Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Cardiovascular Related Abstracts

12 Endothelial Progenitor Cells Is a Determinant of Vascular Function and Atherosclerosis in Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Pawan Krishan, Inderjit Verma


Objective: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have reparative potential in overcoming the endothelial dysfunction and reducing cardiovascular risk. EPC depletion has been demonstrated in the setting of established atherosclerotic diseases. With this background, we evaluated whether reduced EPCs population are associated with endothelial dysfunction, subclinical atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients without any known traditional cardiovascular risk factor in AS patients. Methods: Levels of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+), brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and inflammatory markers i.e erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), tissue necrosis factor (TNF)–α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 were assessed in 30 AS patients (mean age33.41 ± 10.25; 11 female and 19 male) who fulfilled the modified New York diagnostic criteria with 25 healthy volunteers (mean age 29.36± 8.64; 9 female and 16 male) matched for age and sex. Results: EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) cells were significantly (0.020 ± 0.001% versus 0.040 ± 0.010%, p<0.001) reduced in patients with AS compared to healthy controls. Endothelial function (7.35 ± 2.54 versus 10.27 ±1.73, p=0.002), CIMT (0.63 ± 0.01 versus 0.35 ± 0.02, p < 0.001) and inflammatory markers were also significantly (p < 0.01) altered as compared to healthy controls. Specifically, CD34+CD133+cells were inversely multivariate correlated with CRP and TNF-α and endothelial dysfunction was positively correlated with reduced number of EPC. Conclusion: Depletion of EPCs population is an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and early atherosclerosis in AS patients and may provide additional information beyond conventional risk factors and inflammatory markers.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Atherosclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis, Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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11 Synthesis of New Analogs of IPS-339, and Study of Their Cardiovascular in Dogs

Authors: Elham Zarenezhad, Ali Zarenezhad, Mehdi Mardkhoshnood


We described the synthesis and biological study of O-oxime ethers having a-amino acid residues as new analogs of IPS-339. In this synthesis, the reaction of fluorene O-oxime with epichlorohydrin or epibromohydrin afforded the corresponding O-oxime ether adducts. The N-alkylation of valine amino acid with O-oxime ether adducts led to the synthesis of new analogs of IPS-339. The cardiovascular properties of the compound have been studied. In this regard, six clinically healthy same sex mongrel dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups of two members. 1 groups received 2 mg kg-1 body weight of compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) intravenously, whereas group 2 and 3 received only DMSO–water (distil.) and propranolol (Inderal) (2 mg kg-1), respectively. The electrocardiograph (ECG) was recorded with lead II. The recording was run successively by 5 min time interval on each dog before, simultaneously, and after compound infusion. Data after administration were taken from normal sinus beats that were closely related to the arrhythmias whenever they occurred. In general, no detectable arrhythmia was observed in all ECG records regardless of increasing the heart rate that likely caused by stress origin from invasive procedure just after infusion. Compound diminished the heart rate during study especially at 20th minute compared to propranolol as a reference drug. Compound (2-(3-(9H-fluoren-9-ylideneaminooxy)-2- hydroxypropylamino)-3-methylbutanoic acid) was the most effective compound with remarkable ability in declining of the heart rate.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Dogs, electrocardiograph (ECG), IPS-339

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10 Medicinal Plants Used by Moroccan People in the Management of Diabetes and Hypertension

Authors: Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Alachouri Mostafa


Cardiovascular disease (CDV) remains the major cause of morbidity; mortality and disability throughout the world. The ethnopharmcological and ethnobotanical studies are the paramount importance to set a high value on phytogenetic resources and to address health problems of some communities; especially poor peoples. Our work presents an analysis of published data from studies, that have been undertaken, in Morocco, by different seeker teams in separately areas during the last decades. Objectives: Evaluate and identify medicinal plants used for cardiovascular treatment by Moroccan people. Methodology: All these studies have the same approaches ; they were conducted by interviewing people suffering from diabetes. We use Factorial Analysis (FA) and principal Components analysis (PCA) to analyse the aggregated data from the different studies. Results: globally; 95 plants species were listed; all these plant were used empirically by Moroccan society for treating cardiovascular problems. These plants were divided in to 42 families and 87 genus. The lamiaceae; asteraceae; Apiaceae and poaceae are the botanical families with high number of plant species. Coclusion: Traditional medecine has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular problems and it has been recognized as an interesting alternative to conventional medicine.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Medicinal Plants, Morocco, ethnobotanical

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9 Prevalence of Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors Obesity among University of Venda Staff

