospitals, 350 diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were involved in this cross sectional study. Interviewing questionnaire and patients’ charts review were used to collect the data. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.0083±13.1 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 11.24±8.7 years. 35.1% had history of foot ulcer while 25.7% had ulcer on the time of interview. 11.7 % had history of amputation and 83.1% had numbness. 77.1 % examine their feet while 49.1% received foot care education and 34% read handouts on foot care. 34% walk around in bare feet. There is a significant statistical association between foot education, foot care practices, and diabetic foot ulcer (p-value < 0.022). Conclusion: Patient knowledge and practices regarding diabetic foot care is significantly associated with the reduction of diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: Diabetes, Knowledge, Practice, Care, Foot, attitude

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6 Children and Parents Left behind in Transnational Families: The Problem of Care Deficit

Authors: Joanna Bielecka-Prus


In the view of increasing number of labour migrations associated with broadly understood economic crisis, many families experience migration separation. Currently, in the era of globalization, migration movements include an increasing number of families, more and more frequently a new type of family, a transnational family. Accordingly, the functions of the family, family practice of care, and the relationships between members of the group change especially in the case of female migration. Sociologists highlight the emotional aspects of migrants’ family lives: managing emotions, coping with guilt, loneliness and rejection. Not without significance is the fact that today's public discourse often represents migrant women in a negative light. On the one hand, consumption and expanding material resources are assessed positively, on the other hand, deficits emotional and devastation of family life in the transnational families appear. Opinions expressed by different environments: the media, the political environment, etc. do not always take into account the context of mobility and their different effects on family life. The paper will present the analysis of qualitative studies of Polish female migrants’ families left-behind (children, parents, caregivers N = 100) and their coping strategies in different situations in the event of migration separation. The main area of care deficit will be defined and it will be showed who and how help to solve the problems.

Keywords: Care, children left behind, female migration, parents left behind

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5 The Role and Tasks of a Social Worker in the Care of a Terminally Ill Child with Regard to the Malopolska Hospice for Children

Authors: Ewelina Zdebska


A social worker is an integral part of an interdisciplinary team working with the child and his family in a terminal state. Social support is an integral part of the medical procedure in the care of hospice. This is the basis and prerequisite of full treatment and good care of the child - patient, whose illness often finds at least the expected period of his life when his personal and legal issues are not regulated, and the family burdened with the problem requires care and support specialists - professionals. Hospice for Children in Krakow: a palliative care team operating in the province of Krakow and Malopolska, conducts specialized care for terminally ill children in place of their residence from the time when parents and doctors decided to end of treatment in hospital, allows parents to carry out medical care at home, provides parents social and legal assistance and provides care, psychological support and friendship to families throughout the life of the child's illness and after his death, as long as it is needed. The social worker in a hospice does not bear the burden of solving social problems, which is the responsibility of other authorities, but provides support possible and necessary at the moment. The most common form of assistance is to provide information on benefits, which for the child and his family may be subject to any treatment and fight for the life and health of a child. Employee assists in the preparation and completion of documents, requests to increase the degree of disability because of progressive disease or Allowance care because of the inability to live independently. It works in settling all the issues with the Department of Social Security, as well as with the Municipal and District Team Affairs of disability. Seeking help and support using multi-faceted childcare. With the Centres for Social Welfare contacts are also often on the organization of additional respite care for the sick at home (care), especially in the work of the other members of the family or if the family can not cope with the care and needs extra help. Hospice for Children in Cracow completing construction of Poland's first Respite Care Centre for chronically and terminally ill children, will be an open house where children suffering from chronic and incurable diseases and their families can get professional help, whenever - when they need it. The social worker has to pick up a very important role in caring for a terminally ill child. His presence gives a little patient and family the opportunity to be at this difficult time together while organizing assistance and support.

Keywords: Care, Terminal Care, Hospice, social worker

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4 Qualitative Analysis of Emotional Thoughts in the Perspective of Nurses Who Have Been Working Experience in Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Unit

Authors: Sevil Inal, Leman Yantiri, Meral Kelleci


Aim: In this study, it was aimed to qualitatively analyze the feelings, thoughts and meanings of the nurses who had experience in child hematology in the past. Method: In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 nurses between 29 and 53 years of age who had previously worked in child hematology-oncology unit. Interviews were conducted with a semi-structured interview form. Each interview lasted 20-30 minute. Some of the questions are: ‘What kind of experiences do you experience when you think about the periods you are working in hematology-oncology service?’ ‘Do you explain the reason for living these feelings?’ The data were analyzed with QSR NVivo 7 software. Results: From the perspective of the nurses who had experience working in the pediatric hematology-oncology service in the past, five main themes and sub-themes related to emotions and thoughts towards this experiment were identified in the study. 1) Positive and negative emotions: (a) fear and anxiety, (b) desperation, pity, guilt, (c) burnout, (d) longing; 2) Being coping 3) Professional implications 4) Meaning of life 5) Unmet needs and suggestions. Conclusions: Working in hematology should be viewed as a multidimensional situation that affects the way nurses view their profession and life, leading to a wide range of emotional lives. Data obtained from this study can be used to strengthen hematologic nurses.

Keywords: Cancer, Nursing, Hematology, Child, Care

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3 Robots for the Elderly at Home: For Men Only

Authors: Christa Fricke, Sibylle Meyer, Gert G. Wagner


Our research focuses on the question of whether assistive and social robotics could pose a promising strategy to support the independent living of elderly people and potentially relieve relatives of any anxieties. To answer the question of how elderly people perceive the potential of robotics, we analysed the data from the Berlin Aging Study BASE-II ( (N=1463) and data from the German SYMPARTNER study ( (N=120) and compared those to a control group made up of people younger than 30 years (BASE II: N=241; SYMPARTNER: N=30). BASE-II is a cohort study of people living in Berlin, Germany. The sample covers more than 2200 cases; a questionnaire on the use and acceptance of assistive and social robots was carried out with a sub-sample of 1463 respondents in 2015. The SYMPARTNER study was done by SIBIS institute of Social Research, Berlin and included a total of 120 persons between the ages of 60 and 87 in Berlin and the rural German federal state of Thuringia. Both studies included a control group of persons between the ages of 20 and 35 (BASE II: N=241; SYMPARTNER: N=30). Additional data, representative for the whole population in Germany, will be surveyed in fall 2017 (Survey “Technikradar” [technology radar] by the National Academy of Science and Engineering). Since this survey is including some identical questions as BASE-II/SYMPARTNER, comparative results can be presented at 20th International Conference on Social Robotics in New York 2018. The complexity of the data gathered in BASE-II and SYMPARTNER, encompassing detailed socio-economic background characteristics as well as personality traits such as the personal attitude to risk taking, locus of control and Big Five, proves highly valuable and beneficial. Results show that participants’ expressions of resentment against robots are comparatively low. Participants’ personality traits play a role, however the effect sizes are small. Only 15 percent of participants received domestic robots with great scepticism. Participants aged older than 70 years expressed greatest rejection of the robotic assistant. The effect sizes however account for only a few percentage points. Overall, participants were surprisingly open to the robot and its usefulness. The analysis also shows that men’s acceptance of the robot is generally greater than that of women (with odds ratios of about 0.6 to 0.7). This applies to both assistive robots in the private household and in care environments. Men expect greater benefits of the robot than women. Women tend to be more sceptical of their technical feasibility than men. Interview results prove our hypothesis that men, in particular of the age group 60+, are more accustomed to delegate household chores to women. A delegation to machines instead of humans, therefore, seems palpable. The answer to the title question of this planned presentation is: social and assistive robots at home robots are not only accepted by men – but by fewer women than men.