Authors: Avhasei Dorothy Rasifudi, Josephine Mandizha


Cardiovascular risk factors continue to be the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. In 2011, the World Health Organization reported that every year an estimated 17 million people globally die of CVD, representing 30% of all global deaths, particularly caused by heart attacks and strokes. The purpose of the study was to determine and describe the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors among university of Venda staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 staff aged 20-65 years. The anthropometric measurements were conducted in accordance to and with standardized procedures advocated by the International Society for the Advanced Kinanthropometry. Weight, Height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Blood pressure was measured using a Heine cuff and sphygmomanometer. Questionnaire was administered to gather demographic details and cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The parameter t-test was applied to test significance level at p ≤ 0.05 between sexes. The statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension was 23% with the highest prevalence amongst those aged 40 years and above. Factors found to be to be significantly associated with hypertension were gender, age, physical inactivity and family history. Prevalence of obesity was 43%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 40 years. The factors associated with obesity were diet, age and physical activity. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in the study were high.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Risk Factors, Prevalence, staff

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8 Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Patients May Be Predisposed to Various Cardiomyopathies

Authors: Vicente Torres, Fouad Chebib, Marie Hogan, Ziad El-Zoghby, Maria Irazabal, Sarah Senum, Christina Heyer, Charles Madsen, Emilie Cornec-Le Gall, Atta Behfar, Barbara Ehrlich, Peter Harris


Background: Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2, the genes encoding the proteins polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2) cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD is a systemic disease associated with several extrarenal manifestations. Animal models have suggested an important role for the polycystins in cardiovascular function. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the association of various cardiomyopathies in a large cohort of patients with ADPKD. Methods: Clinical data was retrieved from medical records for all patients with ADPKD and cardiomyopathies (n=159). Genetic analysis was performed on available DNA by direct sequencing. Results: Among the 58 patients included in this case series, 39 patients had idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), 17 had hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), and 2 had left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). The mean age at cardiomyopathy diagnosis was 53.3, 59.9 and 53.5 years in IDCM, HOCM and LVNC patients respectively. The median left ventricular ejection fraction at initial diagnosis of IDCM was 25%. Average basal septal thickness was 19.9 mm in patients with HOCM. Genetic data was available in 19, 8 and 2 cases of IDCM, HOCM, and LVNC respectively. PKD1 mutations were detected in 47.4%, 62.5% and 100% of IDCM, HOCM and LVNC cases. PKD2 mutations were detected only in IDCM cases and were overrepresented (36.8%) relative to the expected frequency in ADPKD (~15%). The prevalence of IDCM, HOCM, and LVNC in our ADPKD clinical cohort was 1:17, 1:39 and 1:333 respectively. When compared to the general population, IDCM and HOCM was approximately 10-fold more prevalent in patients with ADPKD. Conclusions: In summary, we suggest that PKD1 or PKD2 mutations may predispose to idiopathic dilated or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a trend for patients with PKD2 mutations to develop the former and for patients with PKD1 mutations to develop the latter. Predisposition to various cardiomyopathies may be another extrarenal manifestation of ADPKD.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Cardiomyopathy, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney (ADPKD), polycystic kidney disease, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction

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7 The Effects of Three Months of HIIT on Plasma Adiponectin on Overweight College Men

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram, M. Sayyah


Adiponectin is a cytokine secreted by the adipose tissue that functions as an anti-inflammatory, antiathrogenic and anti-diabetic substance. Its density is inversely correlated with body mass index. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) with the level of serum adiponectin and some selected adiposity markers in overweight and fat college students. This was a clinical research in which 24 students with BMI between 25 kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2. The sample was purposefully selected and then randomly assigned into two groups of experimental (age =22.7±1.5 yr.; weight = 85.8±3.18 kg and height =178.7±3.29 cm) and control (age =23.1±1.1 yr.; weight = 79.1±2.4 kg and height =181.3±4.6 cm), respectively. The experimental group participated in an aerobic exercise program for 12 weeks, three sessions per weeks at a high intensity between 85% to 95% of maximum heart rate (considering the over load principle). Prior and after the termination of exercise protocol, the level of serum adiponectin, BMI, waist to hip ratio, and body fat percentages were calculated. The data were analyzed by using SPSS: PC 16.0 and statistical procedure such as ANCOVA, was used. The results indicated that 12 weeks of intensive interval training led to the increase of serum adiponectin level and decrease of body weight, body fat percent, body mass index and waist to hip ratio (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this research, it may be concluded that participation in intensive interval training for 12 weeks is a non-invasive treatment to increase the adiponectin level while decreasing some of the anthropometric indices associated with obesity or being overweight.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Overweight, training, adiponectin, interval