Keywords: Gender, Care, acceptance, household

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2 Technology in the Calculation of People Health Level: Design of a Computational Tool

Authors: Sara Herrero Jaén, José María Santamaría García, María Lourdes Jiménez Rodríguez, Jorge Luis Gómez González, Adriana Cercas Duque, Alexandra González Aguna


Background: Health concept has evolved throughout history. The health level is determined by the own individual perception. It is a dynamic process over time so that you can see variations from one moment to the next. In this way, knowing the health of the patients you care for, will facilitate decision making in the treatment of care. Objective: To design a technological tool that calculates the people health level in a sequential way over time. Material and Methods: Deductive methodology through text analysis, extraction and logical knowledge formalization and education with expert group. Studying time: September 2015- actually. Results: A computational tool for the use of health personnel has been designed. It has 11 variables. Each variable can be given a value from 1 to 5, with 1 being the minimum value and 5 being the maximum value. By adding the result of the 11 variables we obtain a magnitude in a certain time, the health level of the person. The health calculator allows to represent people health level at a time, establishing temporal cuts being useful to determine the evolution of the individual over time. Conclusion: The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) allow training and help in various disciplinary areas. It is important to highlight their relevance in the field of health. Based on the health formalization, care acts can be directed towards some of the propositional elements of the concept above. The care acts will modify the people health level. The health calculator allows the prioritization and prediction of different strategies of health care in hospital units.

Keywords: Health, Care, eHealth, calculator

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1 Learning-Teaching Experience about the Design of Care Applications for Nursing Professionals

Authors: A. Gonzalez Aguna, J. M. Santamaria Garcia, J. L. Gomez Gonzalez, R. Barchino Plata, M. Fernandez Batalla, S. Herrero Jaen


Background: Computer Science is a field that transcends other disciplines of knowledge because it allows to support all kinds of physical and mental tasks. Health centres have a greater number and complexity of technological devices and the population consume and demand services derived from technology. Also, nursing education plans have included competencies related to and, even, courses about new technologies are offered to health professionals. However, nurses still limit their performance to the use and evaluation of products previously built. Objective: Develop a teaching-learning methodology for acquiring skills on designing applications for care. Methodology: Blended learning teaching with a group of graduate nurses through official training within a Master's Degree. The study sample was selected by intentional sampling without exclusion criteria. The study covers from 2015 to 2017. The teaching sessions included a four-hour face-to-face class and between one and three tutorials. The assessment was carried out by written test consisting of the preparation of an IEEE 830 Standard Specification document where the subject chosen by the student had to be a problem in the area of care. Results: The sample is made up of 30 students: 10 men and 20 women. Nine students had a degree in nursing, 20 diploma in nursing and one had a degree in Computer Engineering. Two students had a degree in nursing specialty through residence and two in equivalent recognition by exceptional way. Except for the engineer, no subject had previously received training in this regard. All the sample enrolled in the course received the classroom teaching session, had access to the teaching material through a virtual area and maintained at least one tutoring. The maximum of tutorials were three with an hour in total. Among the material available for consultation was an example of a document drawn up based on the IEEE Standard with an issue not related to care. The test to measure competence was completed by the whole group and evaluated by a multidisciplinary teaching team of two computer engineers and two nurses. Engineers evaluated the correctness of the characteristics of the document and the degree of comprehension in the elaboration of the problem and solution elaborated nurses assessed the relevance of the chosen problem statement, the foundation, originality and correctness of the proposed solution and the validity of the application for clinical practice in care. The results were of an average grade of 8.1 over 10 points, a range between 6 and 10. The selected topic barely coincided among the students. Examples of care areas selected are care plans, family and community health, delivery care, administration and even robotics for care. Conclusion: The applied methodology of learning-teaching for the design of technologies demonstrates the success in the training of nursing professionals. The role of expert is essential to create applications that satisfy the needs of end users. Nursing has the possibility, the competence and the duty to participate in the process of construction of technological tools that are going to impact in care of people, family and community.

Keywords: Learning, Nursing, Technology, Care

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