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6 The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States

Authors: Nadine Sammy, Mark Wilson, Samuel Vine


The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Performance, challenge, threat

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5 The Effect of a Test Pump Supplement on the Physiological and Functional Performance of Futsal Women

Authors: Samaneh Rahsepar, Mehrzad Moghadasi


To evaluate the effect of Test Pump supplement on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women, twenty female futsal subjects were divided into two groups: placebo (n = 10) and supplement (n = 10) and were given buccal tablets for 7 days and 12 g daily supplement each day. The placebo group used starch powder during this period. Speed, agility with ball, agility without ball and dribbling time were measured before and after supplementation. In addition, the rate of heart rate and blood pressure changes were measured before and after the YOYO test. The results showed that the test pump had no significant effect on improving speed, agility with ball, agility without ball, dribbling time and heart rate changes and diastolic blood pressure, and only affect the maximum oxygen consumption and systolic blood pressure (P <0.05). In general, the use of the test-pump supplement does not have a significant effect on the physiological and functional performance of futsal women. The results of this study showed that the use of supplementary pump tests on women's futsal heart rate changes after loading period had a significant difference between the two groups in resting heart rate with heart rate after exercise and 5 minutes after exercise. However, it did not have a significant effect on the increase in heart rate. Supplementation significantly increased systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting blood pressure, as well as a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after exercise compared to resting systolic blood pressure and 5 minutes after exercise in both groups from the loading period. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in both placebo and supplemented groups.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Women, Speed, agility, test pump supplement, dribble, maximum oxygen consumption

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4 Assessment of Acute Cardiovascular Responses to Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Aerobic Exercises in Sedentary Adults and Amateur Athletes

Authors: Caner Yilmaz, Zuhal Didem Takinaci


Introduction: Today, our knowledge about the effects of physical activity performed at the different intensity of the cardiovascular system are still not clear. Therefore, to contribute to the literature, in our study, sedentary individuals and amateur athletes were assessed in a single session with the aim of evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the moderate and severe exercise. Methods: 80 participants (40 amateur athletes and 40 sedentary, young adults) participated in our study. Participants were divided into two groups: amateur athletes (mean age: 25.0 ± 3.6 yrs) and sedentary in group II (mean age: 23.8 ± 3.7 yrs). Participants in both groups were assessed twice, namely, firstly, at moderate intensity (5km/h 30 min. walking) and secondly at the vigorous intensity (8km/h 20 min. jogging). Participants’ SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), HR (Heart Rate), SpO₂ (Oxygen Saturation), BT (Body Temperature) and RR (Respiratory Rate) were measured. Results: In our study, the findings showed that after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, change in SBP, DBP, and SpO₂ were significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). After the severe intensity aerobic exercises, change in SBP, SpO₂, HR, and RR was significantly higher in Group II (p < 0.05). The BORG score of Group II was significantly higher after both moderate and severe intensity aerobic exercise (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The cardiovascular responses of amateur athletes were closer to initial values, and the differences between the two groups were increased in direct proportion to the intensity of the exercise. Both exercise intensities could be adequate.

Keywords: Exercise, Cardiovascular, aerobic, sedantary

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3 Assessment of Osteocalcin and Homocysteine Levels in Saudi Female Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Walaa Mohammed Saeed


Studies suggest a crosstalk between bone and metabolism through Osteocalcin (OC), a bone-derived protein that plays an important role in regulating glucose and fat metabolism. Studies relate type II Diabetes Mellitus (DMII) with Homocysteine (Hcy) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study investigates the relationship between levels of OC, Hcy, and DMII in 85 subjects of which 50 were diabetic female patients (29–65 years) and 35 healthy controls. OC and Hcy levels were measured in fasting blood samples using immunoassay analyzer. Fasting serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, were estimated by automated Siemens Dimension XP auto-analyzer. A significant increase in the frequency of low OC levels (p < 0.001) and high Hcy levels (p < 0.001) was detected in diabetic patients compared to controls (chi-squared test). Using ANOVA test, patients were divided into tertiles based on plasma OC and Hcy levels; fasting serum glucose varied inversely with OC but directly with Hcy tertiles (p=0.049, p=0.033 respectively). Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP=Log TG/HDL) predicts that diabetic patients with 36% high and 15% intermediate cardiovascular risk had increased frequency of low OC levels compared to low-risk patients (p=0.047). Another group of diabetic patients with 39% high and 11% intermediate CVD risk had increased frequency of high Hcy levels (p=0.033). A significant negative correlation existed between OC and glucose (r = -0.318; p = 0.035) while correlation between glucose level and Hcy (r = 0.851 p=0.022) was positive. Hence, low serum OC levels and high Hcy levels were associated with impaired glucose metabolism that may increase cardiovascular risk in DMII.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Type 2 diabetes, homocysteine, osteocalcin

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2 The Role of Physical Activity on Some Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Disease

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry, M. E. Bahram


Hyperlipidemia or an increase in blood lipids is a condition that has been rising, especially during the last decade, with the advancement of the life-span of the car, as an important disease. In fact, it is one of the complications of industrial life and semi-industrial. Hyperlipidemia alone is not a disease, but it is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The methodology of this review article is the use of research to provide the best solution for physical activity and exercise in relation to lowering blood lipids and lowering blood pressure. Also, factors that contribute to improving the health status of humans should be introduced. Research findings in this article show that physical activity with a specific duration and severity can keep a person away from the cardiovascular disease. The result shows that regular physical activity with low intensity and long periods of time is essential for human health. Physical mobility reduces blood pressure, reduces the harmful fats and does not cause cardiovascular disease. More than half of the patients suffering from cardiovascular problems are afflicted with blood lipids. On the other hand, high blood pressure is one of the serious health hazards in the world today, which causes a large number of cardiovascular problems and mortality in the world. Undoubtedly, the second most common risk factor for heart disease is high blood pressure after cigarette smoking.

Keywords: Cardiovascular, Blood Pressure, hyperlipidemia, risk factor

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1 Seasonal Short-Term Effect of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Mortality in Belgium

Authors: Natalia Bustos Sierra, Katrien Tersago


It is currently proven that both extremes of temperature are associated with increased mortality and that air pollution is associated with temperature. This relationship is complex, and in countries with important seasonal variations in weather such as Belgium, some effects can appear as non-significant when the analysis is done over the entire year. We, therefore, analyzed the effect of short-term outdoor air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality during the warmer and colder months separately. We used daily cardiovascular deaths from acute cardiovascular diagnostics according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10: I20-I24, I44-I49, I50, I60-I66) during the period 2008-2013. The environmental data were population-weighted concentrations of particulates with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM₁₀) and less than 2.5 µm (PM₂.₅) (daily average), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) (daily maximum of the hourly average) and ozone (O₃) (daily maximum of the 8-hour running mean). A Generalized linear model was applied adjusting for the confounding effect of season, temperature, dew point temperature, the day of the week, public holidays and the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) per 100,000 inhabitants. The relative risks (RR) were calculated for an increase of one interquartile range (IQR) of the air pollutant (μg/m³). These were presented for the four hottest months (June, July, August, September) and coldest months (November, December, January, February) in Belgium. We applied both individual lag model and unconstrained distributed lag model methods. The cumulative effect of a four-day exposure (day of exposure and three consecutive days) was calculated from the unconstrained distributed lag model. The IQR for PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, NO₂, and O₃ were respectively 8.2, 6.9, 12.9 and 25.5 µg/m³ during warm months and 18.8, 17.6, 18.4 and 27.8 µg/m³ during cold months. The association with CV mortality was statistically significant for the four pollutants during warm months and only for NO₂ during cold months. During the warm months, the cumulative effect of an IQR increase of ozone for the age groups 25-64, 65-84 and 85+ was 1.066 (95%CI: 1.002-1.135), 1.041 (1.008-1.075) and 1.036 (1.013-1.058) respectively. The cumulative effect of an IQR increase of NO₂ for the age group 65-84 was 1.066 (1.020-1.114) during warm months and 1.096 (1.030-1.166) during cold months. The cumulative effect of an IQR increase of PM₁₀ during warm months reached 1.046 (1.011-1.082) and 1.038 (1.015-1.063) for the age groups 65-84 and 85+ respectively. Similar results were observed for PM₂.₅. The short-term effect of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality is greater during warm months for lower pollutant concentrations compared to cold months. Spending more time outside during warm months increases population exposure to air pollution and can, therefore, be a confounding factor for this association. Age can also affect the length of time spent outdoors and the type of physical activity exercised. This study supports the deleterious effect of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality (CV) which varies according to season and age groups in Belgium. Public health measures should, therefore, be adapted to seasonality.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Cardiovascular, Mortality, season

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